BY: PHELOKAZI NGQONDO
212350757
INTODUCTION
 AETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS
 DIAGNOSIS
 SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
 CASE STUDY
 TREATMENT
 DISCUSSION

 THE

PROSTATE GLAND
It is the small walnut-sized gland
that exists only in men .
 It is situated just below the
bladde...
Fig 1:shows
the location of
the prostate
 The

development of cancer is viewed in a
two-step process.
Initiation through genetic alterations in the
cell.
 Cancer...
Life

style factor
High intake saturated fat intake
Low intake of carotinoids
Vasectomy
Other sexual factors
Excessi...
 This

done by -:
Digital rectal examination
Prostate-specific antigen test
Imaging studies
Histology
Haematology an...
DIGITAL

RECTAL EXAMINATION
 This cannot be used alone in the early
stages of cancer because it can miss
30-40% of the c...
 PROSTATE-SPECIFIC

ANTIGEN TEST
It measures the enzyme being
produced by glandular cells of the
prostate.
It is expres...
PSA (ng/mL)

RISK OF PROSTATIC CANCER

RISK OF AGGRESSIVE
PROSTATIC CANCER

<0.5

7%

1%

0.6-1.0

10%

1%

1.1-2.0

17%

...
 IMAGING

STUDIES
Some men need to undergo a bone scan
to determine the spreading of the
cancer to bone.

fig 4: Radionu...
 There

are no signs in the early stages.
 Men with advanced disease may
experience
Difficulty in urination.
Erectile ...


Patient profile

A

66-year-old black man with a
family history of prostatic cancer.
 He woke up one morning with a
d...
 His

physical exam was normal and the
digital rectal examination revealed a
slightly enlarged prostate.
 The doctor sus...
RESULTS
 Histology


Fig 5:shows the patient’s prostate
gland with some infiltration.

Fig 6:shows a normal
prostate gla...


Haematology and Chemistry
Patient’s results

Normal values

HAEMATOLOGY
Haemoglobin

15 g/ml

N

13.5-17.5 g/mL

Haemat...
 Surgery
 Radical

prostatectomy
 Radiation therapy
 Hormonal therapy (depending on cancer
risk category and age ,to s...
 The

studies show that: Early diagnosis is the most important
determinant of outcome in
malignant spinal cord compressi...
 Cord

compression is due to axial
skeletal metastases of prostate
cancer.
 Patients should be instructed to
bring bladd...
 Prostatic

cancer, like any other
cancer has no specific cause.
 People should always go get
screened for cancer,more e...


Johns Hopkins Medicine 2013



Essential Haematology A.V Hoffbrand sixth edition



Clinical Chemistry Michael L. Bis...
Prostatic cancer final presentation
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Prostatic cancer final presentation

