<ul><li>HOW DOES THE LEARNER DEAL </li></ul><ul><li>WITH THE LEARNING PROCESS? </li></ul><ul><li>Done by:   Supervised by:...
<ul><li>Introduction  : </li></ul><ul><li>    There has been a growing interest among psychologists in the cognitive strat...
<ul><li>Learning Strategies  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When confronted with a learning task, learners have various resources  ...
<ul><li>-Repeating things over and over again    -Listening attentively to try to distinguish words    -Testing yourself t...
<ul><li>Why we should be interested in learning </li></ul><ul><li>strategies?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This question leads u...
<ul><li>           </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective learning is not merely a matter of an   individual having a high IQ ,wh...
Language learning strategies: <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Language learning strategies are </li></ul><ul><li>ste...
<ul><li>According to Rubin, there are three types of  </li></ul><ul><li>strategies used by learners that contribute direct...
<ul><li>-Rubin identified 6 main cognitive learning  </li></ul><ul><li>strategies </li></ul><ul><li>contributing directly ...
<ul><li>B – Metacognitive learning strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>-metacognition: </li></ul><ul><li>the term Metacognitive ...
<ul><li>1-  metacognitive learning strategies : </li></ul><ul><li>-These strategies are used to oversee, regulate or self-...
<ul><li>3-Social Strategies : </li></ul><ul><li>Social strategies are those activities learners engage in which afford the...
<ul><li>DIRECT STRATEGIES </li></ul><ul><li>I. Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Creating mental linkages  </li></ul></ul><u...
<ul><li>II.Cognition </li></ul><ul><li>A. Practicing  </li></ul><ul><li>B. Receiving and sending messages strategies  </li...
<ul><li>INDIRECT STRATEGIES. </li></ul><ul><li>I. Metacognitive Strategies     </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Centering your lea...
<ul><li>III. Social Strategies     </li></ul><ul><li>A. Asking questions  </li></ul><ul><li>-  for clarification or verifi...
Learner Training in Foreign Language Teaching (FLT) <ul><li>1-what is learner training? </li></ul><ul><li>«  Enabling lear...
2-What does strategy training include? <ul><li>Strategy training includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching ways of learning voc...
procedures for strategy training in foreign  and 2 nd   language teaching: 1-preparation 2-presetation 3 -practice 4-evalu...
Strategy training for: <ul><li>learners: </li></ul><ul><li>find out your   students ’  language learning strategies </li><...
<ul><li>Task: </li></ul><ul><li>approaches to discover students ’  strategies through tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>TASK-  Must...
<ul><li>For further information: </li></ul><ul><li>www.ericdigests.org/pre-9214/styles.htm </li></ul><ul><li>www.tesolfran...
<ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul><ul><li>Questions, please ! </li></ul>
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Presen.educ.psy (2)

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Presen.educ.psy (2)

