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3g evolution alcatel

  1. 1. T E C H N O L O G Y W H I T E PA P E R3G Evolution TowardsHigh Speed DownlinkPacket AccessThis article describes the evolution of 3G withHSDPA. First market and technical motivationsare explained. Then the different introductionphases of HDSPA to the market are handled,improving the data throughput and the spectralefficiency in a step by step approach. Furthersubjects are an overview of the basic featuresfor HSDPA phase 1, a system overview and theimpact of introducing this functionality into theRNC and Node B. In a next chapter the basicsof HSDPA phase 2 are explained with someremarks to Node B V2 HW impacts. The articleends with a summary and a conclusion.ARCHITECTS OF AN INTERNET WORLD
  2. 2. B. Haberland, S. Bloch, V. Braun3G EVOLUTION TOWARDS HIGHSPEED DOWNLINK PACKETACCESSThe introduction of HSDPA will enhance 3G mobile systemsby offering higher data rates in the downlink direction.The Evolium multi-standard base station architecture is readyfor this evolution.Introduction Assuming comparable cell sizes, it is anticipated thatMarket motivation by using multi-code transmission it will be possible to High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) achieve peak data rates of about 10 Mbit/s (thesupports the introduction of high bitrate data services maximum theoretical rate is 14.4 Mbit/s). This willand will increase network capacity, while minimizing result in a six- to seven-fold throughput increaseoperators’ investment. It provides a smooth during an average downlink packet session comparedevolutionary path for Universal Mobile with the Downlink Shared CHannel (DSCH) standardsTelecommunications System (UMTS) networks to of 3GPP release 99.higher data rates and higher capacities, in the same 3GPP standards beyond release 5 will aim toway as Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution achieve further throughput increases, say peak data(EDGE) does in the Global System for Mobile rates in the range 20 to 30 Mbit/s, by using Multiplecommunication (GSM) world. The introduction of Input Multiple Output (MIMO) or other antennashared channels for different users will guarantee that array techniques, and possibly asymmetricchannel resources are used efficiently in the packet allocation of frequency spectrum in multi-carrierdomain, and will be less expensive for users than cells (e.g. a further 100% downlink packet sessiondedicated channels. throughput increase by allocating an additional 5 A cost-effective system solution is essential to ensure MHz unpaired band).that high bitrate data services can be offered by the HSDPA is based on the following key concepts:operators at a price users will be willing to pay. Withthis in mind, it is important to reuse existing Alcatel • Adaptive modulation and coding schemes:platforms, such as Node Bs, Radio Network Controllers Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) and 16QAM(RNC) and Operations and Maintenance Centers – (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation).Radio (OMCR), wherever possible, perhaps migrating to • Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ)HSDPA via remote software reconfiguration. retransmission protocol. Alcatel believes that operators can only offer low cost • Fast packet scheduling controlled by the Mediumservices to users if their systems offer low prices per Access Control – high speed (MAC-hs) protocol inMbit/s. Node B.Technical motivation On the air interface, time is allocated to the User HSDPA aims to provide a spectrally efficient means to Equipment (UE) on a subframe basis. Modulation, codesupport services, such as Internet access and file rate, power and other transmission parameters, such as thedownload, that require high data rate packet transport puncturing pattern, can be changed with every subframe.on the downlink. It is well adapted to the urban Dedicated CHannels (DCH) were designed forenvironment and to indoor deployment. circuit-switched services requiring a conversational HSDPA was introduced in the Third Generation Quality of Service (QoS): constant bitrate andPartnership Project (3GPP) release 5 standards. stringent real-time requirements. Shared channels2 | Alcatel Telecommunications Review - 4 th Quarter 2003/1 st Quarter 2004
