“ INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF TAU H EED” Intermediate Level  Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhul...
This is one of the traditional approaches in ensuring the understanding of attributes of Allah, amongst Muslims who are ex...
<ul><li>This is the continuation from my previous “Intermediate Lesson on Islam -  Tau h eed ”  module *. In that part one...
&quot;(To know Allah) Think and reflect upon Allah's attributes ( Sifaat ) and do not try to think of  (reality of) His Es...
<ul><li>In man’s reliance upon rationalising to understand the ‘nature’ of God, they may be prone to error which, if left ...
<ul><li>In man’s reliance upon rationalising to understand the ‘nature’ of God, they may be prone to error which, if left ...
<ul><li>Islamic scholars responded by stipulating the ‘criteria’ or guideline for using reason ( ‘aqliyyah ) in theology, ...
<ul><li>Islamic scholars responded by stipulating the ‘criteria’ or guideline for using reason (‘aqliyyah) in theology, wh...
“ .. in it (Al-Qur’an) are  AAYAT MU H KAMAT  - verses basic or fundamental (of established meaning); they are the  FOUNDA...
Say: He is Allah the One and Only; Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none l...
&quot;No vision can encompass Him, whereas He encompasses all vision: for He alone is  unfathomable ( latif  )  * , all-aw...
&quot;No vision can encompass Him, whereas He encompasses all vision: for He alone is  unfathomable ( latif  )  * , all-aw...
&quot;There is nothing like unto Him, and yet He alone is all-hearing, all-seeing.&quot; * ( Q: As-Shura 42 : 11 )  All Ri...
&quot;There is nothing like unto Him, and yet He alone is all-hearing, all-seeing.&quot; * ( Q: As-Shura 42 : 11 )  All Ri...
Thus, even the &quot; how   &quot; of His being &quot; different &quot; from everything else is beyond the categories of h...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
When we contemplate the ‘Divine Being’ we refer to as God (Allah),  His Existence   ( Wujud ) is an  attribute  ( Sifat ) ...
When we contemplate the ‘Divine Being’ we refer to as God (Allah),  His Existence   ( Wujud ) is an  attribute  ( Sifat ) ...
<ul><li>There are countless ways to verify the existence of God. When Muslim acknowledges God’s existence, by this he is a...
<ul><li>A Muslim’s belief is one of conviction, once established, it must not be left to uncertainty or doubts. Even if on...
“ Such is Allah, your Lord. There is no God save Him, the Creator of all things, so worship Him. And He takes care of all ...
“ Were they created of nothing, or were they themselves the creators? Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Nay, t...
<ul><li>Our very own existence, and existence of creations cannot be denied. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj...
<ul><li>Our very own existence, and existence of creations cannot be denied. </li></ul><ul><li>From whence do these creati...
<ul><li>Our very own existence, and existence of creations cannot be denied. </li></ul><ul><li>From whence do these creati...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
<ul><li>The term “ Sifat Sal-biyyah  ” means “Negating attributes”,  </li></ul>SIFAT SAL-BIYYAH All Rights Reserved © Zhul...
<ul><li>The term “ Sifat Sal-biyyah  ” means “Negating attributes”. </li></ul><ul><li>By which, we Muslims are taught to n...
<ul><li>This is because, when we say God ‘ exist ’, and at the same time we are applying this term ‘ exist ’ also to ourse...
<ul><li>Thus, the logical process towards ensuring we do not ascribe partners to Allah is to differentiate the meaning of ...
<ul><li>Thus, the logical process towards ensuring we do not ascribe partners to Allah is to differentiate the meaning of ...
<ul><li>Our understanding of “ existence ” must be differentiated when applied to God. Firstly, Allah is the creator of ou...
“ He (Allah) is the First and the Last” ( Qur’an: Hadid : 57: 3 )  All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGS...
<ul><li>As our understanding of “ existence ” must be differentiated when applied to God, therefore secondly, Allah alone ...
“ But will abide (forever) the Face of thy Lord― full of Majesty, Bounty and Honour.” ( Qur’an: Ar-Rahmaan: 55: 27 )  All ...
<ul><li>Muslim holds the belief that we cannot attribute to Allah similar  </li></ul><ul><li>attributes like those possess...
“ There is nothing whatever like unto Him” ( Qur’an: Shura: 42: 11 )  All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMO...
