1801-1893 he was a respected natural biologist in Switzerland.Research: This suggests that plants and animals were created in certain places and mostly did not immigrate far from those places. Counterviews of widespead species scattered in different places posed problems for his argument.Views: The paper argued that while all men shared some commonalities, the races were created as separate species. The notion of “difference” is once again key to his subsequent sociocultural discussion. The difference were manifested in culture, habit, intelligence, and ability.Transformation: His investigations of biology and natural history transformed into social and political pronouncement. He embraced Caucasian intellectual and cultural supremacy and offered the now time-worn argument that Africa never contributed to the building of civilized society.
Libidinous-having or marked by lustful desires.
Morton: Was a highly respected physician and scientistsDifferences: Heposited that the different human species had their origins in primordial organization or early organized form, led to differentiated races as well as differentiated species in other animal life he argued that human races were separate from the start. He too attempted to rank the various human species, placing Africans at the lowest levels.Hypothesized: He hypothesized that the discrepancy between the skulls of blacks and whites would be significant. Representation: Together, Agassiz and Morton represent an important thrust in the development of “scientific” racism. First, they Americanized the discourse and, in so doing, provided a powerful rationalization for slavery and the subsequent apartheid system in the southern United States. Medical journals, conferences, and lecturers embraced their themes. Agassiz and Morton opened the floodgates for every White supremacist and amateur researcher (samples are given on page 33 of “The White Architects of Black Education”) Agassiz and Morton established the foundation for a century and a half of “scientific” racism.
Hypothesis: Africans measured 83.44 cubic inches; Caucasians 87 cubic inches; Chinese and Mongolian 82 cubic inches; and Native Americans 79 cubic inches. When when his assistants findings did not fit his hypothesis he would dismiss them and remeasure and from time to time he would omit data he did not like. Basically he molded findings to his own liking.
It can be asserted that “scientific racism was an important component in American social theory.It explained racial difference.It provided the rationale for the shaping of colonial Black education, the architects of black education, with few exceptions, embraced the general percepts of “scientific” racism.Conservative social theorists wedded explanations of racial differences to explanations of human differences.
Variability-subject to vary or change: He was confused about the origins of variability and how it was transferred through the generations. Initially believing that randomness and spontaneity accounted for hereditary differences, he later cam to believe in the influence of environment. Darwin’s work suggested a struggle for existence among biological organisms. Those better suited survive, because some organisms are superior, others inferior. The Darwinian thesis struck a significant blow to creationism but did little to deter the “scientific” racists.Production: Conservative sociologists, social theorists, and “scientific” racists adapted Darwinian themes to the ordering of society. Survival of the fittest came to be viewed in terms of business, the economy, and race relations. Darwin’s notion of inheritance of variations served as a reaffirmation of inequality and difference.
Manifestations: Anglo-Saxonism or Aryanism, is a socially and politically constructed phenomenon.Such racism is more appropriately associated with modern nationalism (Hofstadter, 1944), conquest, and the labor market than with biological science.Subjugation-to bring under control and governance as a subject. As Colonialism spread throughout Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and Latin America, the theoretical base of “scientific” racism continued to expand.
Eugenics-relating to or fitted for the production of good offspring:
This was a period of labeling and discerning the dependent, insane, ill, and criminal as genetically inferior.Reform: European and other immigrants became targets of eugenics discourse, influencing notions of human intelligence, IQ, and development. The study of heredity in particular, came to receive great attention.Eugenics: Eugenics became another building block in the platform of “scientific” racism. Once again the ideological voices of imperial thinking, national chauvinism, and White supremacy exerted their influence. Right-wing eugenicist came to attribute poverty, ignorance, infirmities, intemperance, incompetence, feeblemindedness, and criminality to genetics.
Sir Francis Galton: Galton dabbled in psychological testing, statistics, geography, and fingerprinting identification and the study of heredity. He believed in the absolute inequality of humans as supported by what we now call the bell-shaped-curve(of a normal distribution).Galton’s efforts to establish statistical correlations attracted supporters, among the most formidable of whom was Karl Pearson.
Pearson: he calculated that one-fourth of married couples were producing one-half of the children for the next generation. His concern was that this sector was populated by the poor, the lazy, and the feeble(means to indicate weakness)Biometrics: Pearson was among the first to use the term “biometrics,” by which he meant the application of statistics to biological problems.Eugenics: Eugenics is the science which deals with all influences that improve the inborn qualities of a race; also with those that develop them to the utmost advantage (in Farrall, 1985, p.55). Eugenics helped forge a twisted notion of what counts as social reform.
Edward A Ross: wrote of people with “low foreheads,” “open mouths,” “weak chins,” “skew faces,” “knobby crania,” who were “servile,” “wife beaters,” “criminals,” “alcoholics,” given to crimes of sex and violence.Henry: he advocated the exclusion of Nordics(related to the caucasian race characterized by tall structure, long hair, light skin and hair, and blue eyes/a native of North Europe), southern European, fearing they might mix with thus causing “reversions” or throwbacks.Edward M.: worked on a breeding project at Harvard, argued that hybridized people were inferior. I’m reading from page 38 He wrote “The Negro is a happy-go-lucky child, naturally expansive under simple conditions, oppressed by the restrictions of civilization, and unable to assume the white man’s burden. He accepts his limitations, indeed, he is rather glad to have them. Only when there is white blood in his veins does he cry out against the supposed injustice of his position.
