Portland Cements, Calcium and Magnesium Compounds


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Portland Cements, Calcium and Magnesium Compounds

  1. 1. Portland Cements, Calcium and Magnesium Compounds
  2. 2. shelter, rest,
  3. 3. Overview  Portland Cements  Cement Manufacture  Other Cements  Calcium Compounds  Magnesium Compounds  Philippine Manufacturers  Environmental Impacts  Supply and Demand
  4. 4. PORTLAND CEMENTS History  Joseph Aspdin, a British stone mason  October 21, 1824  Discovered an artificial cement  Heating a mixture of finely ground limestone and clay in his kitchen stove  Calcination
  5. 5. PORTLAND CEMENTS History  Aspdin named the product Portland Cement  It resembled a famous stone quarried on the Isle of Portland off the British Coast  He laid the foundation for today's portland cement industry
  6. 6. PORTLAND CEMENTS What is the difference between cement and concrete? Cement  Actually an ingredient of concrete.  Closely controlled chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum and iron  Lime and silica make up about 85% of the finished product mass.
  7. 7. PORTLAND CEMENTS Concrete  Basically a mixture of aggregates and paste  Aggregates are sand and gravel or crushed stone; the paste is water and portland cement  Gets stronger as it gets older
  8. 8. PORTLAND CEMENTS Hydration  Cement comprises from 10 to 15 percent of the concrete mix, by volume.  Through this process, the cement and water harden and bind the aggregates into a rocklike mass.  This hardening process continues for years.
  9. 9. PORTLAND CEMENTS Portland Cement The product obtained by pulverizing clinker consisting essentially of hydraulic calcium silicates, usually containing one or more forms of calcium sulfate as an interground addition.
  10. 10. PORTLAND CEMENTS Clinker  produced by sintering limestone and clay during the cement kiln stage  usually 3–20 mm in diameter
  11. 11. PORTLAND CEMENTS Clinker Compounds Formula Name Abbreviation 2CaO· SiO2 Dicalcium silicate C2S 3CaO· SiO2 Tricalcium silicate C 3S 3CaO· Al2O3 Tricalcium aluminate C 3A 4CaO· Al2O3· Fe2O3 Tetracalcium aluminoferrite C4AF MgO Magnesium oxide in free state M
  12. 12. PORTLAND CEMENTS Reactions during Clinker Formation Temperature (° C) Reaction Heat Change 100 Evaporation of free water Endothermic 500 and above Evolution of combined water from clay Endothermic 900 and above Crystallization of amorphous dehydration products of clay Exothermic 900 and above Evolution of carbon dioxide from calcium carbonate Endothermic 900 – 1200 Main reaction between lime and clay Exothermic 1250 – 1280 Commencement of liquid formation Endothermic 1280 and above Further formation and completion of cement compounds Endothermic on balance
  13. 13. PORTLAND CEMENTS Types of Portland Cements  Type I (Regular portland cements) - General purpose cement suitable for all uses. It is used in general construction projects such as buildings, bridges, floors, pavements, and other precast concrete products.
  14. 14. PORTLAND CEMENTS Types of Portland Cements  Type II (Moderate-heat-of-hardening and sulfate-resisting portland cements) - Generates less heat at a slower rate and has a moderate resistance to sulfate attack. - Heat evolved should not exceed 295 and 335 J/g after 7 and 28 days respectively.
  15. 15. PORTLAND CEMENTS Types of Portland Cements  Type III (High-early strength [HES] cements) - Made from raw materials with a lime-to-silica ratio higher than that of Type I cement and are ground finer than Type I cements. - It contains higher proportion of tricalcium silicate.
  16. 16. PORTLAND CEMENTS Types of Portland Cements  Type IA Similar to Type I with the addition of air-entraining properties.  Type IIA It is identical to Type II and produces airentrained concrete.  Type IIIA It is an air-entraining, high-early-strength cement.
  17. 17. PORTLAND CEMENTS Air entrainment - - intentional creation of tiny air bubbles in concrete bubbles are introduced into the concrete by the addition to the mix of an air entraining agent, surfactant (surface-active substance, type of chemical that includes detergents). primary purpose is to increase the durability of the hardened concrete, especially in climates subject to freeze-thaw.
  18. 18. PORTLAND CEMENTS Types of Portland Cements  Type IV (Low-heat portland cements) - It has a lower percentage of C3S, C3A, low heat of hydration and develops strength at a slower rate than other cement types - Ideal for use in dams and other concrete structures where there is little chance for heat to escape.
