Ideal / Aesthetic body types

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A study done by UCLA to determine ideal aesthetic body look for both men and women.

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Ideal / Aesthetic body types

  1. 1. The UCLA Body Matrices II David Frederick Anne Peplau UCLA Department of Psychology Acknowledgements: Thanks to Jim Compton of SNSL Imagination for assistance creating the UCLA Body Matrices (SNSLimagination@aol.com) Contact: David Frederick at [email_address] . Available at the following website: dred.bol.ucla.edu
  2. 2. Problems in Measuring Body Satisfaction <ul><li>Women’s Bodies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms used to assess women’s body types confound body fat and breast size, or only manipulate one of these features. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Men’s Bodies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarly, forms for men appear to confound muscularity with body fat, or only manipulate one of these features. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hand-Drawn Images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All existing forms utilize crude hand-drawn silhouettes of men and women. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Examples of Popular Female Reference Forms
  4. 4. Examples of Popular Male Reference Forms
  5. 5. The UCLA Body Matrices <ul><li>We introduce the UCLA Body Matrices as an improvement over existing forms. These new matrices provide more levels of body fat for women and muscularity for men </li></ul><ul><li>The UCLA Matrix of Men systematically varies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 levels of body fat, from slender (10)* to heavy (40) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 levels of muscularity, from non-muscular (10) to very muscular (70) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The UCLA Matrix of Women systematically varies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 levels of breast size, from small (10) to large (40) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 levels of body fat, from slender (10) to heavy (80) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*The numbers correspond to equally spaced intervals according to the software used, not objective measurements (e.g., not 10% body fat). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Pick a Number vs. Scaled Versions <ul><li>Pick A Number Version: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each one of the images is numbered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants are simply asked to indicate which image best represents their current body, the ideal body, the typical body, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The advantage is this version is very simple for participants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scaled Version </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants indicate which image best represents their current body, etc., using a latitude-longitude system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is more complex for participants but allows them to indicate intermediate values (e.g., they can indicate that their breast size is between levels 30 and 40). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*Matrices can be viewed at: http://dfred.bol.ucla.edu/UCLAbody.html </li></ul>
  7. 7. Present Research <ul><li>1. Do rating of one’s current body, ideal body, and the discrepancy between these ratings predict measures of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Mass (BMI)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breast Cup Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall body satisfaction (Appearance Evaluation Scale; (Cash, 2000)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive for muscularity (McCreary & Sasse, 2000)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breast size satisfaction (Forbes & Frederick, under review) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Do people perceive a difference between their current and their ideal body? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Do people perceive a difference between the typical and most attractive body type of the other sex? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Do the measures show high test-retest reliability? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Study 1: Pick A Number Version <ul><li>Participants were 102 men and 255 women in a psychology class who participated in exchange for extra credit. </li></ul><ul><li>Mean Age = 18.94 </li></ul><ul><li>26% White, 41% Asian, 14% Hispanic, 19% Other. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Validating the UCLA Body Matrices: Association to BMI and Breast Size <ul><li>Linear Regressions predicting BMI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men (Muscularity and Body fat to BMI): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Model R = .74 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women (Breast Size and Body fat to BMI): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Model R = .71 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Linear Regressions predicting cup size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Breast size and Body Fat self-reported cup size): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Model R = .76 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Association of Matrix Choices to Body Image * The discrepancies are absolute values. For example, Fat Discrepancy = [ABS (current – ideal body fat level.)] -.37*** -.12 .44*** .43*** .17 -.27** Men Current Body Fat Ideal Body Fat Fat Discrepancy Current Muscularity Ideal Muscularity Muscle Discrepancy -.36*** -.05 -.38*** .02 -.03 -.18** Women Current Body Fat Ideal Body Fat Fat Discrepancy Current Breast Size Ideal Breast Size Breast Discrepancy Appearance Evaluation (Higher = Better)
