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Presentation by:  USTAZ ZHULKEFLEE HJ ISMAIL With the collaboration of   MASJID KASSIM ,  #02-01 Wisma Indah, Changi Rd. S...
Presentation by:  USTAZ ZHULKEFLEE HJ ISMAIL With the collaboration of   MASJID KASSIM ,  #02-01 Wisma Indah, Changi Rd. S...
WHY THIS TOPIC? <ul><li>In 1998, while in  PERGAS , I responded to criticism upon the  Madrasah  by writing a paper from m...
WHY THIS TOPIC? <ul><li>In fact with this, the Muslims have somewhat moved away from an  “eclectic to specialist approach”...
WHY THIS TOPIC? <ul><li>I was asked:  “Is it still possible for Muslims to strive to become Islamic scholars in the likes ...
WHY THIS TOPIC? <ul><li>Remaining Islamic institutions of learning became more concern towards essentially preserving only...
WHY THIS TOPIC? <ul><li>Apart from the lack of resources, those scholars and philanthropist within the  Ummah  barely mana...
Author:   Amir Shakib Arslan; Rashid Rida (foreword)   Publisher:   Islamic Book Trust (2004)   Pages:   148   Binding:   ...
WHY THIS TOPIC? <ul><li>But the most significant happened in 1977 with the First World Conference on Muslim Education held...
AIM OF EDUCATION FROM THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
WHAT IS THE AIM OF EDUCATION FROM THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE? <ul><li>Syed M. Naquib Al-Attas  asserts is:  “... to produce a...
WHAT IS THE AIM OF EDUCATION FROM THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE? <ul><li>Syed M. Naquib Al-Attas  asserts is :  “... to produce ...
HOW WERE THE PAST ISLAMIC SCHOLARS EDUCATED ? A RELEVANT QUESTION FOR MANY OF US TO KNOW: All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
A GLIMPSE  : “HOW EARLY ISLAMIC SCHOLARS WERE NURTURED” <ul><li>This is based on my limited reading, understanding, and pe...
PATH OF TRADITIONAL ISLAMIC SCHOLARSHIP? <ul><li>Starts at home: nurtured with  Adab , inculcation of basic obligatory pra...
PATH OF TRADITIONAL ISLAMIC SCHOLARSHIP? <ul><li>His field of study may be expanded to include various worldly sciences, w...
PATH OF TRADITIONAL ISLAMIC SCHOLARSHIP? <ul><li>Thus for example, we learnt that  Abu ‘Ali Ibn Sina (AVICCENA)   already ...
PATH OF TRADITIONAL ISLAMIC SCHOLARSHIP? <ul><li>Although essentially these scholars are scholars of the  Deen , yet their...
LET US  NOW  RETURN TO THE GIVEN TOPIC WHICH MOST OF YOU CAME TO LISTEN TO (WHICH WAS): “ WHEN DEMAND EXCEEDS SUPPLY… ” SE...
UNDERSTAND WHERE MUSLIMS’ EDUCATION HAS EVOLVED FROM & HOW IT BECAME, WHAT IT IS TODAY. “ SO WHAT CAN WE MUSLIMS, DO ABOUT...
“ DUALISTIC EDUCATION”  – LEGACY OF THE COLONIAL ERA <ul><li>Western colonial powers introduced their schooling system, ev...
“ DUALISTIC EDUCATION”  – LEGACY OF THE COLONIAL ERA <ul><li>Thus, Muslim students were made to adapt to this “dualistic e...
CRITIQUE COHORTS  FROM CURRENT  FULL-TIME MADRASAH SYSTEM All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARSHIP Critique of the current Madrasah system <ul><li>The direction of where the current full-time Madr...
CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARSHIP Critique of the current Madrasah system <ul><li>Whereas now,  economic concern and paper chase (e...
CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARSHIP Critique of the current Madrasah system <ul><li>Psychologically, the students from full-time Madr...
CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARSHIP Critique of the current Madrasah system <ul><li>They are our precious hope to become personalitie...
CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARSHIP Critique of the current Madrasah system <ul><li>Actually, the so-called ‘economic or pragmatic ar...
CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARSHIP Critique of the current Madrasah system <ul><li>Some who attempt to integrate the syllabus with t...
CRITIQUE COHORTS  FROM CONVENTIONAL (NON-MADRASAH) SYSTEM All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARSHIP Critique of the conventional (i.e. non- Madrasah) system  <ul><li>Student from this system which ...
CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARSHIP Critique of the conventional (i.e. non- Madrasah) system  <ul><li>Those who pursue in part-time M...
ISLAMIZATION OF CONTEMPORARY KNOWLEDGE
YET, ALL IS NOT LOST <ul><li>Amongst the remedies is the “ ISLAMIZATION ” movement – for both types in these dualistic edu...
THE DESIRED OUTCOME? All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009 TRADITIONAL  ISLAMIC  EDUCATION
CHARACTERISTICS OF  ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’)  God-fearing,   erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-re...
CHARACTERISTICS OF  ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’)  God-fearing,  erudite eclectic,  profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-re...
CHARACTERISTICS OF  ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’)  God-fearing, erudite eclectic,  profound,   thinker-philosopher, advocate-r...
CHARACTERISTICS OF  ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’)  God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound,  thinker-philosopher,   advocate-r...
CHARACTERISTICS OF  ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’)  God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher,  advocate-ref...
CHARACTERISTICS OF  ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’)  God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-refo...
CHARACTERISTICS OF  ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’)  God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-refo...
CHARACTERISTICS OF  ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’)  God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-refo...
CHARACTERISTICS OF  ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’)  God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-refo...
CHARACTERISTICS OF  ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’)  God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-refo...
CHARACTERISTICS OF  ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’)  God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-refo...
CHARACTERISTICS OF  ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’)  God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-refo...
CHARACTERISTICS OF  ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’)  God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-refo...
CHARACTERISTICS OF  ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’)  God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-refo...
TO  THOSE  FROM MADRASAH  AND ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY THE ADVICE All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
ADVICE FOR MUSLIM UNDERGRADUATE / GRADUATES OF  THE  MADRASAH AND ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY This advice is for those who are upon...
THE ADVICE <ul><li>Because currently we Muslims tend to imitate conventional approach, our students specializing in the sc...
‘ ILM TAUHIID - ‘AQIDAH (Creed or Theology)   Purpose / Objective Development of  Certainty (Belief) Awareness of Reality ...
‘ ILM TAUHIID - ‘AQIDAH (Creed or Theology)   Purpose / Objective Development of  Certainty (Belief) Awareness of Reality ...
‘ ILM  FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   Purpose / Objective Development of  Correct Practices; S...
‘ ILM  FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   Purpose / Objective Development of  Correct Practices; S...
‘ ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF / IRFAN (Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)   Purpose / Objective Development of Righteous Pers...
‘ ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF / IRFAN (Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)   Purpose / Objective Development of Righteous Pers...
THE ADVICE <ul><li>Their specialization in only  ‘ Ulum-ud-deen  (but imitating conventional system in producing specialis...
THE ADVICE <ul><li>A diagnostic of what may have been missed in their education has to be done. Also, a re-orientation of ...
THE ADVICE <ul><li>To become an Islamic scholars specializing in religious sciences ( Deeniyat ), his grasp of the general...
TO  THOSE  FROM CONVENTIONAL SCHOOL & UNIVERSITY THE ADVICE All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
ADVICE FOR MUSLIM UNDERGRADUATE / GRADUATES  OF   CONVENTIONAL SCHOOL & UNIVERSITY This advice is for those who are in the...
THE ADVICE <ul><li>Although Muslim students and graduates from conventional educational system, can be said to possess kno...
THE ADVICE <ul><li>To be regarded as Islamic scholars, even when specializing in ‘so-called’ non-religious sciences ( Duny...
AS THIS IS JUST A  PRELIMINARY REFLECTION,  AND DUE TO TIME, CONSTRAIN –  I HAVE TO END HERE,  FOR THE MOMENT. إِنْشَاءَال...
وَاللّهُ أَعْلَم  وَالَّصَلا ةُ وَالسَّلامُ على سَيْدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ  وَعَلَى آلهِ وَأصحْابِهِ وسَلَّم  وَأخِرُ دَعْوَنَا و...
<ul><li>http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>htt...