  19. 19. PORTLAND CEMENTS Types of Portland Cements  Type V (Sulfate-resisting portland cements) - Used only in concrete structures that will be exposed to severe sulfate action, principally where concrete is exposed to soil and groundwater with a high sulfate content.
  20. 20. PORTLAND CEMENTS Manufacturing Procedures Two types of materials needed for production:  Calcareous (Rich in calcium) - Limestone [includes aragonite, marble, chalk] - Cement rock [includes marl]  Argillaceous (Rich in silica) - Clay - Shale
  21. 21. PORTLAND CEMENTS Closed-circuit grinding – in preparing the raw materials, the fines are passed on and the course material returned Open-circuit grinding – the raw materials are ground continuously until its mean fineness has reached the desired value
  22. 22. PORTLAND CEMENTS Grinding Hookups a. single two-compartment mill in open circuit b. two-compartment mill closed-circuited with air separator
  23. 23. PORTLAND CEMENTS Grinding Hookups c. two-stage setup with primary compartment closed-circuited d. efficient two-or three-compartment circuit closed with screen and air separator
  24. 24. PORTLAND CEMENTS Grinding Hookups e. highly efficient three-stage system closed-circuited in each stage f. single-stage mill closed circuited with rake classifier
  25. 25. PORTLAND CEMENTS Grinding Hookups g. modern double-stage circuit employing four different types of separating equipment
  26. 26. PORTLAND CEMENTS Wet process (original one) is being replaced by the dry process (new plants) because of the saving in heat, accurate control and the mixing of the raw mixture it affords. Wet process has slurry formation due to water added to it. The dry process does not require the addition of water.
  27. 27. Isomeric flowchart for manufacture of portland cement by dry and wet processes PORTLAND CEMENTS
  28. 28. PORTLAND CEMENTS Analyses of Portland Cements (in %) CaO SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 MgO Alkali Oxides SO3 0.66 2.90 1.40 0.82 2.26 1.73 Regular Cement (Average of 102) Min Max Ave 61.17 66.92 63.85 18.58 23.26 21.08 3.86 7.44 5.79 1.53 6.18 2.86 0.60 5.24 2.47 High-Early Strength (Average of 8): High C3S Min Max Ave 62.17 67.50 64.60 18.0 22.9 19.9 4.10 7.50 6.00 1.70 4.20 2.60 ---------- ---------- 2.20 2.70 2.30 Low-Heat-of-Hardening (Average of 5): Lower C3S and C3A, Higher C2S and C4AF Min Max Ave 59.30 61.50 60.20 21.90 26.40 23.80 3.30 5.40 4.90 1.90 5.70 4.90 ---------- ---------- 1.60 1.90 1.70
  29. 29. PORTLAND CEMENTS Functions of Compounds C3 A Causes set but need retardation (by gypsum) C3 S Responsible for early strength (at 7 or 8 days) C2S and C3S Responsible for final strength (at 1 year) Fe2O3, Al2O3, Mg and alkalies Lower clinkering temperature
  30. 30. Overview  Portland Cements  Cement Manufacture  Other Cements  Calcium Compounds  Magnesium Compounds  Philippine Manufacturers  Environmental Impacts  Supply and Demand
  31. 31. CEMENT MANUFACTURE Quarry dumper loader Quarry face 1. BLASTING 2.TRANSPORT storage at the plant crushing conveyor 3. CRUSHING & TRANSPORTATION 1. BLASTING : The raw materials that are used to manufacture cement (mainly limestone and clay) are blasted from the quarry. 2. TRANSPORT : The raw materials are loaded into a dumper. 3. CRUSHING AND TRANSPORTATION : The raw materials, after crushing, are transported to the plant by conveyor. The plant stores the materials before they are homogenized.
  32. 32. CEMENT MANUFACTURE Raw grinding and burning storage at the plant Raw mill conveyor Raw mix 1. RAW GRINDING preheating kiln cooling clinker 2. BURNING 1. RAW GRINDING : The raw materials are very finely ground in order to produce the raw mix. 2. BURNING : The raw mix is preheated before it goes into the kiln, which is heated by a flame that can be as hot as 2000 °C. The raw mix burns at 1500 °C producing clinker which, when it leaves the kiln, is rapidly cooled with air fans. So, the raw mix is burnt to produce clinker : the basic material needed to make cement.