“ He begetteth, not nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him.” ( Qur’an: al-Ikhlas: 112: 3-4 )  All Rights Rese...
<ul><li>Men’s tendencies towards anthropomorphic attributions to God is  </li></ul><ul><li>to be refuted. Allah alone is G...
“ O ye men! it is ye that have need of Allah: but Allah is the One Free of all wants, Worthy of all praise.” ( Qur’an: Faa...
<ul><li>In our understanding Allah - His attributes ( sifaat   ), His Names ( asma ’ ) and His Acts ( Af’al  ); we do not ...
“ Say: He is Allah the One and Only;.” ( Qur’an: al-Ikhlas: 112: 1 )  All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMO...
“ And your God is one God; there is no god but He Most Gracious, Most Merciful.” ( Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 163 )  All Rights R...
“ If there were in the heavens and the earth, other gods besides Allah, there would have been ruin in both! But glory to A...
“ They disbelieve who say: Allah is one of three in a Trinity: for there is no god except One God. .” ( Qur’an: Maa-idah: ...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
<ul><li>The term “ Sifat Ma’aaniy  ” would mean “Attributing with the meaning of”. </li></ul>SIFAT  MA-’AANIY All Rights R...
<ul><li>The term “ Sifat Ma’aaniy  ” would mean “Attributing with the meaning of”. </li></ul><ul><li>While “ Existence ” i...
<ul><li>And in the Revealed  texts too, such words are also being used. It is in the meaning (not essence) of these words ...
<ul><li>And in the Revealed  texts too, such words are also being used. It is in the meaning (not essence) of these words ...
<ul><li>Certainly Allah is all-powerful. Thus, we regard  as absurdity for any one to entertain the assertion of God as ha...
“ For verily, Allah hath power over all things.” ( Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 20 )  All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2...
<ul><li>Certainly Allah possesses ‘Will’. Thus, we regard  as absurdity for any one to entertain the misconception of God ...
“ For verily, your Lord is the (sure) Accomplisher of what He wills (plans).” ( Qur’an: Hud: 2: 107 )  All Rights Reserved...
“ Verily, when He (Allah) intends a thing,  His command is ‘Be’ and it is!” ( Qur’an: Ya Seen: 36: 82 )  All Rights Reserv...
<ul><li>Certainly Allah is all-knowing. Thus, we regard  as absurdity for any one to entertain the assertion of God as bei...
“ He is Allah, than Whom there is no other God, the Knower of the Invisible and the Visible. He is the Beneficent, Mercifu...
“ For Allah has full knowledge of all things. “ ( Qur’an: Ankabut: 29: 62 )  All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2...
<ul><li>Certainly Allah is the Ever-Living. Thus, we regard  as absurdity for any one to entertain the assertion of God wh...
“ Allah! There is no Allah but He―the Living, the Self-Subsisting Eternal.“ ( Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 2 )  All Rights Rese...
“ He is the living (One): There is no god but He: Call upon Him giving Him sincere devotion.“ ( Qur’an: Mu’min (Ghafir): 3...
<ul><li>Certainly Allah is all-Hearing. Thus, we regard  as absurdity for any one to entertain the ridiculous assertion of...
“ For verily, Allah is He who hears and knows all things.” ( Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 148 )  All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee ...
<ul><li>Certainly Allah is All-Seeing. Thus, we regard  as absurdity for any one to entertain the ridiculous assertion of ...
“ There is nothing whatever like unto Him, and He is the One that hears and sees (all things).” ( Qur’an: Shura: 42: 11 ) ...
“ Verily Allah knows the unseen of the heavens and the earth: and Allah sees well all that ye do.&quot;” ( Qur’an: Hujurat...
<ul><li>Certainly Allah possesses Speech. Thus, we regard  as absurdity for any one to entertain the foolish assertion of ...
“ And to Moses Allah spoke direct.―.” ( Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 164 )  All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONG...
“ We have, without doubt sent down the Message (Al-Qur’an) ; and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption).”  ( Qur’an:...
“ Al-Qur’an is the speech of Allah, it is not from amongst creations ( makhluq ).”  * ( Hadith of Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w...
Although the thirteen essential attributes is regarded as sufficient, the tendency to regard Allah (God) as being remote b...
This is because our understanding of God’s existence is beyond the notion of transcendent or immanent which our mind may t...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
<ul><li>The term “ Sifat Ma’nawiyyah  ” would mean “Attributing the full  and relevant consequence from those meanings” to...