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Traditional And Contemporary Islamic Scholarship[Slideshare]

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Traditional And Contemporary Islamic Scholarship[Slideshare]

  1. 1. Presentation by: USTAZ ZHULKEFLEE HJ ISMAIL With the collaboration of MASJID KASSIM , #02-01 Wisma Indah, Changi Rd. SINGAPORE : “WHEN DEMAND EXCEEDS SUPPLY… ” SEEKING FOR MORE MUSLIM SCHOLARS-THINKERS-PHILOSOPHERS All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009 Saturday: 15 August 2009 24 Sha`baan 1430 A.H. @ 10.30 – 12.00 noon. a a.m PROMOTIONAL TOPIC OF THIS IN-HOUSE TALK
  2. 2. Presentation by: USTAZ ZHULKEFLEE HJ ISMAIL With the collaboration of MASJID KASSIM , #02-01 Wisma Indah, Changi Rd. SINGAPORE A POINT OF VIEW: “TRADITIONAL AND CONTEMPORARY ISLAMIC SCHOLARSHIP” A BRIEF PRELIMINARY REFLECTION TASAWWUR ISLAM All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009 Saturday: 15 August 2009 24 Sha`baan 1430 A.H. @ 10.30a.m.– 12.00 noon. Aa a.m
  3. 3. WHY THIS TOPIC? <ul><li>In 1998, while in PERGAS , I responded to criticism upon the Madrasah by writing a paper from my research (copy available on my web link “http:// An-naseehah.blogspot.com ” ). </li></ul><ul><li>In that paper, I’ve argued that the current “ Madrasah education” (although it has the potential to be Islamic), yet it is not necessarily equal to what a truly “ Islamic education ” really is. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, the Muslims have, since colonial times, moved from a single wholistic system of education ( Tauhidic ) into adopting a dualistic system - dichotomising the religious from the secular. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  4. 4. WHY THIS TOPIC? <ul><li>In fact with this, the Muslims have somewhat moved away from an “eclectic to specialist approach” (the Islamic approach of prioritizing Fardhu ‘ain knowledge before knowledge of Fardhu kifaaya ) into accepting an education system that is less and less eclectic but emphasise more on specialization – driven by socio-economic needs rather than developing the Fitrah in people to their fullest potential. </li></ul><ul><li>A system that educates or rather ‘develops’ people for the work-force, as though people are to be exploited as future market resources – i.e. driven by politico-economic policy. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  5. 5. WHY THIS TOPIC? <ul><li>I was asked: “Is it still possible for Muslims to strive to become Islamic scholars in the likes of the such illustrious, eclectic, profound Ulama’ – (scholar / thinker / philosopher) like e.g. Al-Ghazzali, Ibn Rushd, Al-Biruni, Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Sinna etc. ?” </li></ul><ul><li>Actually this concern was already raised by many, especially since the dismantling of the last Ottoman Caliphate. The waning influence of the Muslims and their being colonized and exposed to imperialists’ rule had indeed drastically changed our approach to education. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  6. 6. WHY THIS TOPIC? <ul><li>Remaining Islamic institutions of learning became more concern towards essentially preserving only the “knowledge of the Deen” , because with limited resources and antagonistic colonial rulers, to be safeguarding these was of the highest priority. The ummah was under siege. Thus it is the ” Madrasah ” indeed are trying to fulfil a command in the Qur’an: </li></ul><ul><li>  “ Nor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion and admonish the people when they return to them― that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil).” </li></ul><ul><li>(Qur’an: Taubah: 9: 122 ) </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  7. 7. WHY THIS TOPIC? <ul><li>Apart from the lack of resources, those scholars and philanthropist within the Ummah barely managed to preserve this traditional full-time Madrasah , whereas the majority Muslims opted in sending their children to the conventional schools established by the colonial masters. </li></ul><ul><li>Interestingly a general but relevant question was raised from an ‘aleem from the Nusantara to Syed Rashid Redha (of “al-Manar”) which was responded by Amir Shakib Arslan as a book entitled: “Limaa-dza ta-akharal Muslimuuna...” – which analysed the reasons for Muslims decline. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  8. 8. Author:   Amir Shakib Arslan; Rashid Rida (foreword)   Publisher:   Islamic Book Trust (2004)   Pages:   148   Binding:   Paperback   Description from the publisher:   New Revised Edition, Paperback, 172 pages First published in the 1930s , this is a response to a letter from Shaykh Muhammad Bisyooni Umran of Indonesia requesting the author to explain the causes of Muslim weakness at the present and the causes of the strength of the Europeans and the Japanese, the factors behind their glorious empires and sovereignty, their power and wealth. His response, written in a state of great agitation became one of the masterpieces of eloquence and a proof of his wisdom. All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009 A RECOMMENDED READING