  33. 33. CEMENT MANUFACTURE Grinding, storage, packing and dispatch Gypsum and the secondary additives are added to the clinker. clinker storage Finish grinding 1. GRINDING silos dispatch bags 2. STORAGE, PACKING, DISPATCH 1.GRINDING : The clinker and the gypsum are very finely ground giving a “pure cement”. Other secondary additives and cementitious materials can also be added to make a blended cement. 2. STORAGE, PACKING, DISPATCH :The cement is stored in silos before being dispatched either in bulk or in bags to its final destination.
  34. 34. Overview  Portland Cements  Cement Manufacture  Other Cements  Calcium Compounds  Magnesium Compounds  Philippine Manufacturers  Environmental Impacts  Supply and Demand
  35. 35. OTHER CEMENTS For many corrosive conditions, portland cement is unsuitable. Hence many special cements have been developed, of which are industrially important
  36. 36. OTHER CEMENTS Pozzolans - - - A material which is not cementitious in itself but which becomes so upon admixture with lime The early strength of such a cement is lower than portland cement, but within a year the strengths are equal It resists the corrosive action of saline solutions and seawater much better than portland cement
  37. 37. OTHER CEMENTS High Alumina Cements - - Calcium aluminate cement Made by fusing a mixture of limestone and bauxite (containing iron oxide, silica, magnesia and other impurities) Characterized by very rapid rate of development of strength and superior resistance to seawater and sulfate-bearing water
  38. 38. OTHER CEMENTS Silicate Cements - Possess low coefficients of expansion It withstand all concentrations of inorganic acids except hydrofluoric. Not suitable at pH values above 7 or in presence of crystal-forming systems Joining of bricks in chromic acid reaction tanks and in alum tanks
  39. 39. OTHER CEMENTS Sulfur Cements - Resistant to non-oxidizing acids and salts Should not be used in the presence of alkalis, oils, grease or solvents Generally accepted as a standard material for joining bricks, tile and cast iron pipe
  40. 40. OTHER CEMENTS Polymer Concrete - Polymer bonded concretes Consist of aggregate plus resins such as epoxy, methyl methacrylate or polyester Rapid curing, corrosion resistance or high corrosive strength More expensive than regular portland cement concrete
  41. 41. OTHER CEMENTS Magnesium Oxychloride Cement Sorel’s cement 3MgO + MgCl2 + 11H2O  3MgO· MgCl2 ·11H2O - Crystalline oxychloride contributes the cementing action to the commercial cements - Flooring cement with an inert filler and coloring pigment - Strongly corrosive to iron pipes in contact with it -
  42. 42. Overview  Portland Cements  Cement Manufacture  Other Cements  Calcium Compounds  Magnesium Compounds  Philippine Manufacturers  Environmental Impacts  Supply and Demand
  43. 43. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Limestone  Sedimentary rock which is relatively inert, except in the presence of a strong acid.  With the proper purity the rock deposit can be used to produce lime, a manmade chemical.
  44. 44. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Lime a general term for calcium-containing inorganic materials (carbonates, oxide and hydroxide predominate)
  45. 45. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Uses  Medical purposes  Insecticides  Animal food  Gas absorption, precipitation, dehydration  Paper-making, soap, rubber, varnish  Manufacture of high grade steel and cement
  46. 46. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Quicklime (Burnt lime)  Calcium oxide (CaO)  It is a white, caustic, alkaline crystalline solid at room temperature.  Dangerous form of lime
  47. 47. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Slaked lime (Hydrated lime)  Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2  It is a colorless crystal or white powder and is obtained when calcium oxide (quicklime) is mixed, or slaked with water.  Used in many applications, including food preparation.
  48. 48. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Hydraulic lime  Slaked lime, used to make lime mortar (paste used to bind construction blocks together and fill the gaps between them)  Obtained from burning of limestone containing clay and other impurities  Hydraulicity is the ability of lime to set under water or wet conditions
  49. 49. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Lime Cycle
  50. 50. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Manufacture    Lime has always been a cheap commodity because limestone deposits are prevalent anywhere. The lumps sometimes found in overburned or deadburned lime result from changes in the calcium oxide itself, as well as from certain impurities acted upon by excess heat, recognized as masses of relatively inert, semi-vitrified material. On the other hand, it is underburned lime if it often happens that rather pure limestone is calcined insufficiently and lumps of calcium carbonate are left in the lime.
  51. 51. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Manufacture  The reactions involved are: Calcination CaCO3 ↔ CaO + CO2 ΔH1200-1300ºC = 4GJ/t of lime produced Hydration CaO + H2O  Ca(OH)2 ΔH = -66.5 kJ
  52. 52. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Manufacture  The total heat required for calcining per ton of lime produced may be divided into two parts, sensible heat to raise the rock to decomposition temperature and latent heat of dissociation.