<ul><li>The term “ Sifat Ma’nawiyyah  ” would mean “Attributing the full  and relevant consequence from those meanings” to...
<ul><li>For example, although one can understand God to be endowed with power, having a Will, Knowing, Living, Hearing, Se...
<ul><li>For example, although one can understand God to be endowed with power, having a Will, Knowing, Living, Hearing, Se...
<ul><li>This possibility of it being ambiguous as some people perhaps may regard God’s existence to be detached from their...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE QUDRAH POSSESSING POWER HE IS EVER POWERFUL KAU-NUHU QAADIRAN
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE HE IS EVER WILLING KAU-NUHU MUREEDAN IRAADAH POSSESSING WILL
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE ‘ ILMUN KNOWING KAU-NUHU ‘ALEEMAN HE IS EVER KNOWING
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE HAYAAT LIVING KAU-NUHU  HAY-YAN HE IS EVER ALIVE
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE SAM’UN HEARING KAU-NUHU  SAMEE-’AN HE IS EVER HEARING
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE BASWARUN SEEING KAU-NUHU  BASWEE-RAN HE IS EVER SEEING
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE KALAAMUN SPEECH  KAU-NUHU  MUTAKAL-LIMAN HE IS EVER SPEAKING
SIFAT  MA-’ANAWIYYAH SIFAT  MA-’AANIY SIFAT  SAL-BIYYAH SIFAT  NAFSIYYAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
1 – An attribute which is also the Essence. 5 – Distinctive (negating) attributes. 7 – Attributes in the meanings. 7 – Att...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 “ Glory to thy Lord, the Lord of Honour and Power!  (He is free) from wha...
http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-am...
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[Slideshare]tauhid course(#12b-20 sifaat-attributes)

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“INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF TAUHEED”

Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (Singapore)

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[Slideshare]tauhid course(#12b-20 sifaat-attributes)

  1. 1. “ INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF TAU H EED” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 16 weekly class started: 27 Nov 2010 Every Saturday night @ 8pm – 10pm Wisma Indah, 448 Changi Road, #02-00 next to Masjid Kassim INTRODUCING START OF A NEW COURSE [2] Using curriculum he has developed especially for English-speaking Muslim converts and young English-speaking Adult Muslims. طَلَبُ الْعِلْم فَرِيضَةٌ على كُلِّ مُسْلِم “ To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)” For further information and registration contact Sameer Abdul Jalil (9669 8512) - or e-mail <sameer_al_abd@yahoo.com> IT CAN ALSO BE A REFRESHER COURSE FOR MUSLIM PARENTS, EDUCATORS, IN CONTEMPORARY SINGAPORE. OPEN TO ALL IN THE NAME OF ALLAH MOST COMPASIONATE MOST MERCIFUL All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 “ 20 SIFAAT – ATTRIBUTES” LESSON - # 12b
  2. 2. This is one of the traditional approaches in ensuring the understanding of attributes of Allah, amongst Muslims who are exposed to other religious or philosophical views, does not deviate from that of the pious predecessors’ (Salafus-Soleheen) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  3. 3. <ul><li>This is the continuation from my previous “Intermediate Lesson on Islam - Tau h eed ” module *. In that part one module, we have covered topics of : </li></ul><ul><li>[1] Introduction to the various Approaches in Developing Aqeedah - Tau h eed (Attestation to Oneness of God). </li></ul><ul><li>[2] Tau h eed al-Khaaliqiyyah </li></ul><ul><li>[3] Tau h eed ar-Rububiyyah </li></ul><ul><li>[4] Tau h eed al-Uluhiyyah wal- ‘Ubudiyyah </li></ul><ul><li>So now, for Tauheed part two module, I shall cover “Tau h eed as-Sifat” </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  4. 4. &quot;(To know Allah) Think and reflect upon Allah's attributes ( Sifaat ) and do not try to think of (reality of) His Essence ( Dzat ).“ ( Hadith reported by Abu-Shaykh – al Jami’ : 134 Risalah Tauhid ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  5. 5. <ul><li>In man’s reliance upon rationalising to understand the ‘nature’ of God, they may be prone to error which, if left unguided, may lead to grave consequences </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  6. 6. <ul><li>In man’s reliance upon rationalising to understand the ‘nature’ of God, they may be prone to error which, if left unguided, may lead to grave consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>Although mankind may discern the existence of God – the Supreme Being, Creator of every creations, yet knowledge about who that Supreme Being is (what are His names, attributes etc.), must come from God Himself. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  7. 7. <ul><li>Islamic scholars responded by stipulating the ‘criteria’ or guideline for using reason ( ‘aqliyyah ) in theology, which must also be substantiated with textual basis in Revelations ( naqliyyah ). </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  8. 8. <ul><li>Islamic scholars responded by stipulating the ‘criteria’ or guideline for using reason (‘aqliyyah) in theology, which must also be substantiated with textual basis in Revelations (naqliyyah). </li></ul><ul><li>Without which, man’s tendencies towards speculating with anthropomorphic imaginings may occur. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  9. 9. “ .. in it (Al-Qur’an) are AAYAT MU H KAMAT - verses basic or fundamental (of established meaning); they are the FOUNDATION OF THE BOOK : others are AAYAT MUTASHAABIHAT – verses not of well-established meaning.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  10. 10. Say: He is Allah the One and Only; Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him. ( Qur’an: Surah al-Ikhlas: 112: 1-4 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AAYAT MU H KAMAT – FOUNDATION OF MESSAGE
  11. 11. &quot;No vision can encompass Him, whereas He encompasses all vision: for He alone is unfathomable ( latif ) * , all-aware.&quot; ( Q: An'am: 6: 103) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AAYAT MU H KAMAT – FOUNDATION OF MESSAGE
  12. 12. &quot;No vision can encompass Him, whereas He encompasses all vision: for He alone is unfathomable ( latif ) * , all-aware.&quot; ( Q: An'am: 6: 103) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 * The term ' latif ' in ( ٱ للَّطِيفُ ) denotes something that is extremely subtle in quality, and therefore intangible and unfathomable. Whenever this term occurs in the Qur'an with reference to God in conjunction with the adjective ' khabir ' (&quot;all aware&quot;), it is invariably used to express the idea of His inaccessibility to human perception, imagination or comprehension, as contrasted with His Own all-awareness. AAYAT MU H KAMAT – FOUNDATION OF MESSAGE
  13. 13. &quot;There is nothing like unto Him, and yet He alone is all-hearing, all-seeing.&quot; * ( Q: As-Shura 42 : 11 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AAYAT MU H KAMAT – FOUNDATION OF MESSAGE
  14. 14. &quot;There is nothing like unto Him, and yet He alone is all-hearing, all-seeing.&quot; * ( Q: As-Shura 42 : 11 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 * The Oneness and Absolute Uniqueness of God is stressed here. In the phrase &quot; there is nothing like unto Him &quot; implies that He is fundamentally - not merely in His attributes &quot; different &quot; from anything that exists or could exist, or anything that man can conceive or imagine or define. AAYAT MU H KAMAT – FOUNDATION OF MESSAGE
  15. 15. Thus, even the &quot; how &quot; of His being &quot; different &quot; from everything else is beyond the categories of human thought. Therefore, the concern in Islamic theology is not in trying to discern His Essence ( Dzat ), which is an impossibility due to human imperfection and limitation. But we are encourage to know Him by way of His attributes and other Signs ( Aayat ). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AAYAT MU H KAMAT – FOUNDATION OF MESSAGE
  16. 16. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  17. 17. When we contemplate the ‘Divine Being’ we refer to as God (Allah), His Existence ( Wujud ) is an attribute ( Sifat ) which is inseparable from being regarded also as His Essence ( Dzat ). SIFAT NAF-SIYYAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 ALLAH’S ATTRIBUTE ( SIFAT ) WHICH IS ALSO HIS ESSENCE ( DZAT )
  18. 18. When we contemplate the ‘Divine Being’ we refer to as God (Allah), His Existence ( Wujud ) is an attribute ( Sifat ) which is inseparable from being regarded also as His Essence ( Dzat ). Thus the term “ Sifat Nafsiyyah ” means “Attribute which is also the Essence”. Another term used is “ Sifat Tsubutiyya ” – the “Established or immutable attribute” SIFAT NAF-SIYYAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 ALLAH’S ATTRIBUTE ( SIFAT ) WHICH IS ALSO HIS ESSENCE ( DZAT )
  19. 19. <ul><li>There are countless ways to verify the existence of God. When Muslim acknowledges God’s existence, by this he is also certain of what God is not – i.e. anything antithetical to this notion is rejected as absurd, and cannot be attributed to God. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE WUJUD ALLAH’S ATTRIBUTE ( SIFAT ) WHICH IS ALSO HIS ESSENCE ( DZAT )
  20. 20. <ul><li>A Muslim’s belief is one of conviction, once established, it must not be left to uncertainty or doubts. Even if one do not fully know what a thing is, he can be regarded to essentially know it sufficiently, only by way of denying what, it is not. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE WUJUD ALLAH’S ATTRIBUTE ( SIFAT ) WHICH IS ALSO HIS ESSENCE ( DZAT )