  3. 3. 3G EVOLUTION TOWARDS HIGH SPEED DOWNLINK PACKET ACCESShave been introduced to fit with packet services that Only the first two phases are considered here.are downlink oriented and of a bursty nature, and thatare less sensitive to delay than circuit-switched Basic Principles of HSDPA Phase 1services. They are suitable for streaming, interactive Additional functionsand background traffic classes. In phase 1, the main changes compared with release HSDPA is based on a High Speed Downlink Shared 99 are that HSPDA:CHannel (HS-DSCH), which is capable of supportinghigh data rates; it allows time and code multiplexing • Shares the paired frequency bands with release 99among different users. Consequently, it is well matched channels using code multiplexing.to the bursty nature of packet-based traffic in a multi-user environment. • Uses three novel physical channels: Downlink dedicated channels and downlink shared - High Speed Physical Downlink Shared CHannelchannels can share the same frequency spectrum by (HS-PDSCH): Carries actual packet data;using code multiplexing. Spreading Factor (SF) = 16, QPSK/16QAM, power controlled by Node B, up to 15 HS-PDSCHs perHSDPA evolution phases cell, aggregate data rates of up to 14.4 Mbit/s per 3GPP release 3 identifies several phases of HSDPA cell (15 HS-PDSCHs, 16QAM, code rate 1).evolution. The third phase is not yet certain, and is still - High Speed Shared Control CHannel (HS-SCCH):being studied within 3GPP. Downlink channel which carries signaling information (channel code set, modulationPhase 1: Basic HSDPA scheme, transport block size, HARQ process The first phase, specified in 3GPP release 5, will see number, redundancy and constellation versionthe introduction of several new basic functions with the parameters, new data flag and UE identity),objective of achieving a peak data rate of 10.8 Mbit/s: SF=128, QPSK, power controlled by Node B, up to 32 HS-SCCHs per cell, up to four HS-SCCHs per • High speed downlink shared channel supported by user equipment. control channels (see below). - High Speed Dedicated Physical Control CHannel • Adaptive modulation (QPSK and 16QAM) and rate (HS-DPCCH): Uplink channel carrying signaling matching. information (ACK/NACK and Channel Quality • Shared medium access control (MAC-hs) in Node B. Indicator, CQI), SF=256, QPSK, terminated in Node B. HS-PDSCH, HS-SCCH and HS-DPCCH usePhase 2: HSDPA enhancements a Transmission Time Interval (TTI) of 2 ms. This The second phase, specified in 3GPP release 6, will interval is also called a ‘subframe’.introduce antenna array processing technologies to • HS-PDSCH uses adaptive modulationenhance the peak data rate to around 30 Mbit/s: (QPSK/16QAM) and coding (Turbo coding). The turbo encoder has fixed code rate 1/3. Variable • Smart antenna using beamforming techniques for effective code rates are achieved by rate matching mobiles with one antenna. (puncturing or repetition). Link adaptation is • MIMO technologies for mobiles with from two to implemented by Node B, which adapts the four antennas. transmission format of HS-DSCH data packets according to the instantaneous quality of thePhase 3: New air interface propagation channel as reported by the user Finally, phase 3 will see the introduction of a new air equipment by means of a CQI.interface to HSPDA to increase the average bitrate: • MAC-hs is a novel MAC entity for controlling HS- DSCH (i.e. the transport channel comprising the • Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing HS-PDSCH). Located in Node B, its tasks include: (OFDM) physical layer in combination with higher - Flow control to Iub. modulation schemes and array processing. - Buffering of packet data (MAC-d protocol data • MAC-hs/OFDM with fast scheduling to optimize units) in priority queues. performance by selecting dedicated sets of - Packet scheduling and priority handling, where subcarriers for each mobile according to the quality scheduling is done in the time and code domain: of the air interface. Time Division Multiplex / Code Division Multiplex • Multi-standard MAC (Mx-MAC) as a control entity (TDM/CDM). to realize fast switching between Orthogonal - Fast packet scheduling mechanism, located in Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) and Node B, manages the HS-DSCH resources. With Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) channels. the aid of CQI reports from the user equipment, it Alcatel Telecommunications Review - 4 th Quarter 2003/1 st Quarter 2004 | 3