  53. 53. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Rotary kilns  Capacity of up to 1600t/day. Almost all lime produced in the country is calcined through this one. The exterior of a rotary kiln is heavy steel and the interior is lined with refractory brick.  Have the highest capacity and produce lime of the most uniform quality but require the greatest capital investment, have a high energy consumption and need very expensive dustcollecting systems.
  54. 54. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Vertical kilns  Have a hundreds of design  Four imaginary zonal sections in common: - storage - preheating - calcining - cooling  Limestone is charged into the top of the kiln and the cooled lime is discharged at the bottom
  55. 55. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Dorrco FluoSolids system for producing lime from pulverized limestone or calcium carbonate sludge. This is a five compartment reactor.
  56. 56. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Gypsum  very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate, CaSO4·2H2O  component of Portland cement used to prevent the flash settling of concrete  added about 4- 5% during the final grinding
  57. 57. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Gypsum CaSO4·2H2O  CaSO2· ½H2O + 1½H2O ΔH25ºC = +69 kJ  If the heating is at a higher temperature, gypsum loses all its water and becomes anhydrous calcium sulfate, anhydrite  Calcined gypsum (the half water salt) can be made into wall plaster by addition of a filler material (eg. asbestos, wood pulp or sand)  Plaster of paris (without addition) can be used for making sculptures and craft projects
  58. 58. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Calcination of Gypsum  Grinding the mineral and placing it in large calciners holding 9 to 22 tons  Temperature is raised to 120 to 150ºC, with constant agitation to maintain uniform temp  The material in the kettle, plaster of paris or first-settle plaster, may be withdrawn and sold at this point, or it can heated further to 190ºC to make a second-settle plaster
  59. 59. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Calcination of Gypsum  First-settle plaster is approximately the half hydrate, CaSO4· ½H2O  Second-settle plaster is anhydrous  Practically all gypsum plaster sold in the form of first-settle plaster mixed with sand or pulp  Second form is used in manufacture of plasterboard and other gypsum products  Gypsum may be calcined in rotary kilns similar to those used for limestone
  60. 60. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Hardening of Plaster  Hydration chemical conversion CaSO4· ½H2O + 1½H2O  CaSO4· 2H2O ΔH = - 2.9 kJ  Plaster sets and hardens because the liquid water reacts to form a solid crystalline hydrate  Hydration with liquid water takes place at temp below about 99ºC and thus gypsum must be heated above 99ºC for practical dehydration
  61. 61. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Miscellaneous Calcium Compounds  Calcium carbonate [CaCO3] Whiting – pure, finely divided CaCO3 prepared by wet grinding and levigating natural chalk Putty – produced when whiting is mixed with 18% boiled linseed oil
  62. 62. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Miscellaneous Calcium Compounds  Calcium sulfide [CaS] - Made by reducing calcium sulfate with coke - Main use is as depilatory in the tanning industry and in cosmetics - Employed in luminous paints (finely dived form)
  63. 63. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Miscellaneous Calcium Compounds  Halide salts [CaCl2, Ca(OCl)2] - Main applications are to lay dust on highways, to melt ice and snow on highways in winter, to thaw cool in oil and gas as well fluids and as an antifreeze in concrete
  64. 64. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Miscellaneous Calcium Compounds  Calcium arsenate [Ca3(AsO4)2] - Produced by the reaction of CaCl2, Ca(OH)2, NaH2AsO4· H2O (lime) , H3AsO4 - Used extensively as an insecticide and as a fungicide
  65. 65. CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Miscellaneous Calcium Compounds  Calcium organic compounds Calcium acetate – employed largely in dying of textiles Calcium lactate – used in medicines and in foods as source of calcium Calcium soaps (stearate, palmitate and abietate) are made by the action of the sodium salts of acids on a calcium salt such as chloride. These are insoluble in water but soluble In hydrocarbons. Mainly used as waterproofing agents
  66. 66. Overview  Portland Cements  Cement Manufacture  Other Cements  Calcium Compounds  Magnesium Compounds  Philippine Manufacturers  Environmental Impacts  Supply and Demand
  67. 67. MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS Magnesium  One of the most widely distributed elements, occupying 1.9% of the earth’s crust.  Occurs usually in the chloride, silicate, hydrated oxide, sulfate or carbonate, in either a complex or in simple salts.