  21. 21. “ Such is Allah, your Lord. There is no God save Him, the Creator of all things, so worship Him. And He takes care of all things.” ( Q: An’am : 6: 102 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  22. 22. “ Were they created of nothing, or were they themselves the creators? Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Nay, they have no firm belief.” ( Qur’an: Tur : 6: 35-36 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  23. 23. <ul><li>Our very own existence, and existence of creations cannot be denied. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  24. 24. <ul><li>Our very own existence, and existence of creations cannot be denied. </li></ul><ul><li>From whence do these creations emanate? If it comes from yet another creation, then it still has not resolve the question as to who is the initial Creator, leading to a never ending loop of questioning ( talsalsul ) – an absurdity. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  25. 25. <ul><li>Our very own existence, and existence of creations cannot be denied. </li></ul><ul><li>From whence do these creations emanate? If it comes from yet another creation, then it still has not resolve the question as to who is the initial Creator, leading to a never ending loop of questioning ( talsalsul ) – an absurdity. </li></ul><ul><li>The only logical answer would be that it must have come from the First Cause (God, Creator), Who alone is not part of creation. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  26. 26. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  27. 27. <ul><li>The term “ Sifat Sal-biyyah ” means “Negating attributes”, </li></ul>SIFAT SAL-BIYYAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 ALLAH’S DISTINCTIVE ATTRIBUTES ( SIFAT ) -NEGATING OTHERS
  28. 28. <ul><li>The term “ Sifat Sal-biyyah ” means “Negating attributes”. </li></ul><ul><li>By which, we Muslims are taught to negate attributes that is opposite to these, to be attributed to God. </li></ul>SIFAT SAL-BIYYAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 ALLAH’S DISTINCTIVE ATTRIBUTES ( SIFAT ) -NEGATING OTHERS
  29. 29. <ul><li>This is because, when we say God ‘ exist ’, and at the same time we are applying this term ‘ exist ’ also to ourselves or to creations, if we do not therefore differentiate the Divine from the created regarding this (concept of existence), it would constitute ‘ shirk ’ (setting up partner or partners) to Allah, Who Alone is (God) Divine. </li></ul>SIFAT SAL-BIYYAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 ALLAH’S DISTINCTIVE ATTRIBUTES ( SIFAT ) -NEGATING OTHERS
  30. 30. <ul><li>Thus, the logical process towards ensuring we do not ascribe partners to Allah is to differentiate the meaning of His Existence ( Wujud ) from that of others. </li></ul>SIFAT SAL-BIYYAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 ALLAH’S DISTINCTIVE ATTRIBUTES ( SIFAT ) -NEGATING OTHERS
  31. 31. <ul><li>Thus, the logical process towards ensuring we do not ascribe partners to Allah is to differentiate the meaning of His Existence ( Wujud ) from that of others. </li></ul><ul><li>So what are these unique attributes that is exclusive to God’s existence? </li></ul>SIFAT SAL-BIYYAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 ALLAH’S DISTINCTIVE ATTRIBUTES ( SIFAT ) -NEGATING OTHERS
  32. 32. <ul><li>Our understanding of “ existence ” must be differentiated when applied to God. Firstly, Allah is the creator of our ‘notion’ of time, thus only Allah alone has existed without any beginning (forever existing). Whose existence is ( WAJIB-AL-WUJUD ) essential ,to the existence of creations – i.e. termed ‘contingent existence’ - ( MUMKIN-AL-WUJUD ). </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE QIDAM ETERNITY - FOREVER EXISTING WITHOUT ANY BEGINNING
  33. 33. “ He (Allah) is the First and the Last” ( Qur’an: Hadid : 57: 3 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  34. 34. <ul><li>As our understanding of “ existence ” must be differentiated when applied to God, therefore secondly, Allah alone is Absolute and will always exist without any ending (forever existing). All other existence (i.e. in creations) is only contingent existence ( mumkin al-wujud ) which may cease, dependent upon the Will of Allah. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE BAQA’ EVERLASTINGNESS – ETERNALLY WITHOUT END
