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Scanner 3D e reverse Engineering

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3D scanner & Reverse Engineering. Una panoramica sulle tecnologie di reverse engineering e sui modelli di scanner commerciali e open source/DIY. Come riparare i file con Meshlab e netfabb. Uso della kinect.

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Scanner 3D e reverse Engineering

  1. 1. Reverse Engineering & Scanner 3D
  2. 2. Cos'è uno scanner 3D un dispositivo che analizza gli oggetti o gli ambienti del mondo reale per collezionare dati sulle loro forme o sul loro aspetto, e per costruire modelli tridimensionali digitali
  3. 3. Intro / storia 1 Misurare Primi tentativi per standardizzare le misure: 2600 AC nella valle dell'Indo 240 AC Erastotene stimò la circonferenza della Terra al solstizio d'estate misurando l'altezza del sole a Alexandria e Siene 1750 / 1850 Rivoluzione Industriale – la misura delle cose divenne fondamentale Primi metodi di misura per contatto diretto: calibri e metri Pantografi per replicare gli oggetti La rivoluzione c'è stata con le misure non invasive e a distanza.
  4. 4. Intro / storia 2 Laser ranging systems have been in use in a variety of industries for decades, with the first patented instruments appearing as early as the late 1980’s. 3D scanning was first applied in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction industry in the 1990’s with the market debut of the first integrated commercial systems for 3D scanning
  5. 5. Applicazioni / 1 A cosa serve? Quali applicazioni? Product inspection – per vedere se un prodotto è uscito come previsto (si misurano parti e rilevano difetti) Medicina – si rilevano parti in 3D per creare protesi su misura. Negl interventi la scansione è proiettata sul paziente Product design
  6. 6. Applicazioni / 2 Edilizia – verifica che l'edificio sia uscito come previsto Clothes fitting – misurazione del corpo – es esercito USA ha un sistema di misurazione automatico Art history Sculptures & interesting objects to look at Art: studying working techniques Art history Cultural heritage preservation High-visibility project Archaeology Ricostruzione di parti e ricombinazione frammenti Ricostruzione oggetti in 3D per evitare di toccarli
  7. 7. Applicazioni / 3 Computer graphics Cinema Giochi (hanno un fatturato maggiore del cinema) Robot navigation
  8. 8. Possibilità tecnologiche Contatto Sonde a contatto Trasmissive Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Ultrasuoni Raggi X Suoni e Vibrazioni Riflessione Ottica Non ottica (radar e sonar)
  9. 9. Tecnologie ottiche Immagini stereo Oggetto inquadrato da due angolature (doppia immagine) Meglio più di due per evitare ambiguità Non vedo quello che c'è dietro
  10. 10. Tecnologie ottiche Shape from motion Da analisi di una sequenza di immagini, ricavo l'oggetto in 3d Shape from shading Si evidenziano le forme illuminando l'oggetto da diversi punti
  11. 11. Tecnologie ottiche Shape from texture Si proietta una texture nota sull'oggetto e vedendo come si deforma si ricava la forma dell'oggetto (esempio una serie di righe)
  12. 12. Tecnologie ottiche Shape from focus/defocus Si determinano distanze e forme vedendo come e dove si mette a fuoco l'immagine – la messa a fuoco dipende dalla distanza Tempo di volo del laser Opera su grandi volumi (lati da 100m) Precisione grossolana – 5mm Per scavi archeologici, edifici, stanze
  13. 13. Tecnologie ottiche Triangolazione Una lama laser che scorre sull'oggetto Laser e camera posti a triangolo con l'obj Se camera e laser si muovono indipedentemente, è difficile poi ricostruire con precisione. Molti scanner hanno camera e laser fissi. Per grandi oggetti si usano sistemi che muovono il gruppo di scansione e gli fanno coprire delle piccole regioni (moto su tilt e pan)
  14. 14. MakerScanner
  15. 15. Distanze e colori Misura della distanza e nuvola di punti Scanning systems primarily capture the physical position of a target object, represented as a series of points (forming a “point cloud”) typically in Cartesian coordinates (XYZ). This is accomplished by comparing the emitted and returned light pulse, and determining the value of the target object in relation to the position of the scanning instrument Colori determine the colour of the each point by using a camera (can be built-in or seperate), which is represented by the commonly used RGB (red, green, blue) value scale. Because scanners are optical systems, only what the scanner can “see” is captured,
  16. 16. Precisione, Risoluzione, Accuratezza Risoluzione: densità della nuvola di punti Accuratezza: differenza tra misura e valore reale Precisione: indica la correttezza della misura (posso avere un point set preciso ma inaccurato – es se offset iniziale e non mi accorgo) Peggiorano con: Distanza Superficie riflettente Velocità di scansione Si va da qualche millimetro (5 mm) fino a freazioni di millimetro (0,3 mm)
  17. 17. Formato file Lo scanner raccoglie una nuvola di punti che poi è raccolta in un file ASTM E57 File Format (XYX I RGB) questo rappresenta la nuvola di punti Questi formati derivano dal mondo grafico: OBJ (con colori) STL VRML (con colori)
  18. 18. Scanner professionali
  19. 19. Makerbot Digitizer Circa 800$
  20. 20. P rezzo: circa 400€