Howard University: If you have not seen the movie “Mrs. Evers Boys” I urge you to locate and view this movie.
Carl:Perhaps the most damaging aspect of the eugenic views on blacks was it’s application to segregation. Sp-called scientific data provided a rationale for containment and segregation.Many in the political and legal establishments accepted the “scientific” racist and eugenics arguments, as segregation was codified and practiced everywhere. It actually was not until Brown v. Board of Education (1954) that “scientific” racism was officially debunked.
“Scientific” racism also could explain the capitalist exploitation of labor, the factory system, and the usurpation of power by northern industrialists.Most important, “scientific” racism justified the hierarchical order of races as historically evolved, divinely ordained, and socially expeditious.
09 Power Point Presentation The White Architects Of Black Education 5 (2)
Chapter 2 Presentation<br />By<br />QuanethiaLe’Vell De BANOKI and Zanovia JOHNSON<br />The White Architects of Black Education<br />
Many colonial educators in America embraced the tenets of biological determinism as legitimate explanations for societal development<br />Social scientists looked to quantification as they attempted to construct law-like assumptions about societal & human development <br />Based on Aristotles’ ideas that inequality was foundation of natural order, Natural difference viewed as hierarchal. Organism and races could be ranked.<br />
Race literature of 1830’s-1850’s<br />politically inspired<br />defended Colonialism, slavery, exploitation of land cloaked in “science” <br />established racial politics in the country<br />
Science…<br />…justified and rationalized Colonialism<br />…Proof that social hierarchy could be established<br />
The Nation capitalized from slave<br />labor, sharecropping, and subservience<br />
S.J. Gould “The Mismeasure of Man”<br /> --Illustrates 2 “scientific” views on the origins of humankind<br />
Monogenists<br />…believed in a single species of people originating from a single source<br />
Polygamists<br />Argued human races were a separate species<br />
“The Father of Scientific Racism”<br />Arthur de Gobineau’s ideas helped frame “scientism” on race and social development<br />
…used Christian doctrine linked virtue to faith, <br />…associated virtue to bloodlines using Aryans as example (their pure blood= intelligence & heroism)<br />…Blood had to be maintained.<br />
Race is the most important question in history<br />Social decline due to miscegenation<br />All derive from superior Aryan stock and are divided into races of unequal worth.<br />Superior must fight to maintain position<br />
Miscegenation due to war conquest and migration. If left unchecked miscegenation would undo civilization.<br />
1735- Carolus Linnaeus –among the first to classify human beings by race. Used Skin color and personal characteristics, mental and moral traits.<br />“SystemaNaturae” divided ppl into White (innovative, keen of mind) Black (lazy and careless) Red & Yellow.<br />
Ernst Haeckel -- Anthropongenie situated blacks on evolutionary tree below Gorillas and chimpanzees<br />
Surgeon Charles White -- Blacks separate species ( b/t whites and apes): feet, fingers, toes, legs, hair, cheekbones, arm length, skull size, sex organ size & body odor made Blacks animals.<br />
Scientific racism reinforced in the medical profession <br />Races differed anatomically, physiologically, psychologically<br />
Samuel Cartwright- Negroes needed slavery exercise to help their low supply of red blood, small brains. Coined “drapetomania” –disease of the mind making slaves want to run away. Rx, kindness and whipping<br />
Thomas Jefferson<br />Notes on the State of Virginia explained some of his racist ideologies. <br />Blacks inferior in reason and imagination (dull, tasteless). <br />Intelligence result of biological status.<br />Roman slaves made intellectual contributions. Blacks are distinct <br />Blacks uninhibited: sleep & eat…too much passion so no New America<br />Let’s send them back to Africa!<br />
Louis Agassiz<br />Swiss biologist<br />Never met or saw a black person or encountered US slavery.<br />“Center of Creation”-suggest that plants and animals were created in certain places and mostly didn’t stray far from those centers. <br />Roots were in creationism, monogenism<br /> “all men share commonalities, but the races are different species” <br />Difference is the key: culture, habit, intelligence, and ability. <br />Started as biological and natural history to social and political embracing White supremacy.<br />Cunning, tricky, cowardly.<br /> Africa never contributed to building a civilized society<br />
Onward Polygeny: Agassiz<br />Agassiz’s research unfolds while at Harvard “Centers of Creation”<br />Agassiz’s views were expressed in “The Diversity of Origin of the Human Races” <br />Agassiz’s transformation into social and political pronouncements<br /> Watkins/Kelley, 2001; http://images.google.com/imgres <br />
He argued for restricting the activities of American Blacks.<br />He believed mixed race children were an offense and a sin against nature.<br />He believed the libidinous Blacks would lure the White race to degradation.<br />He argued that interracial marriages would create feebleminded offspring with physical disabilities.<br />And he believed that Blacks should be trained for manual labor as opposed to intellectual cultivation<br />Watkins/Kelley, 2001<br />