  4. 4. 3G EVOLUTION TOWARDS HIGH SPEED DOWNLINK PACKET ACCESS decides which user equipment should be • When using 16QAM modulation, the Node B scheduled within a particular 2 ms interval (TTI). transmitter linearity requirements in terms of Error It also selects the modulation and coding scheme, Vector Magnitude (EVM) are tighter than for and the transmit power for the HS-DSCH data release 99. packets. A knowledge of the instantaneous quality • ACK/NACK detection on HS-DPCCH has to satisfy of the propagation channels makes it possible to certain radio performance requirements (yet to be take advantage of multi-user diversity by avoiding specified by 3GPP). the scheduling of data packets during destructive • New RNC functions for HSDPA are: channel fades. - Extension of Call Admission Control (CAC) and - HARQ termination and handling: Physical layer Radio Resource Management (RRM) algorithms to HARQ using incremental redundancy or chase share physical resources in a cell between combining is used for packet retransmissions.1 As dedicated channels and HSDPA shared channels. the HARQ protocol is terminated in Node B, there - Slave function for data flow control; master are no retransmissions via Iub. HARQ is an function within Node B. enhanced form of the ARQ retransmission - Higher data throughput for radio processing part protocol; erroneously received HS-DSCH data of the user plane. packets are stored in the user equipment and ‘soft combined’ with retransmissions of these data RAN environment for HSDPA packets. It offers better error rate performance Figure 1 shows the functional entities, protocol than conventional ARQ. When a data packet is entities and all the relevant interfaces required to retransmitted, the transmit format, modulation realize HSDPA in the Radio Access Network (RAN). scheme and transmit power may be different from The control plane protocol and functional entities the original transmission. are shown in the red blocks. The request to set up a - Transport Format Code (TFRC) selection, channel with certain QoS parameters arrives at the including power control and link adaptation. RNC via the RANAP protocol; in cooperation with • 3GPP does not restrict the number of user RRM and Transmission Resource Management (TRM), equipments accessing HSDPA. However, practical the CAC decides if this service is to be handled via a limits are set by the number of physical uplink channels and/or MAC-hs queues that can be processed by Node B. Fig. 1 Node B transmit part of Alcatel’s 4Tx open loop – closed loop • No macro-diversity diversity scheme transmission (Soft HandOver; SHO) is used with HS-PDSCH RNC Node B UE and HS-SCCH. RRC • A user equipment accessing CAC/ RRC HSDPA always has an RANAP RRM/ NBAP NBAP TRM associated DCH connection, possibly using macro-diversity PDCP/ transmission. RLC/ Cell MAC-d • Maximum transmit power for HS-PDSCHs and HS-SCCHs PDCP/ UE RLC/ MAC-hs DHO per cell can be set by the RNC MAC-d UE UE UE via the control plane. CQI/ FP+ Ack/Nack MAC-hs Alternatively, all the available FP + FP UE DHO/FP Flow Control Flow Control (DCH) transmit power per cell not (DCH) (HS-DSCH) (HS-DSCH) CQI/ Rx Ack/Nack being used for release 99 non- Qual HSDPA channels can be used Transport Layer 1 Layer 1 for HS-PDSCHs and HS- Transport (IP or ATM) (IP or ATM) Shared Shared SCCHs. Layer 1 Layer 1 Dedicat. Dedicat. From other1 In the case of chase combining, exactly the same Node B information content is resent to the mobile, whereas in the case of incremental redundancy the content of the retransmitted packet is modified. In both cases, the mobile needs internal memory to store the original data packet ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode RANAP: Radio Access Network Application Part which is combined with the retransmitted packet.4 | Alcatel Telecommunications Review - 4 th Quarter 2003/1 st Quarter 2004
  5. 5. 3G EVOLUTION TOWARDS HIGH SPEED DOWNLINK PACKET ACCESSdedicated or a shared channel. The decision is in the dedicated layer 1 part and transfers it to thesignaled to Node B via the Node B Application Part MAC-hs for further scheduling.