  35. 35. “ But will abide (forever) the Face of thy Lord― full of Majesty, Bounty and Honour.” ( Qur’an: Ar-Rahmaan: 55: 27 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  36. 36. <ul><li>Muslim holds the belief that we cannot attribute to Allah similar </li></ul><ul><li>attributes like those possessed by creations. Any descriptions in </li></ul><ul><li>the Qur’an and As-Sunnah which use metaphors or allegorical </li></ul><ul><li>verses ( ayat mutashabbiha ) for Allah, must not be taken as literal or </li></ul><ul><li>regarded as having a decisive meaning. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE DIFFERENT FROM ANYTHING WHICH IS REGARDED AS NEW (CREATION) MUKHALA-FATUHU-LIL-HAWADITH
  37. 37. “ There is nothing whatever like unto Him” ( Qur’an: Shura: 42: 11 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  38. 38. “ He begetteth, not nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him.” ( Qur’an: al-Ikhlas: 112: 3-4 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  39. 39. <ul><li>Men’s tendencies towards anthropomorphic attributions to God is </li></ul><ul><li>to be refuted. Allah alone is God, the One Being who is Absolute and utterly transcends the notion of ever needing a cause, other than in and by Himself. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE HE EXISTED BY HIMSELF (WITHOUT NEED FOR OTHERS) QIYAA-MUHU-BI-NAFSIHI
  40. 40. “ O ye men! it is ye that have need of Allah: but Allah is the One Free of all wants, Worthy of all praise.” ( Qur’an: Faatir: 35: 15 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  41. 41. <ul><li>In our understanding Allah - His attributes ( sifaat ), His Names ( asma ’ ) and His Acts ( Af’al ); we do not in any way negate His Absolute Oneness. Allah being the Absolute One, indivisible, Infinite Being – having no partners, etc. is fundamental in the Islamic Creed. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE ABSOLUTE ONENESS WAH-DAA-NIYAH
  42. 42. “ Say: He is Allah the One and Only;.” ( Qur’an: al-Ikhlas: 112: 1 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  43. 43. “ And your God is one God; there is no god but He Most Gracious, Most Merciful.” ( Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 163 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  44. 44. “ If there were in the heavens and the earth, other gods besides Allah, there would have been ruin in both! But glory to Allah the Lord of the Throne: (High is He) above what they attribute to Him! .” ( Qur’an: Baqarah: 21: 22 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  45. 45. “ They disbelieve who say: Allah is one of three in a Trinity: for there is no god except One God. .” ( Qur’an: Maa-idah: 5: 72 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  46. 46. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  47. 47. <ul><li>The term “ Sifat Ma’aaniy ” would mean “Attributing with the meaning of”. </li></ul>SIFAT MA-’AANIY All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  48. 48. <ul><li>The term “ Sifat Ma’aaniy ” would mean “Attributing with the meaning of”. </li></ul><ul><li>While “ Existence ” is both Allah’s attribute ( Sifat ) and essence ( Dzat ), there are other meaningful attributes which we may know Allah with, and generally understood. </li></ul>SIFAT MA-’AANIY All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  49. 49. <ul><li>And in the Revealed texts too, such words are also being used. It is in the meaning (not essence) of these words that we may conceive. But, our conception of these meanings remains only as ‘ allegorical ’ or ‘ metaphors ’ for we cannot claim to know the full Reality of God’s attributes. </li></ul>SIFAT MA-’ANIY All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  50. 50. <ul><li>And in the Revealed texts too, such words are also being used. It is in the meaning (not essence) of these words that we may conceive. But, our conception of these meanings remains only as ‘ allegorical ’ or ‘ metaphors ’ for we cannot claim to know the full Reality of God’s attributes. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet we also cannot deny God of not having these attributes because that would be ridiculous and absurd. </li></ul>SIFAT MA-’ANIY All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  51. 51. <ul><li>Certainly Allah is all-powerful. Thus, we regard as absurdity for any one to entertain the assertion of God as having attributes of weakness, impotent etc. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE QUDRAH POSSESSING POWER
  52. 52. “ For verily, Allah hath power over all things.” ( Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 20 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  53. 53. <ul><li>Certainly Allah possesses ‘Will’. Thus, we regard as absurdity for any one to entertain the misconception of God without a Will, incapable of decree and decision, inconsequential, uncreative, etc. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE IRAADAH POSSESSING WILL