  9. 9. WHY THIS TOPIC? <ul><li>But the most significant happened in 1977 with the First World Conference on Muslim Education held in Makkah. Concerned Muslims must read the deliberations of these prominent Muslim scholars’ in the “Islamic Education Series” published by King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah. (ISBN 0-340-23607-8) </li></ul><ul><li>TOPICS IN THIS SERIES:- </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis in Muslim Education </li></ul><ul><li>Aims & Objective of Islamic Education </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim Education in the Modern World </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum and Teacher Education </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy Literature and Fine Arts ...... Etc. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  10. 10. AIM OF EDUCATION FROM THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  11. 11. WHAT IS THE AIM OF EDUCATION FROM THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE? <ul><li>Syed M. Naquib Al-Attas asserts is: “... to produce a good man. What is meant by good in our concept of ‘ good man ’? The fundamental element inherent in the concept of education in Islam is the inculcation of ‘ adab ’ ( ta’dib ), for it is ‘ adab ’ in the all-inclusive sense I mean, as encompassing the spiritual and material life of a man that instils the quality of goodness that is sought after. Education is what the Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. meant by Adab : </li></ul><ul><li>أَدَّبَنِيْ رَبِّي فَأَحْسَنَ تَأْدِبِيْ </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  12. 12. WHAT IS THE AIM OF EDUCATION FROM THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE? <ul><li>Syed M. Naquib Al-Attas asserts is : “... to produce a good man. What is meant by good in our concept of ‘ good man ’? The fundamental element inherent in the concept of education in Islam is the inculcation of ‘ adab ’ ( ta’dib ), for it is ‘ adab ’ in the all-inclusive sense I mean, as encompassing the spiritual and material life of a man that instils the quality of goodness that is sought after. Education is what the Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. meant by Adab : </li></ul><ul><li>“ My Lord educated me, and made my education </li></ul><ul><li>most excellent.” </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  13. 13. HOW WERE THE PAST ISLAMIC SCHOLARS EDUCATED ? A RELEVANT QUESTION FOR MANY OF US TO KNOW: All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  14. 14. A GLIMPSE : “HOW EARLY ISLAMIC SCHOLARS WERE NURTURED” <ul><li>This is based on my limited reading, understanding, and personal experiences - semblance of these approaches I have seen in my teachers’ mentoring approaches upon individuals and myself, even though it was done privately and not in educational institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>What many have forgotten is that ‘ulama (Islamic Scholars) are the effect of the nurturing by true teachers ( murobbi ’), not merely from which educational institutions a person comes out from. It is the teacher, not the school which is the crucial factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Many students currently may still be developed traditionally, utilizing whatever is available – in madrasah , mosque , hala q ah , home - in replicating the earlier Islamic scholars exposure and path of learning, inspite of the many disadvantages faced. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  15. 15. PATH OF TRADITIONAL ISLAMIC SCHOLARSHIP? <ul><li>Starts at home: nurtured with Adab , inculcation of basic obligatory practices of a Muslim and linguistic proficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Sent to “ Kuttab ” – recitation and memorization of Al-Qur’an; may proceed to include other important texts, poetry etc. – importance of rote-learning for the young. </li></ul><ul><li>Sitting ( talaqqi ) with scholars (in Jami’ [mosque] or madrasah or halaqah ) to expand upon the knowledge of the Deen , both horizontally (eclectic) and vertically (depth and profoundness). </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  16. 16. PATH OF TRADITIONAL ISLAMIC SCHOLARSHIP? <ul><li>His field of study may be expanded to include various worldly sciences, where their interest in those relevant field of study are also nurtured. </li></ul><ul><li>Some may be sent to guilds to also to be mentored to acquire skills, crafts or trades, and contemporary empirical knowledge which today we call “worldly sciences” –relevant to his development, while still continuing in their learning path, primarily of the Deen . </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  17. 17. PATH OF TRADITIONAL ISLAMIC SCHOLARSHIP? <ul><li>Thus for example, we learnt that Abu ‘Ali Ibn Sina (AVICCENA) already was acknowledged at 17 years old, to be a scholar in the knowledge of the Deen but his passion to learn every other knowledge and sciences available then, was also pursued by him with equal religious fervour and passion. </li></ul><ul><li>He was already known to be well-versed in the sciences of the Deen , but the world seemed to only appreciate and highlight his expertise in the medical science – especially the Latin translation :“ MATERA MEDICA ” which impacted the Western civilization. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  18. 18. PATH OF TRADITIONAL ISLAMIC SCHOLARSHIP? <ul><li>Although essentially these scholars are scholars of the Deen , yet their eclectic exposure motivates them to expand and profoundly learnt other sciences which their learning path had exposed them to. The concept of “ itqan ” and the maxim : “when a duty becomes obligatory for one to fulfil, acquiring the knowledge for carrying it out adequately, becomes obligatory ( Wajib ) too” would be adhered to in their “learning culture / discipline”. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand this, refer to Adab of students in Imam Ghazali ’s “ Ihya ‘ulumuddeen ” Kitaab al-’ilm ”) </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  19. 19. LET US NOW RETURN TO THE GIVEN TOPIC WHICH MOST OF YOU CAME TO LISTEN TO (WHICH WAS): “ WHEN DEMAND EXCEEDS SUPPLY… ” SEEKING FOR MUSLIM SCHOLARS-THINKERS-PHILOSOPHERS FROM THE PRECEEDING BACKGROUND THAT HAVE BEEN EXPLAINED, OUR NEXT PERTINENT AND RELEVANT QUESTION IS ............................ All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  20. 20. UNDERSTAND WHERE MUSLIMS’ EDUCATION HAS EVOLVED FROM & HOW IT BECAME, WHAT IT IS TODAY. “ SO WHAT CAN WE MUSLIMS, DO ABOUT IT, NOW?” – BEFORE ATTEMPTING TO RESPOND, WE HAVE TO FIRSTLY: All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  21. 21. “ DUALISTIC EDUCATION” – LEGACY OF THE COLONIAL ERA <ul><li>Western colonial powers introduced their schooling system, even though natives already have their own- i.e. either vernacular or religious based. </li></ul><ul><li>When linked to economic and job opportunities, which favoured cohorts from such schools, private native or religious full-time schools lost its appeal. Yet, Muslims students generally were provided Islamic religious classes outside school hours at home, mosques or the madrasah (part-time). </li></ul><ul><li>Full-time madrasah gradually focussed to produce the elite – teachers of Islam to the rest of the mass. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  22. 22. “ DUALISTIC EDUCATION” – LEGACY OF THE COLONIAL ERA <ul><li>Thus, Muslim students were made to adapt to this “dualistic education system” – full-time conventional (academic) and part-time (religious). </li></ul><ul><li>The full-time Madrasah is therefore an exception rather than the rule; fully private and independent, constituting only less than 4% of the total cohorts, sustained by the community & philanthropists. </li></ul><ul><li>Students were sent there only by parents with altruistic-religious reasons, not for economic gains. </li></ul><ul><li>We in Singapore has had over 30 registered independent madrasah’s but today it dwindled to only 6 which are as full-time schools. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  23. 23. CRITIQUE COHORTS FROM CURRENT FULL-TIME MADRASAH SYSTEM All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  24. 24. CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARSHIP Critique of the current Madrasah system <ul><li>The direction of where the current full-time Madrasah education is heading is becoming vague. </li></ul><ul><li>It seem to be imitating what conventional schools are doing - many seem to have forgotten that being independent (just like seminary), it should pursue its own course and objective for which it was instituted and not allow itself to be dictated by others with their extraneous interest and agendas. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  25. 25. CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARSHIP Critique of the current Madrasah system <ul><li>Whereas now, economic concern and paper chase (exam-based) curriculum are being imitated, and students are unnecessarily burdened, requiring them to also compete with those in conventional schools. Thus, they lose focus of their primary objective to become the future vanguard Islamic scholars into joining the general student cohorts destined for the ‘ rat-race ’. </li></ul><ul><li>If these full-time madrasah are meant to supply religious teachers, they should not be “distracted”. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  26. 26. CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARSHIP Critique of the current Madrasah system <ul><li>Psychologically, the students from full-time Madrasah are affected negatively - being made to compare themselves with those of the mainstream. Surely, its like trying “to compare apples with oranges – although both are fruits.” </li></ul><ul><li>Already disadvantaged with many inadequacy, their morale are further affected by confusion in terms of management, leadership, staffing, curriculum, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>And now, it may face closure if cohorts do not meet the national school PSLE standards. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  27. 27. CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARSHIP Critique of the current Madrasah system <ul><li>They are our precious hope to become personalities exuding honour, self-esteem, courage, sagacity and pillar of strength – whereas now the opposite effect is undermining their growth and development. </li></ul><ul><li>They are our community’s hope to become religious guides and lead future generations, yet are left neglected and made to be at a disadvantage. </li></ul><ul><li>Their future are made to look bleak, many may have already contemplated discarding their task of replacing our ulama’ - as future religious teachers. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  28. 28. CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARSHIP Critique of the current Madrasah system <ul><li>Actually, the so-called ‘economic or pragmatic argument’ is irrelevant. </li></ul><ul><li>The Muslim community must recognize the real value of this group in their social contribution and most importantly as guardians of ‘ ulum al-Deen . </li></ul><ul><li>The disparity between their true worth and their economic worth must be corrected by the Muslim community themselves; in creating jobs and their set appropriate remunerations, (not to be determined by market forces but) from “ Baytul-maal ” if need be. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  29. 29. CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARSHIP Critique of the current Madrasah system <ul><li>Some who attempt to integrate the syllabus with the so-called “ dunyawi-ukhrawi ” labelling are themselves unclear of how actual Islamic categorization of knowledge should be. </li></ul><ul><li>Some peoples’ claim to be “ Islamizing ” may in fact be “ de-Islamizing ” because the definitive Islamic character of Madrasah and its graduates, which they should aspire to, is allowed to be eroded and replaced by something else and the graduates are no different from that of the mainstream schools. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  30. 30. CRITIQUE COHORTS FROM CONVENTIONAL (NON-MADRASAH) SYSTEM All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  31. 31. CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARSHIP Critique of the conventional (i.e. non- Madrasah) system <ul><li>Student from this system which does not have Islamic lessons in their school has to be given separate Islamic education outside their school hours, ever since IRK (Islamic Religious knowledge) was scrapped. </li></ul><ul><li>Some may not even have a rudimentary lesson on Islam, once they start going to conventional school. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  32. 32. CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARSHIP Critique of the conventional (i.e. non- Madrasah) system <ul><li>Those who pursue in part-time Madrasah may just receive a “watered-down” and very general curriculum of Fardhu ‘Ain , and may lack the motivation or passion in attending these classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Given the emphasis on Academic excellence, their “ Aqeedah-mic ” aspect of development takes a back-seat or even totally neglected. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  33. 33. ISLAMIZATION OF CONTEMPORARY KNOWLEDGE
  34. 34. YET, ALL IS NOT LOST <ul><li>Amongst the remedies is the “ ISLAMIZATION ” movement – for both types in these dualistic education system – envisage since 1977. </li></ul><ul><li>Although this process can be applied wherever required in whichever system, yet it is to be most effective at the higher level (tertiary) prior to these graduates assuming their roles as scholars - educators of the Ummah . </li></ul><ul><li>The anti-thesis to “ Islamization ” is really “ Secularism ” which every Muslim aspiring to be scholars must know profoundly too. So that a complete and Islamized education achieved. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  35. 35. THE DESIRED OUTCOME? All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009 TRADITIONAL ISLAMIC EDUCATION
  36. 36. CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’) God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  37. 37. CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’) God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  38. 38. CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’) God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  39. 39. CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’) God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  40. 40. CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’) God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  41. 41. CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’) God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  42. 42. CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’) God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  43. 43. CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’) God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  44. 44. CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’) God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  45. 45. CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’) God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  46. 46. CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’) God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  47. 47. CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’) God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students. All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  48. 48. CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’) God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students rather than as scholars. All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  49. 49. CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC SCHOLARS (ULAMA’) God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves as perpetual students rather than as scholars. All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009 NOTE: THIS LIST IS NOT EXHAUSTIVE, ONLY TO HIGHLIGHT THOSE WHICH ARE SIGNIFICANTLY OVERLOOKED BY MANY WHO MAY ONLY EMPHASISE PAPER QUALIFICATION AND NOT THE PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS.