(NBAP) and to the user equipment via the RadioResource Control (RRC). Impact of HSDPA on the RNC (Phase 1) The user plane data blocks arrive at the RNC from The implementation of HSDPA will have a majorthe core network using the Packet Data Compression impact on the RNC.Protocol (PDCP), which provides Internet Protocol (IP)header compression, and Radio Link Control (RLC), Extension of radio resource managementwhere a buffer is implemented for the non-transparent RRM is extended to the shared operation of dedicatedmode. In the MAC-d layer, channel type switching is and shared channels in a cell. A simple algorithm canperformed using either dedicated or shared channel be used for best effort services in HSDPA: always useprocessing, depending on the decision of the CAC. the capacity that remains unused by the DCH channels In the dedicated path case, the segmented data in a cell. However, streaming services require a moreblocks are transferred to the Diversity HandOver intelligent algorithm with a dynamic behavior(DHO) function and the Frame Protocol (FP) for the (breathing) when sharing dedicated and HSDPADCH. They terminate in Node B via the FP and are channels.passed to layer 1 of the air interface. The user In addition, the control plane protocols (RRC andequipment receives the signal via layer 1 from different NBAP) need to be extended to comply with the 3GPPNode Bs (in the soft handover case), combines the definition.signal using the DHO function and feeds it to MAC- The user plane protocols (PDCP/RLC/MAC-d) have tod/RLC and PDCP. be designed to meet the bandwidth needs for a user In the shared path case, the segmented data blocks allocated to an HSDPA channel. In addition, a newfor each user are transferred to the FP for HS-DSCH. version of the frame protocol has to be designed,For each user, Node B receives an FP block for HS- together with a suitable flow control mechanism. AllDSCH. This is controlled by the flow control process; these user plane protocols together with the functionsNode B, as the master, responds to capacity requests of the dedicated channels (DHO and FP) have to befrom the flow control part of the RNC by either implemented on a single processing board to ensureallocating capacity or rejecting the request, depending fast and efficient switching from HS-DSCH to DCHon the available bandwidth and buffer status. Data channels, and vice versa.stored in priority buffers is then scheduled by the MAC- Figure 2 shows the basic RNC hardwarehs process and forwarded to layer 1. MAC-hs takes the architecture.following parameters into account when making itsscheduling decision: QoS parameters, CQI feedbackfrom the user equipment indicating the quality of the Fig. 2 RNC hardware architectureair-interface, ACK/NACK of previously sent datablocks, priority buffer filling information, user priorityas defined by the operator according to its billingmodel, and some fairness strategies to ensure that Control User Planeusers with poor CQI are also served from time to time. Plane/ O&M Part Combined with the CQI process is an adaptive radio partlink technique that matches the transmit power,modulation and rate matching schemes to the air-interface quality. The data blocks are received byvarious user equipments with the aid of HS-SCCHsignaling, indicating which data block is for which user Ethernet Switchequipment. Information blocks are terminated by theMAC-hs and forwarded to the MAC-/RLC/PDCP. Alluser data is then forwarded to the higher layer and tothe application. The user equipment determines the Transportreceived channel quality in the layer 1 common part Termination Partand forwards this information to MAC-hs. The receivedchannel quality measurement is translated into a CQIvalue. The MAC-hs forwards the CQI together with the Iu Iub IurACK/NACK information for the previous block to thededicated layer 1 function for transmission on the O&M: Operations and Maintenanceuplink to Node B. The Node B extracts this information Alcatel Telecommunications Review - 4 th Quarter 2003/1 st Quarter 2004 | 5
  6. 6. 3G EVOLUTION TOWARDS HIGH SPEED DOWNLINK PACKET ACCESSImpact of HSDPA on Node B • Transmitter Equipment UMTS (TEU): 16QAMArchitecture of HSDPA-ready Node B requires improved linearity of the power amplifier Alcatel’s current Node B (Evolium V2) can readily be chain in terms of EVM compared with release 99.upgraded to an HSDPA capable base station. The New software will implement more sophisticatedintroduction of multi-sector MAC-hs features and the clipping and predistortion algorithms.provision of downlink bitrates of up to 35 Mbit/s per • Node B interfaces: No change is needed to the userNode B can be achieved without modifying the plane interfacing for aggregate downlink data rateshardware. A further increase in the bitrate to 65 Mbit/s of up to 35 Mbit/s. Modification of the internal datais possible, but requires hardware modifications to the distribution to the HSDPA boards