  68. 68. MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS Uses  Extensively in refractories and insulating compounds  Manufacture of rubber, printing inks, pharmaceutical and toilet goods  Air pollution control systems (removal of sulfur dioxide from stack gases)
  69. 69. MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS Manufacture Production of magnesium compounds by separation from aqueous solutions may be divided into four processes: 1. Manufacture from seawater without evaporation, using seawater and lime as the main raw materials 2. Manufacture from bitterns and mother liquors from the solar evaporation of seawater for salt 3. Manufacture from dolomite and seawater 4. Manufacture from deep-well brines
  70. 70. MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS MgCl2 + Ca(OH)2  Mg(OH)2 + CaCl2 ΔH = +9.46 kJ MgSO4 + Ca(OH)2 + 2H2O  Mg(OH)2 + CaSO4· 2H2O ΔH = - 13.3 kJ The production of magnesium compounds from seawater is made possible by the almost complete insolubility of magnesium compounds by such a process depends upon the following: 1. Means to soften the seawater cheaply, generally with lime or calcined dolomite 2. Preparation of a purified lime or calcined dolomite slurry of proper characteristics 3. Economical removal of the precipitated hydroxide from the large volume of water 4. Inexpensive purification of the hydrous precipitates 5. Development of means to filter the slimes
  71. 71. MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS Purified magnesium compounds from seawater
  72. 72. MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS Flowchart for Mg(OH)2 from seawater and dolomite
  73. 73. MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS Calcination 2CaMg(CO3)2  2CaO + 2MgO + 4CO2 ΔH = +610.9 kJ Slaking 2CaO + 2MgO + 4H2O  2Ca(OH)2 + 2Mg(OH)2 ΔH = -168 kJ Precipitation 2Ca(OH)2 + 2Mg(OH)2 + MgCl2 + MgSO4 + 2HO  4Mg(OH)2 = CaCl2 + CaSO4· 2H2O ΔH = - 22. 6 kJ Calcination 4Mg(OH)2  4MgO + 4H2O ΔH = +248.3 kJ Hydrochlorination Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl  MgCl2 + 2H2O ΔH = + 44.7 kJ
  74. 74. MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS Magnesium Carbonates  These vary from dense MgCO3 used in magnesite bricks to the very low density 4MgCO3 · Mg(OH)2· 5H2O and 3MgCO3 · Mg(OH)2· 3H2O once employed for insulation  Most of these of employed as fillers in inks, paints and varnishes
  75. 75. MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS Oxides and Hydroxides of Magnesium  On heating magnesium carbonate or hydroxide, magnesium oxide (MgO) is formed. It is used in vulcanization of rubber, insulating material, refractory material, for making other magnesium compounds and as an abrasive  Magnesium peroxide is available from the reaction of magnesium sulfate and barium peroxide. It is employed as an antiseptic and a bleaching agent.
  76. 76. MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS Magnesium Sulfate Prepared by the action of sulfuric acid on magnesium carbonate or hydroxite. It is sold on many forms, eg. Hydrate MgSO4 · 7H2O, Epsom salts. The less pure material is used extensively as sizing and as a fireproofing agent.
  77. 77. MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS Magnesium Chloride  The compound resembles calcium chloride and has many of the same uses.  Application on ceramics, in the sizing of paper and manufacture of oxychloride cement  Main use is in the making of metallic magnesium
  78. 78. MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS Magnesium Silicates  Asbestos – mixed with varying qualities of silicates of calcium and iron. Used in the making of many fireproof and insulating materials but its fibers have cancer causing characteristics.  Talc – pure magnesium silicate in the form of 3MgO· 4SiO2·H2O, found naturally in scapstone Its is employed as filler in paper, plastics, cosmetics and toilet preparations.
  79. 79. Overview  Portland Cements  Cement Manufacture  Other Cements  Calcium Compounds  Magnesium Compounds  Philippine Manufacturers  Environmental Impacts  Supply and Demand
  80. 80. MANUFACTURERS CEMAP Cement Manufacturers’ Association of the Philippines Formerly known as Cement Institute of the Philippines until 1965. The association enjoyed the support of the Philippine government which recognized its importance in ensuring economic growth. The early industry association’s goals were to pool the resources of the cement industry and to undertake various endeavors that would enhance its orderly growth and share in the development of the nation’s economy.