  50. 50. TO THOSE FROM MADRASAH AND ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY THE ADVICE All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  51. 51. ADVICE FOR MUSLIM UNDERGRADUATE / GRADUATES OF THE MADRASAH AND ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY This advice is for those who are upon the course of study, generally regarded as “Islamic Studies” – a label of convenience in the ‘Dualistic’ system of education – the effect of secularism. Sadly: “ ... many Muslims may have learnt Islam as a subject, but not subjecting themselves to Islam .” All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  52. 52. THE ADVICE <ul><li>Because currently we Muslims tend to imitate conventional approach, our students specializing in the sciences of the Deen ( Deeniyat ) may not have had adequate Fardhu ‘ain groundings, By this I mean – a generic but eclectic exposure of various knowledge, which must include other ( ukhra - aakhar ) contemporary worldly sciences, knowledge and life-skills, crafts and trades etc. complimenting with the Islamic knowledge gained. This linkage between Deeniyat-Dunyawi - perhaps can be explained in the basic “ ISLAM-IIMAN-IHSAN ” – Tauhidic paradigm of a Muslim’s basic education. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  53. 53. ‘ ILM TAUHIID - ‘AQIDAH (Creed or Theology)   Purpose / Objective Development of Certainty (Belief) Awareness of Reality / Truth Develop discernment between Truth & Falsehood, What is involved ? ‘ Aql - (proper use of Reason / Intellect) Fitrah - Instincts & innate feeling (perception) Tauqifiy – Revelations & reliable traditions    What is the Effect ? To develop firm conviction, strong principle, Commitment to concept of Unity & Justice of Allah (Tauhiid); knowing the true purpose, role and Destiny of Man. IIMAN All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009 Tauhiidic paradigm
  54. 54. ‘ ILM TAUHIID - ‘AQIDAH (Creed or Theology)   Purpose / Objective Development of Certainty (Belief) Awareness of Reality / Truth Develop discernment between Truth & Falsehood, What is involved ? ‘ Aql - (proper use of Reason / Intellect) Fitrah - Instincts & innate feeling (perception) Tauqifiy – Revelations & reliable traditions    What is the Effect ? To develop firm conviction, strong principle, Commitment to concept of Unity & Justice of Allah (Tauhiid); knowing the true purpose, role and Destiny of Man. IIMAN RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE: Languages, Logic & philosophy, Epistemology, Biology, Botany, Chemistry, Physical sciences, Astronomy, Geology, History, Anthropology, Marine & Space, Etc. All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009 Tauhiidic paradigm
  55. 55. ‘ ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   Purpose / Objective Development of Correct Practices; Submission & Obedience to Will of Allah (Islam) What is involved ? Knowing the law, rules as Guidance to every aspect of life Capability to implementing them in life    What is the Effect ? To develop a community of people, Inviting to what is good Enjoining what is right, and forbidding evil, Advocating the fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent), Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in The servitude of One God. ‘ AMAL (ISLAM) All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009 Tauhiidic paradigm
  56. 56. ‘ ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   Purpose / Objective Development of Correct Practices; Submission & Obedience to Will of Allah (Islam) What is involved ? Knowing the law, rules as Guidance to every aspect of life Capability to implementing them in life    What is the Effect ? To develop a community of people, Inviting to what is good Enjoining what is right, and forbidding evil, Advocating the fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent), Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in The servitude of One God. ‘ AMAL (ISLAM) RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE: All applied sciences, technology and skills, knowledge of economics, politics, social & administrative sciences etc. that can assist in the fulfilment of establishing justice, order, peace, harmony, prosperity, physical with moral progress, and the well-being of Man & society, etc. All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009 Tauhiidic paradigm
  57. 57. ‘ ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF / IRFAN (Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)   Purpose / Objective Development of Righteous Personality Purification/perfection of the Self What is involved ? Reforming or purification of the Self (Nafs) Best behaviour in relationship with Allah, within oneself, and with others. Knowledge of Self and of Allah (Gnosis)    What is the Effect ? Development of Most noble personality traits Founded on Love of Allah, of all His prophets [ Nabiyyin ] especially the Seal of Prophethood Muhammad s.a.w., his Household [ itrah or Ahlul-bayti wa Aali -Rasul ] and loyal Companions [As haab] , In fellowship with the Truthful [ siddiqqin ], the Witnesses & martyrs [ shuhada ] and the Righteous servants of Allah [ Solihin ]; Striving to purify the Self ( Nafs ) and adorning it with the Exalted Moral traits of Our Beloved Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. (The Perfected Man – “ Insan Kaamil”) IHSAN All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009 Tauhiidic paradigm