is only requiredStation Unit Module Unit (SUMU) in charge of Iub when aggregate downlink data rates of up to 65interfacing with the RNC. Mbit/s are required. The following approach was chosen for adapting to • Operations and Maintenance: Software mechanismsthe HSDPA task without any hardware modifications: are needed for downloading different software to the DCH BB and HSDPA BB boards. • HSDPA and DCH channels are processed on different baseband processing boards (BB) in the MAC-hs processing Node B cluster. HSDPA MAC-hs processing is implemented on the • Up to six BB boards can be assigned to the HSDPA HSDPA BB boards, where it requires new DSP software. task; dedicated software is downloaded to these Up to six separate MAC-hs entities are supported by an boards. HSDPA BB board, one MAC-hs entity to be used per • HSDPA BB can provide HSDPA service cell. Each HSDPA BB board is equipped with 512 simultaneously in up to six cells at an aggregate priority queues, supporting 64 user equipments with up bitrate of 10.8 Mbit/s per board. HSDPA users in the to eight priority classes per user. Up to 32 HS-SCCHs same cell are processed by the same HSDPA BB can be provided per cell. The processing resources and board. priority queues available on the HSDPA BB board are • A cluster of ten Digital Signal Processors (DSP) and shared by up to six MAC-hs entities, which must various Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) on therefore be coordinated. the HSDPA BB perform the downlink processing. They provide sufficient computational power and Basic Principles of HSDPA Phase 2 storage for the HSDPA task. Multiple antenna transmission UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Frequency Division The impact of HSDPA on Node B V2/R2 can be Duplex (UTRA/FDD) aims to support a variety ofsummarized as follows: multiple antenna transmission techniques in order to enhance the coverage, system throughput and spectral • NBAP: Must support new or modified NBAP efficiency of HSDPA. Some of these techniques are procedures. NBAP-d is terminated by the Master already part of 3GPP release 5, while others are being Processing Unit (MPU) of the BB board processing studied for possible inclusion in release 6 and beyond. the associated DCH; the HSDPA BB boards do not Table 1 summarizes these techniques. receive NBAP messages. Control messages therefore have to be transferred from a DCH BB board to the associated HSDPA BB board. Software Tab. 1 Multiple antenna transmission techniques modifications to the MPU are required for both the for HSDPA DCH BB board and HSDPA BB board. • HSDPA BB board: Software modifications are 3GPP Release Release 5 Release 6 required to almost all the functional entities of the Supported/planned 2Tx diversity >2Tx diversity HSDPA BB board, the main functions of which are: techniques Beamforming MIMO - Symbol level processing and chip level processing for HS-PDSCHs and HS-SCCHs. - Path profiling, channel estimation and detection of uplink DPCCHs and HS-DPCCHs. A major aim of using multiple antenna transmission in - Implementation of MAC-hs, that is, termination of macro-cellular environments is to increase the coverage the frame protocol, flow control towards Iub, data radius at medium and higher data rates, say 384 kbit/s buffering, scheduling, HARQ termination and and above. In a typical deployment, two to four transmit handling, and Transport Format Identifier (TFRI) (Tx) antennas are used per sector. Here we briefly selection, including link adaptation and power highlight the multiple antenna transmission techniques control. envisaged for HSDPA.6 | Alcatel Telecommunications Review - 4 th Quarter 2003/1 st Quarter 2004
  7. 7. 3G EVOLUTION TOWARDS HIGH SPEED DOWNLINK PACKET ACCESSBeamforming using SDMA. Alcatel’s beamforming proposal is A gain in the link budget can be achieved by designed to facilitate the application of a grid offocusing the transmit power in the user’s direction; a fixed beams by introducing a fast beam selection3dB gain is realized by doubling the number of mechanism.transmit antennas. Antenna arrays with half awavelength spacing between the elements are often Transmit diversityused for beamforming. UTRA/FDD distinguishes Spatial diversity gain is achievable bybetween user-specific beamforming and transmitting identical information via channelsbeamforming with a grid of fixed beams. In the latter with uncorrelated fading. This is achieved bycase, a dedicated scrambling code can be assigned to separating the transmit antennas either in positioneach beam, making a channelization code tree (e.g. by 10 to 20 wavelengths) or in polarizationavailable in every beam. The increased code space orientation. 