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  1. 1. Exploring Marketing Research William G. Zikmund Chapter 10: Observation
  2. 2. Scientific Observation Is Systematic One day Sherlock Holmes asked Dr. Watson how many steps led up to the Baker street apartment. Watson responded that he did not know. Holmes replied “Ah Watson YOU SEE, BUT YOU DO NOT OBSERVE.”
  3. 3. Scientific Observation Is Systematic <ul><li>Observation is a systematic process of recording the behavioral pattern of people objects, and occurrences as they are witnessed. </li></ul><ul><li>Observation becomes tool of inquiry when it </li></ul><ul><li>Serves a formulated research purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Is planned systematically. </li></ul><ul><li>Is recorded systematically and related to general proposition rather simply reflecting a set of interesting curiosities. </li></ul><ul><li>Is subjected to checks or controls on validity and reliability. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What Can Be Observed? <ul><li>Physical actions </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial relations and locations </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal and pictorial records </li></ul>
  5. 5. What Can Be Observed Phenomena Example Human behavior or physical Shoppers movement action pattern in a store Verbal behavior Statements made by airline travelers who wait in line Expressive behavior Facial expressions, tone of voice, and other form of body language
  6. 6. What Can Be Observed Phenomena Example Spatial relations How close visitors at an and locations art museum stand to paintings Temporal patterns How long fast-food customers wait for their order to be served Physical objects What brand name items are stored in consumers’ pantries Verbal and Pictorial Bar codes on product packages Records
  7. 7. Categories of Observation <ul><li>Human versus mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>Visible versus hidden </li></ul><ul><li>Direct </li></ul><ul><li>Contrived </li></ul>
  8. 8. Observation of Human Behavior Benefits <ul><li>Communication with respondent is not necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Data without distortions due to self-report (e.g.: without social desirability) Bias </li></ul><ul><li>No need to rely on respondents memory </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal behavior data may be obtained </li></ul><ul><li>Certain data may be obtained more quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental conditions may be recorded </li></ul><ul><li>May be combined with survey to provide supplemental evidence </li></ul>
  9. 9. Observation of Human Behavior Limitations <ul><li>Cognitive phenomena cannot be observed </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of data may be a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Not all activity can be recorded </li></ul><ul><li>Only short periods can be observed </li></ul><ul><li>Observer bias possible (distortion of measurement resulting from the cognitive behavior or actions of the witnessing observer) </li></ul><ul><li>Possible invasion of privacy </li></ul>
  10. 10. Observation of Physical Objects <ul><li>Physical-trace evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Visible mark of some past event or occurrences. </li></ul><ul><li>Wear and tear of a book indicates how often it has been read </li></ul>
  11. 11. Scientifically Contrived Observation <ul><li>The creation of an artificial environment to test a hypothesis </li></ul>
  12. 12. Response Latency <ul><li>Recording the decision time necessary to make a choice between two alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>It is presumed to indicate the strength of preference between alternatives. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Content Analysis <ul><li>Obtains data by observing and analyzing the content of advertisements, letters, articles, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with the study of the message itself </li></ul><ul><li>Measures the extent of emphasis or omission </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mechanical Observation <ul><li>Traffic Counters </li></ul><ul><li>Web Traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Scanners </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological Measures </li></ul>
  15. 15. Physiological Reactions <ul><li>Eye tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Pupilometer </li></ul><ul><li>Psychogalvanometer </li></ul><ul><li>Voice pitch </li></ul>
  16. 16. Eye Tracking Monitors <ul><li>Eye tracking technology detects eye movement by identifying the pupil and tracking its motion to determine precisely where the user is looking. </li></ul><ul><li>tracking system uses micro cameras and complex eye tracking software algorithms to electronically monitor eyelid and pupil activity </li></ul><ul><li>Record how the subject actually reads or views an advertisement </li></ul><ul><li>Measure unconscious eye movements </li></ul>
  17. 17. Pupilometer <ul><li>This device observes and records changes in the diameter of the subject’s pupils. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Psychogalvanometer <ul><li>Measures galvanic skin response </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary changes in the electrical resistance of the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Assumption: physiological changes accompany emotional reactions </li></ul>
  19. 19. Voice Pitch Analysis <ul><li>Measures emotional reactions through physiological changes in a person’s voice </li></ul>