  58. 58. ‘ ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF / IRFAN (Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)   Purpose / Objective Development of Righteous Personality Purification/perfection of the Self What is involved ? Reforming or purification of the Self (Nafs) Best behaviour in relationship with Allah, within oneself, and with others. Knowledge of Self and of Allah (Gnosis)    What is the Effect ? Development of Most noble personality traits Founded on Love of Allah, of all His prophets [ Nabiyyin ] especially the Seal of Prophethood Muhammad s.a.w., his Household [ itrah or Ahlul-bayti wa Aali -Rasul ] and loyal Companions [As haab] , In fellowship with the Truthful [ siddiqqin ], the Witnesses & martyrs [ shuhada ] and the Righteous servants of Allah [ Solihin ]; Striving to purify the Self ( Nafs ) and adorning it with the Exalted Moral traits of Our Beloved Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. (The Perfected Man – “ Insan Kaamil”) IHSAN RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE: This aspect of development requires practical behaviour, the aspect of being and becoming. Its area of development is the inner Self, the ‘human psyche’ or the state of the Soul reflected in his Disposition ( Akhlaq ). Therefore, the close equivalent may perhaps be ‘human’ psychology, behavioural sciences, manners & discipline, etc. All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009 Tauhiidic paradigm
  59. 59. THE ADVICE <ul><li>Their specialization in only ‘ Ulum-ud-deen (but imitating conventional system in producing specialist – in their case “religious sciences”) may have been prematurely embarked too soon which, unfortunately led to their discarding the traditional criteria for what constitute Fardhu ‘Ain knowledge, which has to be eclectic to include acquisition of contemporary science and knowledge (relevant & complimentary) vis-a-vis to what they are learning in Islam ( Deeniyat ). </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  60. 60. THE ADVICE <ul><li>A diagnostic of what may have been missed in their education has to be done. Also, a re-orientation of their attitude, philosophy and motivation (drivers) to those that a true Islamic Scholar should have is imperative. Thus some-kind of “ clinic, therapy, counselling ”- (not merely academic but also in terms of spiritual and especially Adab ) to address this, for each student, is imperative. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be through mentoring by a qualified “ murobbi ” who traditionally, will usually begin with this “diagnosis” and henceforth monitor the student’s educational development. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  61. 61. THE ADVICE <ul><li>To become an Islamic scholars specializing in religious sciences ( Deeniyat ), his grasp of the general Fardhu ‘ain knowledge must be of a much higher standard than that for a lay Muslims. This is quite similar perhaps in medical profession i.e. before a doctor proceed towards being a specialist, he is required to have obtained good competency in the general medical course first. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact the general perception of what constitute Fardhu ‘Ain knowledge for Muslims, needs to be clarified and any misconceptions regarding it, corrected. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  62. 62. TO THOSE FROM CONVENTIONAL SCHOOL & UNIVERSITY THE ADVICE All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  63. 63. ADVICE FOR MUSLIM UNDERGRADUATE / GRADUATES OF CONVENTIONAL SCHOOL & UNIVERSITY This advice is for those who are in the conventional schooling system. The irony that the “ University” from the word ( kulliyat – ‘ universal ’) actually was inspired or copied from the “ Jami’ah ” the centre where early Muslims learnt many sciences; is actually producing specialists and should rather be called “ Specialise-ty ” : because it is producing scholars with “ Juz-’iy” ( particular ) rather than “ kulliy ” ( universal ) knowledge . All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  64. 64. THE ADVICE <ul><li>Although Muslim students and graduates from conventional educational system, can be said to possess knowledge; or they may even be regarded as experts in their academic field, yet to confer the epithet “Islamic scholars – ( ‘ulama )” is very much dependent upon whether, Islamic criteria e.g. Its creed, practices, worldview, philosophy, approaches etc. has shaped his scholarship or not. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, many may have discarded the Islamic norms (or hold it abeyance), to embrace a secular philosophy and approach (neutral from any religion) when undergoing conventional education. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  65. 65. THE ADVICE <ul><li>To be regarded as Islamic scholars, even when specializing in ‘so-called’ non-religious sciences ( Dunyawi ), his grasp of the general Fardhu ‘ain knowledge as Muslims, must already be of such high standard – to commensurate or be at par, with his intellectual / academic achievement and status. </li></ul><ul><li>Only when, in their field of scholarship it is fully dominated or driven by the Islamic ethos, worldview and motivation etc. – Islam colouring their knowledge and the particular scientific field – can they qualify to carry the epithet Islamic Scholar ( ’ulama ). This was how our early scholars had qualified themselves. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  66. 66. AS THIS IS JUST A PRELIMINARY REFLECTION, AND DUE TO TIME, CONSTRAIN – I HAVE TO END HERE, FOR THE MOMENT. إِنْشَاءَالله INSHA-ALLAH! MAY WE HAVE OTHER OPPORTUNITY TO REFLECT FURTHER. All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  67. 67. وَاللّهُ أَعْلَم وَالَّصَلا ةُ وَالسَّلامُ على سَيْدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلهِ وَأصحْابِهِ وسَلَّم وَأخِرُ دَعْوَنَا والْحَمْدُ لِلَه رَبِ الْعَالَمِين السَّلامُ عَلَيْكُم وَرَحْمَةُاللّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُه Q & A SESSION All Rights Reserved©Zhulkeflee2009
  68. 68. <ul><li>http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ </li></ul>السَّلامُ عَلَيْكُم وَرَحْمَةُاللّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُه All welcome to visit my web-blog:

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