  1. 1. <ul><li>HOW DOES THE LEARNER DEAL </li></ul><ul><li>WITH THE LEARNING PROCESS? </li></ul><ul><li>Done by: Supervised by: </li></ul><ul><li>Zainab IDJAIR Mr.AITBOUZID Hassan </li></ul><ul><li>Rkia BOUZOUR </li></ul><ul><li>Jamila BIYOUKAR </li></ul>EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction  : </li></ul><ul><li>   There has been a growing interest among psychologists in the cognitive strategies people use to think, to learn and to solve problems .This has led to the production of a number of so-called ‘thinking skills’ programs </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Learning Strategies  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When confronted with a learning task, learners have various resources  at their disposal and make use of them in different ways. Most of us have used some or all of these ‘techniques’ in learning a foreign language: </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>-Repeating things over and over again  -Listening attentively to try to distinguish words  -Testing yourself to see if you remember words  -Guessing the meaning of unknown words   -Using your knowledge of language rules to try to </li></ul><ul><li>make new sentences  -Rehearsing in your head what you are about to say  -Pretending that you understand in order to keep the </li></ul><ul><li>communication going     </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Why we should be interested in learning </li></ul><ul><li>strategies?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This question leads us to two other questions which are: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What makes learners effective at learning something? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are some people more effective at learning than others? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>          </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective learning is not merely a matter of an individual having a high IQ ,what appears to be important is the learner’s ability to respond to the particular learning situation and to manage learning in an appropriate way. Studies of successful and unsuccessful learners show that people who succeed in learning have developed their own strategies  and adapted them for the specific situation and to monitor their level of success. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Language learning strategies: <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Language learning strategies are </li></ul><ul><li>steps the learner takes to: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate the  Storage  Retrieval ---  Use of the language. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>According to Rubin, there are three types of </li></ul><ul><li>strategies used by learners that contribute directly or indirectly to language learning : </li></ul><ul><li>1-Learning Strategies : </li></ul><ul><li>a: Cognitive Learning Strategies : </li></ul><ul><li>They are one type of learning strategy that learners </li></ul><ul><li>use in order to learn more successfully. These </li></ul><ul><li>include repetition, organising new language, </li></ul><ul><li>summarising meaning, guessing meaning from context, </li></ul><ul><li>using imagery for memorisation. All of these strategies </li></ul><ul><li>involve deliberate manipulation of language to improve </li></ul><ul><li>learning . </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>-Rubin identified 6 main cognitive learning </li></ul><ul><li>strategies </li></ul><ul><li>contributing directly to language learning: </li></ul><ul><li>-Clarification / Verification </li></ul><ul><li>-Guessing / Inductive Inferencing </li></ul><ul><li>-Deductive Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>-Practice </li></ul><ul><li>-Memorization </li></ul><ul><li>-Monitoring </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>B – Metacognitive learning strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>-metacognition: </li></ul><ul><li>the term Metacognitive as used </li></ul><ul><li>by Flavell (1979) refers to an </li></ul><ul><li>individual’s awareness of his </li></ul><ul><li>or her cognitive processes and </li></ul><ul><li>strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>,‘ thinking about thinking’. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>1- metacognitive learning strategies : </li></ul><ul><li>-These strategies are used to oversee, regulate or self-direct language learning. They involve various processes as planning, setting goals, and self-management. </li></ul><ul><li>2-Communication Strategies : </li></ul><ul><li>- they are strategies used by speakers when they come across a difficulty in their communication because of a lack of adequate knowledge of the language . </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>3-Social Strategies : </li></ul><ul><li>Social strategies are those activities learners engage in which afford them opportunities to be exposed to and practice their knowledge. Although these strategies provide exposure to the target language, they contribute indirectly to learning since they do not lead directly to the obtaining, storing, retrieving, and using of language . </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>DIRECT STRATEGIES </li></ul><ul><li>I. Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Creating mental linkages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Applying images and sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Reviewing well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Employing action </li></ul></ul>: Classification of language learning strategies
  14. 14. <ul><li>II.Cognition </li></ul><ul><li>A. Practicing </li></ul><ul><li>B. Receiving and sending messages strategies </li></ul><ul><li>C. Analyzing and reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>D. Creating structure for input and output </li></ul><ul><li>III. Compensation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>A. Guessing intelligently </li></ul><ul><li>B. Overcoming limitations in speaking and writing </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>INDIRECT STRATEGIES. </li></ul><ul><li>I. Metacognitive Strategies     </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Centering your learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Arranging and planning your learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Evaluating your learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>II. Affective Strategies     </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Lowering your anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Encouraging yourself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Taking your emotional temperature </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>III. Social Strategies     </li></ul><ul><li>A. Asking questions </li></ul><ul><li>- for clarification or verification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-for correction and support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. Cooperating with others </li></ul><ul><li>-invite students to develop their understanding of the others. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Empathizing with others </li></ul><ul><li>- to develop cultural awareness and understanding - become aware of own and others ’ feelings </li></ul>
  17. 17. Learner Training in Foreign Language Teaching (FLT) <ul><li>1-what is learner training? </li></ul><ul><li>« Enabling learners of English to discover the learning strategies that suit them best, so that they can learn more effectively » </li></ul><ul><li>by Gail Ellis and Barbara Sinclair. Cambridge University Press 1989 </li></ul>
  18. 18. 2-What does strategy training include? <ul><li>Strategy training includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching ways of learning vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching techniques of listening </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching strategies for reading </li></ul><ul><li>less attention is given to productive skills (speaking and listening) </li></ul>
  19. 19. procedures for strategy training in foreign and 2 nd language teaching: 1-preparation 2-presetation 3 -practice 4-evaluation 5-expansion
  20. 20. Strategy training for: <ul><li>learners: </li></ul><ul><li>find out your students ’ language learning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Ask ss to write a short essay or simply ask: </li></ul><ul><li>How do you study vocabulary? </li></ul><ul><li>grammar? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you do when you need to talk to a partner in class? </li></ul><ul><li>How often read? What enjoy reading? </li></ul><ul><li>What are tips for fellow students </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers: </li></ul><ul><li>The successful teacher is the one who is aware of the strategy implications of every language task that they give. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Task: </li></ul><ul><li>approaches to discover students ’ strategies through tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>TASK- Must Memorize Given List </li></ul><ul><li>While memorizing ask ss. to write down what they notice they are doing to memorize. </li></ul><ul><li>(1) in a NARRATIVE form; and </li></ul><ul><li>(2) in STEP-BY-STEP fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>OR: Diagram the process graphically (picture, arrows). </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>For further information: </li></ul><ul><li>www.ericdigests.org/pre-9214/styles.htm </li></ul><ul><li>www.tesolfrance.org/articles/Flindpdf </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul><ul><li>Questions, please ! </li></ul>

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