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The role of policy and tourism in wilderness protection


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The presentation which was made during the 6th Managing Visitors and Visitor Flow conference ( in Stockholm on 22 August 2012

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The role of policy and tourism in wilderness protection

  1. 1. Soomaa NP © Arne Ader
  2. 2. THE ECONOMICS OF WILDERNESS The role of policy and tourism for enhancing the protection of wilderness Zoltán Kun, Executive Director PAN Parks FoundationPaanajärvi NP © Viktor Gritsuk
  3. 3. Presentation outline • introduction to PAN Parks Foundation + personal intro • developing wilderness policy in Europe • the economics of wilderness • experiences of PAN Parks Tourism Model • conclusions ALL IMAGES from EUROPEOulanka NP © Kimmo Salminen
  4. 4. Europe’s perceptive wildernessPeneda-Geres NP © Marcos Veiga
  5. 5. What is PAN Parks?Soomaa NP © Mati Kose
  6. 6. What is PAN Parks? PAN Parks works to protect Europe’s wilderness, the continent’s most undisturbed areas of naturePaanajärvi NP © Viktor Gritsuk
  7. 7. What is PAN Parks? The only European-wide organisation focusing on the protection of wilderness areasCentral Balkan NP ©CBNP Appenine Chamois © Bruno D’Amicis
  8. 8. What is PAN Parks? PAN Parks links wilderness protected areas in Europe: European Wilderness Preservation System The size of Spain 0,5 mio ha by now
  9. 9. What is PAN Parks? Integrated approach to mobilise sustainable tourism development for strengthening wilderness conservation www.panparks.orgBorjomi-Kharagauli NP © Kote Gabrichidze
  10. 10. Developing wilderness policyRetezat NP © Andreas Beckmann
  11. 11. Developing wilderness policy Lobbying in Europe and developing a wilderness momentum • 2008 Wilderness resolution • 2009 European Parliament’s special report on wilderness & European Commission- ‘Agenda for Wilderness’ • 2011 Wilderness in Biodiversity Strategy©iStock/Graeme Purdy
  12. 12. Developing wilderness policy Defining wilderness through the Wilderness Working Group NO extractive use such as •hunting •fishing •mining •logging •grazing •grass cutting •road and building constructionFulufjallet NP © Vitantonio Dell’Orto is allowed in wilderness
  13. 13. Developing wilderness policy Wilderness guidance for Natura 2000 areas • Alterra, Eurosite, PAN Parks • guidance for manager • best practice examples (also for restoration) Wilderness register (by Oct 2013) • Alterra, University of Leeds, PAN Parks • public and government consultation based on preliminary list BUT there is no overall Wilderness Research Agenda
  14. 14. The Economics of WildernessRetezat NP ©Falk Kienas
  15. 15. Conflict between indirect(ecocentric) and direct(anthropocentric)interpretation of EcosystemServices
  16. 16. The Economics of Wilderness Why dealing with the economics of wilderness? • the EP report on wilderness Calls on the Commission and Member States to co-operate with local non-governmental organisations to promote the value of wilderness (point 6);Borjomi-Kharagauli NP © Kote Gabrichidze
  17. 17. The Economics of Wilderness Wilderness is not a priceless heritage for future generations! • Europeans are not valuing wilderness as much as they should!Oulanka NP ©Michael Hennemann
  18. 18. The Economics of Wilderness Two examples • Oulanka National Park creating jobs • Majella National Park regarding restorationOulanka NP ©Hannu Hautala
  19. 19. The Economics of Wilderness Making wilderness areas financially viable means seizing opportunities of emerging markets for ecosystem services • Payments for Ecosystem ServicesRila NP © Nicolas Cegalerba
  20. 20. The Economics of Wilderness To protect wilderness we need to difersify incomes • payments for carbon offset • payments for water-related and nature disaster mitigation • payments for recreational servicesArchipelago NP © Heidi Arponen
  21. 21. The Economics of Wilderness Several steps are suggested for PA managers • define the wilderness attributes and their services • define stakeholders benefitting from ES • quantifying revenue and externalities including cost of inactionMajella NP © Bruno D’Amicis
  22. 22. PAN Parks Tourism ModelSoomaa NP © Mati Kose
  23. 23. PAN Parks Tourism Model • active promotion of local and sustainable tourism and • raising awareness and creating positive perception of wildernessOulanka NP © Michael Hennemann
  24. 24. PAN Parks Tourism Model Sustainable Tourism Development • stimulates local cooperation • involves local stakeholders • aims for synergy between conservation and tourism • improves the quality of tourism products • improves the visitors experience • includes local standard for businesses
  25. 25. PAN Parks Tourism Model Partnership with Local Businesses • ensures the strategy is implemented • partners are committed to the park and PAN Parks • different tourism service providers • over 80 partners (typically SMEs)Oulanka NP © Paavo Hamunen
  26. 26. PAN Parks Tourism Model
  27. 27. All about educationManaging expectationUnderstanding the motives
  28. 28. Managing expectationFulufjället NP © Orsolya Haaberg
  29. 29. Something happeningFulufjället NP © Orsolya Haaberg
  30. 30. Understanding the motiveProve yourselfCompetition New products: Father & Son weekendFulufjället NP © Orsolya Haaberg
  31. 31. PAN Parks Tourism ModelExpected outcome was 300,000 EURannuallyWe needed a more realistic plan in 2011With investing in marketing and manpower it cangenerate 150,000 EUR / yearIndividual touristsGroupsCorporate adventures
  32. 32. PAN Parks Tourism ModelMost important lessons learned•marketing through social media (mouthmarketing)•engaging clients•offer a special trip•sustainability across the product cycle•pricing
  33. 33. Wilderness in Europe „...about 1% of Europe’s territory ...can be called wilderness area” Ladislav Miko, EC DG Environment Wilderness is a scarce resource in Europe!Borjomi-Kharagauli NP © Kote Gabrichidze
  34. 34. The Million Project To ensure guaranteed protection of 1 million hectares of wilderness in Europe by 2015Archipelago NP © Seppo Keränen
  35. 35. European tendencies Threats and Opportunities exist parallel • wilderness comes up on the agenda (catch phrase?) • land abandonment provides opportunity to restore • wilderness disappears • restoration is more attractive than protection of existing areas!Archipelago NP © Janne Gröning
  36. 36. Research database Setting up a searchable, public Wilderness Resource Bank (analogy to Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute website) • top 3: PA management, ecosystems, species conservation • down 3: climate change, ecosystem services, financingCentral Balkan NP © Evgeni Diniev wilderness protection
  37. 37. Challenge 1 How the definition of wilderness applies to the case of indigenous / local needs (is it an excuse in Europe?) • Example 1: Nordic countries • Example 2: Peneda-Geres, Portugal • Example 3: Retezat, RomaniaArchipelago NP © Heidi Arponen
  38. 38. Challenge 2 We are still in a stage in Europe when we need to explain the biodiversity benefits of wildernessPaanajärvi NP © PNP Archives
  39. 39. PROTECTED AREA ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY EcologicalHunter/ IntegrityGatherers Natural Utilitarian RegulationPre-1900 1900s-1950s 1950s-1990s Post 1990s
  40. 40. How people interact withnature? Wilderness helps tore-establish the lost relation
  41. 41. Show (and not tell) a story!
  42. 42. PAN Parks works to protect Europe’swilderness, the continent’s mostundisturbed areas of nature