Interaction in SLA

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Here are the Slides of my Oral Lecture Presented in International Conference in Nevada, 2011. The Full Paper Has been Recently Published with all the Statistical Graphs and Figures.

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Interaction in SLA

  1. 1. The Role of Interaction in theDevelopmental Process of Language Acquisition Leily Ziglari Research Scholar Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, USA
  2. 2. Interaction(Vygotsky, 1978)Interpersonal IntrapersonalSocial behavior Inner speechFace-to-face Mind modules activityOral medium /written medium
  3. 3. Language AcquisitionLanguage module account Interaction-based account• learners learn the language • Ellis (1994) defines by the innate knowledge interaction as when the about language (Chomsky participants of equal status Argument) that share similar need, make an effort to understand each other. If role relationship is asymmetrical, meaning negotiation is inhibited.
  4. 4. Is interaction related to second language acquisition? How? Which type of interaction promotes second language acquisition?
  5. 5.  Pre-modification (positive evidence) Modified input (simplification) Modified interaction  Comprehension check  Confirmation check  Clarification  Self-repetition , or choice questions
  6. 6. Evidence (Long, 2003)Positive evidence Negative evidence• Correct form of • Information the utterance or directly or model in which indirectly given to the child is the child when he exposed to makes an error Language acquisition is fostered by conversation Earlier: LA is through modified input
  7. 7. Brian MacWhinney (1975, 1982, 1987, 2005)• Competition model • Tomasello (2003)• Emergentism • Pine & Lieven• Children acquire language in an item-based pattern (…..)• CHILDS System• Input in LA
  8. 8. Interaction Hypothesis(Long,1984, cited in Doughty & Long 2003)“negotiation for meaning and negotiation work that triggers interactional adjustments by the NS or competent interlocutor, facilitates acquisitionbecause it connects input, learner internal capacities and output in production ways.”
  9. 9. Sociocultural Theory, Interaction, and Second Language Acquisition
  10. 10. Next version (IH)noticing, learner internal mechanisms, modified output, positive evidence, negative evidence, opportunities for output input→ learner internal mechanisms →output Second version (IH) Modified input Early version (IH) comprehensible input: context, simplified input, interaction
  11. 11. a. Problems to distinguish separate parts of meaningb. Restriction of SLA theory based on negotiation of meaning c. Problems of individual differences
  12. 12. Vygotsky Perspective Context-dependent & Social interaction= primary role Language= context-dependent propertiesMeaning= socially constructed & emerged out of interaction Mediation= social interaction Functions= performed collaboratively
  13. 13. Social plane, Interpsychological category between peopleFunctions Psychological plane Intrapsychological category Within the child
  14. 14. zone of proximal development IntraInterpersonal pers Self-process onal procregulation ess
  15. 15. Interactionist perspectiveInteraction Hypothesis Socio- cultural theory•Social interaction • social interaction +• negotiation of private speechmeaning •Interaction in general•Interaction structurefacilitates •Interaction= meaningacquisition construction•Interaction= not •Interaction= primarynecessary
  16. 16. Interaction in L2 Classes Conversational Structure
  17. 17. A: what is your father’s job?B: my father is now retire. triggerA: retired? indicatorB: yes. responseA: oh, Yes. reaction
  18. 18. Interaction in Socio-cultural approach Interactive input non-interactive input Interactional modification simplified input Linguistic modification → interactional modifications modified input discourse management discourse repair collaboratively meaning construction
  19. 19. How Make Interaction Happen in the classroom? Controlling the discourse is in the hand of the students Providing tasks in the classroom Having topic-oriented classrooms Providing activities like: Conversation/interview talking circle Providing IRF sequence in the classroom Creating a context of language use Providing opportunities for learners to express their personal meanings Helping learners to participate in activities beyond their level of proficiency Offering a full range of contexts that cater for a full performance in the language
  20. 20. Limitation of socio-cultural approach Language use rather than language acquisition No criteria to distinguish private speech & social speech Cross-sectional rather than longitudinal study

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