3GPP release 5 defines two 2Txcan be exploited by assigning a packet scheduler per diversity schemes (i.e. using two antennas) forbeam. Alternatively, a single scrambling code can be HS-DSCH transmission: open loop Space Timeused per cell. Transmit Diversity (STTD) and closed loop Mode 1. Transmit diversity schemes with more than two antennas are envisaged in future 3GPP releases. Fig. 3 Example beamforming scenario with Alcatel’s 4Tx open loop – closed loop diversity SDMA; UE1 and UE3 are scheduled to proposal is designed for use with subarray receive a packet simultaneously, antenna configurations. It achieves a spatial possibly using the same diversity gain by using 2Tx STTD between the channelization codes, whereas UE1 subarrays, and an additional beamforming gain by and UE2 are not applying 2Tx closed loop Mode 1 within each subarray. The Node B transmit part of the 4Tx open loop – closed loop diversity scheme is depicted in Figure 4. 4 beams per sector (e.g. 120°) Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) MIMO systems use multiple antennas at both the transmit and receive sides. They commonly apply spatial multiplexing; the data stream to be UE1 UE3 transmitted is split into, for example, two streams, each with half the data rate of the original stream, UE2 and these streams are transmitted via different antennas using the same channelization codes. Uncorrelated propagation channels, multiple receive (Rx) antennas and receiver structures using interference cancellation are typically required to detect the spatially multiplexed data streams. Spatial multiplexing has the potential to increase peak data rates by increasing the number of transmit antennas. As a first approximation, the increase is linear, for example, peak data rates of up to about 20 Mbit/s are expected for HSDPA using a 2Tx/2Rx MIMO scheme (16QAM, 15 codes, Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) can be 30 streams, code rate 3/4). To use MIMO withused to increase the downlink cell throughput HSDPA, the fast link adaptation mechanism mustby scheduling data packets simultaneously to be modified for use with multiple data streams, forusers served by different beams. This limits example, by transmitting a single transport blockmutual interference between these users, per TTI via multiple streams, or by transmitting amaking it possible to reuse the same single transport block per TTI per stream. Thechannelization code resources. SDMA application of MIMO transmission with HSDPA isimplementation requires extensions to the MAC- illustrated in Figure 5 for the case in which ahs packet scheduler to enable the spatial single transport block is transmitted per TTI.separation of users and possibly code reuse. A new BB hardware version is needed toFigure 3 shows a possible transmission scenario implement the above functions. In addition, the Alcatel Telecommunications Review - 4 th Quarter 2003/1 st Quarter 2004 | 7
  8. 8. 3G EVOLUTION TOWARDS HIGH SPEED DOWNLINK PACKET ACCESSSUMU to BB interface must be Fig. 4 Node B transmit part of Alcatel’s 4Tx open loop – closed loopextended in terms of bandwidth. diversity schemeAll other entities in the Node Bcan be reused. to Tx antenna 1Conclusion Subarray 1 HSDPA is an evolution of UMTS- to Tx antenna 2FDD that offers the higher data Substream 1 Closed looprates that are needed to realize Symbol stream S0, S1 weight w1 STTDmultimedia services for cellular S0, S1 Encoder Substream 2mobile communication systems. – S1*, S0*A very efficient technology is the to Tx antenna 3introduction of a downlink shared Subarray 2channel which achieves a to Tx antenna 4statistical multiplexing gain. This Closed loopis valid for background and best- weight w2effort services with an activityfactor <<1. Fig. 5 Example of MIMO transmission scheme for HSDPA. 