AETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
It is the small walnut-sized gland
that exists only in men .
It is situated just below the
bladder in the lower pelvis .
Due to undefined reasons,cells in
this gland start to grow in an outof-control and unregulated manner.
And this is called Prostate cancer.
development of cancer is viewed in a
Initiation through genetic alterations in the
Cancer promotion (process allowing cancer
cells to grow and progress).
studies suggest a variety
of aetiological factors, which are-:
history of prostatic cancer.
done by -:
Digital rectal examination
Prostate-specific antigen test
Haematology and Chemistry
This cannot be used alone in the early
stages of cancer because it can miss
30-40% of the cancer.
Fig 2: shows risk
versus PSA levels in
It measures the enzyme being
produced by glandular cells of the
It is expressed as ng/mL.
PSA is normally found in small
amounts in the blood.
PSA levels rise when there is an
abnormality in the prostate.
RISK OF PROSTATIC CANCER
RISK OF AGGRESSIVE
Fig 3:shows normal values of PSA found in each of the cases
Some men need to undergo a bone scan
to determine the spreading of the
cancer to bone.
fig 4: Radionuclide
bone scan showing
disease secondary to
Osseous sites of
increased uptake can
be identified in the
spine (T1 to T12) and
are no signs in the early stages.
Men with advanced disease may
Difficulty in urination.
Erectile dysfunction/ decrease firmness
In some men the symptoms originate in
areas of the body where the cancer has
66-year-old black man with a
family history of prostatic cancer.
He woke up one morning with a
difficulty in urination accompanied
by severe sweating.
physical exam was normal and the
digital rectal examination revealed a
slightly enlarged prostate.
The doctor suspected prostatic cancer
and requested a PSA test which showed a
PSA level of 8 ng/mL.
A needle biopsy was sent to histology.
A blood sample was sent to haematology
and urine sent to chemistry.
Fig 5:shows the patient’s prostate
gland with some infiltration.
Fig 6:shows a normal
Haematology and Chemistry
7.5 ×109 /L
4.0-11.0 ×109 /L
Hormonal therapy (depending on cancer
risk category and age ,to slow
Cryotherapy (for men at low risk for
studies show that: Early diagnosis is the most important
determinant of outcome in
malignant spinal cord compression .
MRI evaluation is the most sensitive
diagnostic procedure when
accompanied by heightened
awareness of the potential threat.
compression is due to axial
skeletal metastases of prostate
Patients should be instructed to
bring bladder, bowel, and muscle
strength changes to the physician’s
attention as early as possible.
cancer, like any other
cancer has no specific cause.
People should always go get
screened for cancer,more especially
those with a family history of
Cancer treatment is very expensive,
especially when cancer has
progressed to other body part.
Johns Hopkins Medicine 2013
Essential Haematology A.V Hoffbrand sixth edition
Clinical Chemistry Michael L. Bishop sixth edition
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