  81. 81. MANUFACTURERS Cemex Philippines Group of Companies APO Cement Corporation CEMEX is the only eco-labeled cement company in the Philippines. The APO Cement Plant is in Naga City, Cebu Solid Cement Corporation Located at Barangay San Jose, Antipolo City
  82. 82. MANUFACTURERS Holcim Philippines, Inc. Bulacan, La Union, Lugait and Davao Plants Currently the biggest cement company in the Philippines. It was created by the merger in 2000 of the three cement companies carrying the Union Cement brand; Bacnotan Cement Corporation (BCC), Davao Union Cement Corporation (DUCC) and Hi Cement Corporation (HCC).
  83. 83. MANUFACTURERS Lafarge Associated Companies  Lafarge Republic, Inc. (LRI) - Bulacan Plant  Lafarge Republic, Inc. (LRI) - Norzagaray Plant  Lafarge Republic, Inc. (LRI) - Batangas Plant  Lafarge Republic, Inc. (LRI) - Teresa Plant  Lafarge Iligan, Inc.  Lafarge Mindanao, Inc.
  84. 84. MANUFACTURERS Northern Cement Corporation Northern Cement Corporation was incorporated on February 10, 1967 and started commercial operations in 1969. It is located in Pangasinan.
  85. 85. MANUFACTURERS Pacific Cement Philippines, Inc. It was organized and incorporated in 1964 to manufacture ordinary Portland cement. The plant comprises a Wet Process Single Production Line with an original rated capacity of 600 TPD. It is located at Surigao City.
  86. 86. MANUFACTURERS Taiheiyo Cement Philippines, Inc. Formerly Grand Cement Manufacturing Corp. It is located in the town of San Fernando, Cebu. The facility sits on a limestone deposit estimated to last at least 100 years.
  87. 87. Overview  Portland Cements  Cement Manufacture  Other Cements  Calcium Compounds  Magnesium Compounds  Philippine Manufacturers  Environmental Impacts  Supply and Demand
  88. 88. Environmental Impacts
  89. 89. POLLUTION PROBLEMS Environmental Impacts  These include emissions of airborne pollution in the form of dust, gases, noise and vibration when operating machinery and during blasting in quarries, and damage to countryside from quarrying.  Equipment to reduce dust emissions during quarrying and manufacture of cement is widely used, and equipment to trap and separate exhaust gases are coming into increased use.
  90. 90. POLLUTION PROBLEMS Carbon Dioxide Emissions  The cement industry is one of two primary industrial producers of carbon dioxide (CO2), creating up to 5% of worldwide man-made emissions of this gas, of which 50% is from the chemical process and 40% from burning fuel.  The amount of CO2 emitted by the cement industry is nearly 900 kg of CO2 for every 1000 kg of cement produced.
  91. 91. POLLUTION PROBLEMS Heavy Metal Emissions in the Air  The high-temperature calcination process of limestone and clay minerals can release in the atmosphere gases and dust rich in volatile heavy metals; thallium, cadmium and mercury are the most toxic.
  92. 92. POLLUTION PROBLEMS Heavy Metals Present in the Clinker  The presence of heavy metals in the clinker arises both from the natural raw materials and from the use of recycled by-products or alternative fuels.  Nickel, zinc and lead are commonly found in cement in non-negligible concentrations.
  93. 93. Overview  Portland Cements  Cement Manufacture  Other Cements  Calcium Compounds  Magnesium Compounds  Philippine Manufacturers  Environmental Impacts  Supply and Demand
  94. 94. SUPPLY AND DEMAND  World sales for cement are forecast to expand more than five percent annually through 2017 to over 4.7 billion metric tons. Demand will rebound sharply in North America and Western Europe, while growth in China will decelerate yet still achieve impressive gains. Blended cement will account for over three-fourths of all new demand.
  96. 96. SUPPLY & DEMAND The Southeast Asian cement market can be categorized under three distinct clusters, namely: the large producers (Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam), the midsized producers (Malaysia and Philippines), and the rest (Singapore, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Brunei and East Timor).
  97. 97. SUPPLY & DEMAND The Philippines: Cementing growth    The Department of Budget and Management released its economic growth forecasts. GDP is expected to expand by between 6.6% and 7.6% in 2013 and by 7.4% and 8.6% in 2014, with industry – including construction, leading the charge. One of the biggest economic growth in 2012 was the Philippines’ cement sector. According to the CEMAP, demand for cement rose by 18% in 2012, the sharpest increase in 15 years. In 2013, Mr. Ernesto Ordoñez, president of the CEMAP, said higher spending from the government on infrastructure developments and increased investments in building developments would boost turnover.
  98. 98. THE END Thank You For Listening! ~Zanny Barluado, 2014