2x2 matrix propagation channel Node B UE S0, S1, S2, S3, … S0, S2, … 2Tx 2Rx Transport Transport Symbol Spatial Interference Symbol block block Level Multi- Cancellation Level Processing plexing Receiver Processing S1, S3, … Channelization Channel quality feedback Transport Format Channel quality Selection Measurement (HS-DPCCH) Two factors are of prime importance for the • HSDPA Phase 1: Dynamic radio link adaptationsuccessful introduction of multimedia services: with variable rate matching (code puncturing) and variable modulation (QPSK/16QAM), HARQ and fast • Improvement in spectral efficiency in packet scheduling: peak rate 10.8 Mbit/s. bits/second/Hz. • HSDPA Phase 2: Introduction of antenna array • Low cost per Mbit/s. processing: peak rate up to 30 Mbit/s. • HSDPA Phase 3: Introduction of OFDM air-interface Both are required in order to offer attractive prices to with selected subcarrier transmission per userusers, so they will be encouraged to subscribe to such equipment and 64 QAM: peak rate up to 50 Mbit/s.services. Improvements in spectral efficiency will be realized The second factor will depend on the supplier’s abilitystep by step: to develop cost-efficient RAN solutions.8 | Alcatel Telecommunications Review - 4 th Quarter 2003/1 st Quarter 2004
  9. 9. 3G EVOLUTION TOWARDS HIGH SPEED DOWNLINK PACKET ACCESS Alcatel offers a solution for introducing HSDPA modifications are required in the RNC. Thephase 1, which doesn’t require any hardware Alcatel/Evolium multi-standard base stationmodifications to Node B. HSDPA can be introduced architecture supports the introduction of HSDPA.by remote software downloading. Only minor hardware Bernd Haberland is responsible for all Mobile Volker Braun is working on advanced signal Radio activities in the Research Innovation (R&I) Center, processing algorithms for UMTS within the R&I “Radio Stuttgart, Germany, and project leader of the Alcatel Protocols and BTS Nodes” project, Stuttgart, Germany. “Radio Protocols and is Nodes” project with activities in He is the R&I-S representative on the 3GPP RAN1 Stuttgart and Shanghai. (Bernd.Haberland@alcatel.de) working group, and a Regular Member of the Alcatel Technical Academy. (Volker.Braun@alcatel.de) Samuel Bloch is responsible for the UMTS Enhancements Demonstrator within the R&I “Radio Protocols and BTS Nodes” project, Stuttgart, Germany. Alcatel Telecommunications Review - 4 th Quarter 2003/1 st Quarter 2004 | 9
  10. 10. 3G EVOLUTION TOWARDS HIGH SPEED DOWNLINK PACKET ACCESSAbbreviations UE User Equipment ARQ Automatic Repeat Request UL Uplink (UE to Node B direction) BB Base Band processing module UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System BBI Base Band to Base Band Interface UTRA/FDD UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Frequency Duplex CAC Call Admission Control Division CDMA Code Division Multiple Access CN Core Network CQI Channel Quality Indicator DCH Dedicated Channel (transport channel) DDD Data Despreader Decoder DHO Diversity Handover DSCH DL Shared Channel (transport channel) EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution EVM Error Vector Magnitude FP Frame Protocol H-ARQ Hybrid ARQ HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access HS-DPCCH High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel HS-DSCH High Speed Downlink Shared Channel HS-PDSCH High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel HS-SCCH High Speed Shared Control Channel Iub RNC to Node B Interface MAC Medium Access Control MAC-d MAC Dedicated MAC-HS Medium Access Control High SpeedMAC-HS/OFDM Medium Access Control High Speed for OFDM MIMO Multiple In Multiple Out MxMAC Multistandard MAC NBAP Node B Application Part NBAP-d NBAP Dedicated Node B UMTS BTS OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex OL-CL Open Loop Closed Loop O&M Operation and Maintenance OMC-R Operation and Maintenance Center – Radio PDCP IP Header Compression QoS Quality of Service RAN Radio Access Network RANAP RAN Application Part RLC Radio Link Control RNC Radio Network Controller RRC Radio Resource Control RRM Radio Resource Management SBI SUMU Baseband Interface SDMA Space Division Multiple Access SF Spreading Factor SHO Soft Handover STTD Space Time Transmit Diversity SUMU Station Unit Module UMTS SW Software TEU Transmitter Equipment UMTS TFRC Transport Format Code TFRI Transport Format Identifier TRM Transmission Resource Management TSN Transport Sequence Number TTI Transmission Time Interval10 | Alcatel Telecommunications Review - 4 th Quarter 2003/1 st Quarter 2004
  11. 11. Alcatel and the Alcatel logo are registered trademarks of Alcatel. All other trademarksare the property of their respective owners. Alcatel assumes no responsibility for theaccuracy of the information presented, which is subject to change without notice.© 01 2003 Alcatel. All rights reserved. 3GQ 00006 0017 TQZZA Ed.01