Although Agassiz’s work was popular it had to be coupled with the empiricism of others, such as Samuel George Morton of Philadelphia.<br />Watkins/Kelley, 2001<br />
Like Agassiz, Morton argued that there were separately created human species.<br />His differences in primordial organization<br />Agassiz and Morton representation<br />Onward Polygeny: Morton<br />Watkins/Kelley, 2001; http://images.google.com/imgres <br />
Morton hypothesis of human skulls <br />He hypothesized that the discrepancy between the skulls of blacks and whites would be significant. <br /> Watkins/Kelley, 2001; http://images.google.com/imgres <br />
Shockley (1972), Jensen (1995), and Hernstein and Murray (1994) continued the tradition, as America’s brand of racism influences every aspect of social and political life.<br /> Watkins/Kelley, 2001<br />
Darwin’s origins of variability<br />New means of production, property relations, and divisions of wealth allowed for a new political sociology.<br />Darwinian Revolution: Changing the Discourse<br />Watkins/Kelley, 2001; http://images.google.com/imgres <br />
The thought and scientific work of Charles Darwin do not underlie the rationale of Social Darwinism or modern “scientific” racism.<br />Racism in its different manifestations<br />Racial subjugation often masked political subjugation<br />Social Darwinism and Colonial Conquest<br />Watkins/Kelley, 2001<br />
The Eugenics Movement<br />The eugenics movement began in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century with the theorizing of Sir Francis Galton.<br />Watkins/Kelley, 2001; http://images.google.com/imgres <br />
Haller (1984)He divides the American eugenics movement into stages.<br />Stage 1, 1870-1905, hereditarian explanations took root<br />1905-1930, theorists directly associated feeblemindedness, insanity, pauperism, and crime with heredity.<br />Reform, correction, and charity organizations advocated custodial care and sterilization as solutions for “defective” types.<br />Eugenics building block<br />Watkins/Kelley, 2001<br />
Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911) a cousin of Charles Darwin and founder of eugenics ideology.<br />Galton: The “Scientific” Dimension of Eugenics<br /> Watkins/Kelley, 2001; ; http://images.google.com/imgres <br />
Pearson argued, as a eugenicist, that personality and intelligence were predetermined in the germ plasma before birth.<br />Biometrics the application of statistics <br />Eugenics influences that improve the inborn qualities of a race<br /> Karl Pearson (1857-1936)<br /> Watkins/Kelley, 2001; Farrall, 1985, p.55; http://images.google.com/imgres <br />
A central premise of the eugenicists was that American institutions were incapable of molding or assimilating the “inferior” races (Haller, 1984)<br />Nativism, racism, and anti-immigrant sentiment provided fertile soil for eugenicist outlooks in America around the turn of the twentieth century (Selden, 1999).<br />Eugenics and Race in America<br />Watkins/Kelley, 2001<br />
Sociologist EdwardA. Ross<br />Another sociologist, Henry Pratt Fairchild<br /> Researcher Edward M. East<br />Eugenics and Race in America continued <br /> Watkins/Kelley, 2001; Hasian, 1996, p.54 ; http://images.google.com/imgres <br />
Eugenics and the American Black<br />Galton wrote, “The average intellectual standard of the Negro race is some two grades below our own”<br />Howard University’s Kelly Miller argued that poverty, tuberculosis, venereal decease, and other ailments would always plague Blacks because of their inherent immorality.<br />Watkins/Kelley, 2001; http://images.google.com/imgres <br />
Eugenics and the American Black continued<br />Carl C. Brigham, he concluded that blacks were deficient in native or inborn intelligence and that their lack of intelligence would likely lead to a decline in the nation’s collective intelligence. <br /> Watkins/Kelley, 2001;http://images.google.com/imgres <br />
SCIENTIFIC RACISM AND BLACK EDUCATION: RETROSPECTS AND PROSPECTS<br />The connection of “scientific” racism(SR) to Black education and the new social sciences is far from coincidental.<br />“Scientific” racism was indeed the centerpiece of the new social science, which presented human difference as the rationale for inequality.<br /> “Scientific” racism explained<br />Watkins/Kelley, 2001<br />
SCIENTIFIC RACISM AND BLACK EDUCATION: RETROSPECTS AND PROSPECTS continued<br />Behaviourism, Psycho-Analysis and Physiological Manipulation in Education<br />Brent Jessop<br /> <br />SR was a fundamental precept in the architecture of Black education.<br />Industrial education was presented as progressive reform<br />Watkins/Kelley, 2001<br />
SCIENTIFIC RACISM AND BLACK EDUCATION: RETROSPECTS AND PROSPECTS continued<br />SR provided legitimization for colonial policies. Blacks got all they could intellectually manage.<br />The race issue saturates every aspect of our social, economic, political, educational, and personal life.<br />Notions of racial “difference” affected the architects of Black education, as evidenced in both their thought and their actions.<br />Watkins/Kelley, 2001<br />
END OF CHAPTER 2 POWER POINT PRESENTATION<br />
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