  1. 1. BY: PHELOKAZI NGQONDO 212350757
  2. 2. INTODUCTION  AETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS  DIAGNOSIS  SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS  CASE STUDY  TREATMENT  DISCUSSION 
  3. 3.  THE PROSTATE GLAND It is the small walnut-sized gland that exists only in men .  It is situated just below the bladder in the lower pelvis . Due to undefined reasons,cells in this gland start to grow in an outof-control and unregulated manner. And this is called Prostate cancer.
  4. 4. Fig 1:shows the location of the prostate
  5. 5.  The development of cancer is viewed in a two-step process. Initiation through genetic alterations in the cell.  Cancer promotion (process allowing cancer cells to grow and progress).   Epidermiological studies suggest a variety of aetiological factors, which are-:  Age  Race  Family history of prostatic cancer.
  6. 6. Life style factor High intake saturated fat intake Low intake of carotinoids Vasectomy Other sexual factors Excessive weight Energy balance
  7. 7.  This done by -: Digital rectal examination Prostate-specific antigen test Imaging studies Histology Haematology and Chemistry
  8. 8. DIGITAL RECTAL EXAMINATION  This cannot be used alone in the early stages of cancer because it can miss 30-40% of the cancer. Fig 2: shows risk percentage of prostatic cancer versus PSA levels in the blood.
  9. 9.  PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN TEST It measures the enzyme being produced by glandular cells of the prostate. It is expressed as ng/mL. PSA is normally found in small amounts in the blood.  PSA levels rise when there is an abnormality in the prostate.
  10. 10. PSA (ng/mL) RISK OF PROSTATIC CANCER RISK OF AGGRESSIVE PROSTATIC CANCER <0.5 7% 1% 0.6-1.0 10% 1% 1.1-2.0 17% 2% 2.1-3.0 24% 5% 3.1-4.0 27% 7% Fig 3:shows normal values of PSA found in each of the cases
  11. 11.  IMAGING STUDIES Some men need to undergo a bone scan to determine the spreading of the cancer to bone. fig 4: Radionuclide bone scan showing metastatic bone disease secondary to prostatic adenocarcinoma. Osseous sites of increased uptake can be identified in the spine (T1 to T12) and ribs.
  12. 12.  There are no signs in the early stages.  Men with advanced disease may experience Difficulty in urination. Erectile dysfunction/ decrease firmness of erection.  In some men the symptoms originate in areas of the body where the cancer has spread
  13. 13.  Patient profile A 66-year-old black man with a family history of prostatic cancer.  He woke up one morning with a difficulty in urination accompanied by severe sweating.
  14. 14.  His physical exam was normal and the digital rectal examination revealed a slightly enlarged prostate.  The doctor suspected prostatic cancer and requested a PSA test which showed a PSA level of 8 ng/mL.  A needle biopsy was sent to histology.  A blood sample was sent to haematology and urine sent to chemistry.
  15. 15. RESULTS  Histology  Fig 5:shows the patient’s prostate gland with some infiltration. Fig 6:shows a normal prostate gland.
  16. 16.  Haematology and Chemistry Patient’s results Normal values HAEMATOLOGY Haemoglobin 15 g/ml N 13.5-17.5 g/mL Haematocrit 43% N 40-52% WBC 7.5 ×109 /L N 4.0-11.0 ×109 /L Platelet count 507×109 /L N 150-400×109 /L CHEMISTRY Blood urea nitrogen 15 mg/dL N 6-20mg/dL Creatinine 1.0 mg/dL N 0.9-1.3 mg/dL Phosphate Normal N O-3.5 ng/mL PSA 8 ng/mL H 4 ng/mL
  17. 17.  Surgery  Radical prostatectomy  Radiation therapy  Hormonal therapy (depending on cancer risk category and age ,to slow progression)  Cryotherapy (for men at low risk for disease progression)  Immunotherapy  chemotherapy
  18. 18.  The studies show that: Early diagnosis is the most important determinant of outcome in malignant spinal cord compression .  MRI evaluation is the most sensitive diagnostic procedure when accompanied by heightened awareness of the potential threat.
  19. 19.  Cord compression is due to axial skeletal metastases of prostate cancer.  Patients should be instructed to bring bladder, bowel, and muscle strength changes to the physician’s attention as early as possible.
  20. 20.  Prostatic cancer, like any other cancer has no specific cause.  People should always go get screened for cancer,more especially those with a family history of cancer.  Cancer treatment is very expensive, especially when cancer has progressed to other body part.
  21. 21.  Johns Hopkins Medicine 2013  Essential Haematology A.V Hoffbrand sixth edition  Clinical Chemistry Michael L. Bishop sixth edition  www.google.com  Eisenberger MA, deWit R, Tannock I, et al. A comparison of docetaxel weekly or every 3 weeks vs. mitoxantrone and prednisone for patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer. Proceedings American Society of Clinical Oncology, abstract 4; 2004; New Orleans, LA.  Plenaxis® (abarelix) [full prescribing information] Waltham, MA: Praecis Pharmaceuticals Inc.; 2004.  Nelson WG, Carter HB, DeWeese T, Eisenberger MA. In: Clinical Oncology. Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Lichter AS, Niederhuber JE, editors. New York, NY: Churchill Livingston; 2004.  Eisenberger MA, Carducci MA. Chemotherapy for prostate cancer. In: Walsh P, Retik A, Darracott Vaughan E, Wein A, editors. Campbell’s Urology. New York, NY: Elsevier; 2001.

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