  21. 21. Uniscan Prezzo: 4000€
  22. 22. Scanner low cost
  23. 23. David Scanner A starter kit of the David Scanner is available for 399 €. 360 scans are possible, although the user needs to turn the object manually between multiple scans. The software is proprietary and runs only on Windows. Minimal equipment is needed, such as a line laser, a camera and a calibration pattern which can be printed out. Using the DAVID- Shapefusion software the user can manually merge multiple point-clouds from different scans and convert them to a surface mesh by-hand.
  24. 24. David Scanner
  25. 25. David Scanner
  26. 26. Makerbot Scanner v.0 The MakerBot 3D Scanner (formerly know as Cyclops) is a 3D scanning mounting kit for a pico projector, a webcam and an iPhone or iPod. The mounting kit is available for 50$. A set of additional open-source software is required (ThreePhase, PeasyCam, ControlP5, Processing). Extensive instructions are provided on the website to perform a single face scan. Using Blender and MeshLab the point-clouds are transformed into surface meshes which can then be printed on the MakerBot. http://wiki.makerbot.com/3D-scanner
  27. 27. Makerbot Scanner v.0
  28. 28. 3D Photograpy on your desk This project requires very little hardware: a camera, a desk- lamp, a pencil and a checkerboard. The checkerboard is used for calibration. The pencil is waved between the lamp and the object to be scanned, casting a shadow on the object. The 3D shape of the object is extracted from the spatial and temporal location of the observed shadow. Several implementations of this technique are available on the project’s website. http://www.vision.caltech.edu/bouguetj/ICCV98/
  29. 29. FabScanner Fabscanner http://hci.rwth-aachen.de/fabscan Un progetto simile: Scanner con arduino e mathlab http://makezine.com/projects/diy-3d-laser-scanner-using-arduino/
  30. 30. FabScanner
  31. 31. MakerScanner Scanner con webcam fissa e laser lineare da muovere a mano Il software è disponibile per Windows, Linux e come sorgenti.
  32. 32. MakerScanner
  33. 33. MakerScanner
  34. 34. I used Blender 3D to clean the pointcloud and MeshLab to create a surface which we then 3D printed on a Makerbot. If you're interested you can get the pointcloud and STL files here.
  35. 35. 123D Catch Download e demo
  36. 36. 123D Catch
  37. 37. Kinect Kinect also includes infrared projectors and cameras which are used for depth detection, hence it could also be used to build a 3D scanner. The depth perception technology in the Kinect works best at distances of 6-8 feet (⇡ 2m). Thus, the Kinect is better suited for identifying ”likely humans in the scene and the likely positions of their arms and legs.” than for precise short-range 3D scanning. Attenzione alle versioni per: Window e XBox Alternative: ASUS xition SOFTWARE: KScan 3D, Skanect, FARO...
  38. 38. Skanect Per Windows e Mac Limitato a 5000 facce in versione free E' molto facile da usare Spiegazione programma e demo scansione
  39. 39. Riparare i modelli con Meshlab Nuvola di punti | Riparare | Chiudere | Esportare
  40. 40. MeshLab File → import Model Import della tazza.obj fatta con Skanect Movimenti: - drag dei cerchi per ruotare - CMD + drag per il PAN - zoom (rotellina mouse) Visualizzazioni (toolbar) punti, triangoli... Illuminazione Render → lightening Tasto toolbox: fill hole Icona con i 3 assi a colori : serve per ruotare, traslare e spostare Cancellare parti con la selezione per vertici e facce e l'apposito filtro.
  41. 41. MeshLab Semplificare facce https://www.shapeways.com/tutorials/polygon_reduction_with_meshlab From the menu, select Filters > Remeshing, simplification and construction > Quadratic Edge Collapse Detection. Target number of faces: numero facce desiderate Quality threshold: 1. Enter a value between 0 and 1 here; the higher the value the harder MeshLab tries to stick to your original model's shape. Preserve Boundary of the Mesh: Yes. 'The simplification process tries not to destroy mesh boundaries, e.g. exposed edges of the mesh are left untouched. This parameter has no effect on watertight meshes.' Preserve Normal: Yes. Select this to stop MeshLab from accidentally flipping the face normals. Planar simplification: Yes. Paolo's comment: 'Add additional simplification constraints that try to preserve the current shape of the triangles.
  42. 42. Link dei tutorial cleaning: http://abarry.org/makerscanner/4-makerscanner-post-processing.html meshing: http://abarry.org/makerscanner/5-makerscanner-meshing.html
  43. 43. ● Filters -> Normal, Curvatures and Orientation -> Compute normal for points set ● Filters -> Remeshing, Simplification and Reconstruction -> Surface Reconstruction Poisson ● Filters -> Normals, Curvatures and Orientation-> Re-Orient All Faces Coherently
  44. 44. NetFabb Programma a uso gratuito (funzioni limitate) Si usa per lavorare sui modelli STL Utile per: - riparare file - individuare errori - tagliare i file - ruotare e ridimensionare oggetti
  45. 45. NetFabb
  46. 46. Editare l'stl con 123D design Importare e aggiungere una base Oppure scritte in svg...
  47. 47. Altre fonti DICOM Seg3d v2.1 + imagevis Aerial - planimetry
  48. 48. Grazie! Paolo Aliverti @zeppelinmaker www.zeppelinmaker.it

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