  11. 11. Men and Women’s Ratings of Female Body Fat Women’s Ratings of Body Fat: Women perceived that their current body did not differ from the typical body, but they were heavier than their ideal. Men’s Ratings of Body Fat: Men perceived that the most attractive body was thinner than the ideal body.
  12. 12. Men and Women’s Ratings of Female Breast Size Women’s Ratings of Breast Size: Women did not perceive a difference between their current breast size and the ideal breast size, but did desire larger ideal breasts. Men’s Ratings of Breast Size: Men indicated that the typical breast size was smaller than the ideal breast size.
  13. 13. Men and Women’s Ratings of Male Body Fat Men’s Ratings of Body Fat: Men perceived that they were slightly thinner than average, and slightly heavier than their ideal. Women’s Ratings of Body Fat: Women did not perceive a difference between the typical and ideal level of body fat.
  14. 14. Men and Women’s Ratings of Male Muscularity Men’s Ratings of Muscularity: Men perceived that they were slightly more muscular than average, but were much less muscular than their ideal. Women’s Ratings of Muscularity: Women indicated that the most attractive male body was much more muscular than the typical male body.
  15. 15. Study 2: Scaled Version <ul><li>Participants were 112 men and 122 women at local campus hangouts who participated in exchange for being entered in a lottery. </li></ul><ul><li>Mean Age = 22.88 </li></ul><ul><li>40% White, 25% Asian, 12% Hispanic, 23% Other. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Validating the UCLA Body Matrices: Association to BMI and Breast Size <ul><li>Linear Regressions predicting BMI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men (Muscularity and Body fat to BMI): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Model R = .73 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women (Breast Size and Body fat to BMI): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Model R = .67 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Linear Regressions predicting cup size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Breast size and Body Fat self-reported cup size): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Model R = .76 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Association of Matrix Choices to Body Image * The discrepancies are absolute values. For example, Fat Discrepancy = [ABS (current – ideal body fat level.)] -.20* -.29** -.04 .26** .42*** .21* -.02 -.04 .00 .11 .17** .12 Men Current Body Fat Ideal Body Fat Fat Discrepancy Current Muscularity Ideal Muscularity Muscle Discrepancy -.11 -.24** .09 -.42*** -.08 .51*** -.30*** -.07 -.45*** -.13 -.12 -.19* Women Current Body Fat Ideal Body Fat Fat Discrepancy Current Breast Size Ideal Breast Size Breast Discrepancy Breast / Muscle Dissatisfaction (Higher = Worse) Appearance Evaluation (Higher = Better)
  18. 18. Men and Women’s Ratings of Female Body Fat Women’s Ratings of Body Fat: Women did not perceive a difference between their body and the typical body, but were heavier than their ideal body. Men’s Ratings of Body Fat: Men indicated that the most attractive body was thinner than the typical body.
  19. 19. Men and Women’s Ratings of Female Breast Size Women’s Ratings of Breast Size: Women did not perceive a difference between their current body and the typical body, but desired larger breasts. Men’s Ratings of Breast Size: Men indicated that the most attractive breast size was larger than the typical breast size.
  20. 20. Men and Women’s Ratings of Male Body Fat Men’s Ratings of Body Fat: Men believed they were slightly thinner than average, but slightly heavier than their ideal. Women’s Ratings of Body Fat: Women did not perceive a difference between the typical and most attractive body fat level.
  21. 21. Men and Women’s Ratings of Male Muscularity Men’s Ratings of Muscularity: Men perceived that they were slightly more muscular than average, but much less muscular than their ideal body. Women’s Ratings of Muscularity: Women indicated that the most attractive body was more muscular than the typicial male body.
  22. 22. Summary of Findings <ul><li>The results suggest that the matrices are useful measures of body image and body type preferences. Responses were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strongly related to BMI and self-reported breast cup-size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with global body satisfaction, and breast size/muscularity satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congruent with past research on body type preferences </li></ul></ul>

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