  54. 54. “ For verily, your Lord is the (sure) Accomplisher of what He wills (plans).” ( Qur’an: Hud: 2: 107 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  55. 55. “ Verily, when He (Allah) intends a thing, His command is ‘Be’ and it is!” ( Qur’an: Ya Seen: 36: 82 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  56. 56. <ul><li>Certainly Allah is all-knowing. Thus, we regard as absurdity for any one to entertain the assertion of God as being ignorant, forgetful, etc. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE ‘ ILMUN KNOWING
  57. 57. “ He is Allah, than Whom there is no other God, the Knower of the Invisible and the Visible. He is the Beneficent, Merciful. “ ( Qur’an: Hashr: 59: 22 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  58. 58. “ For Allah has full knowledge of all things. “ ( Qur’an: Ankabut: 29: 62 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  59. 59. <ul><li>Certainly Allah is the Ever-Living. Thus, we regard as absurdity for any one to entertain the assertion of God who is dead or who can die. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE HAYAAT LIVING
  60. 60. “ Allah! There is no Allah but He―the Living, the Self-Subsisting Eternal.“ ( Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 2 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  61. 61. “ He is the living (One): There is no god but He: Call upon Him giving Him sincere devotion.“ ( Qur’an: Mu’min (Ghafir): 3: 65 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  62. 62. <ul><li>Certainly Allah is all-Hearing. Thus, we regard as absurdity for any one to entertain the ridiculous assertion of God as being deaf, deprived or obstructed from hearing etc. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE SAM’UN HEARING
  63. 63. “ For verily, Allah is He who hears and knows all things.” ( Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 148 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  64. 64. <ul><li>Certainly Allah is All-Seeing. Thus, we regard as absurdity for any one to entertain the ridiculous assertion of God as being blind, or that things can be concealed or hidden from Him, etc. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE BASWARUN SEEING
  65. 65. “ There is nothing whatever like unto Him, and He is the One that hears and sees (all things).” ( Qur’an: Shura: 42: 11 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  66. 66. “ Verily Allah knows the unseen of the heavens and the earth: and Allah sees well all that ye do.&quot;” ( Qur’an: Hujurat: 49: 18 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  67. 67. <ul><li>Certainly Allah possesses Speech. Thus, we regard as absurdity for any one to entertain the foolish assertion of God as being dumb, unable to communicate, etc. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE KALAAMUN SPEECH
  68. 68. “ And to Moses Allah spoke direct.―.” ( Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 164 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  69. 69. “ We have, without doubt sent down the Message (Al-Qur’an) ; and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption).” ( Qur’an: Hijr: 15: 9 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 AMONGST OTHERS
  70. 70. “ Al-Qur’an is the speech of Allah, it is not from amongst creations ( makhluq ).” * ( Hadith of Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w .) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 * In other words Al-Qur’an is “uncreated”
  71. 71. Although the thirteen essential attributes is regarded as sufficient, the tendency to regard Allah (God) as being remote being transcendent – as though unrelated to our existence, Islamic scholars added these seven more attributes to refute such absurd notions, i.e. to re-assert the Ever presence of Allah’s existence, in man’s life. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  72. 72. This is because our understanding of God’s existence is beyond the notion of transcendent or immanent which our mind may tend to imagine. For some may regard God as a Being, totally detached and uninvolved is man’s existence. They may regard His attributes as mere potentials, thus these additional seven attributes remove the fallacy. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  73. 73. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  74. 74. <ul><li>The term “ Sifat Ma’nawiyyah ” would mean “Attributing the full and relevant consequence from those meanings” to God. </li></ul>SIFAT MA-’ANAWIYAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  75. 75. <ul><li>The term “ Sifat Ma’nawiyyah ” would mean “Attributing the full and relevant consequence from those meanings” to God. </li></ul><ul><li>We tend to think of God’s existence as being on a different plane from ours, and thus despite knowing His attributes, some assume that God has no direct relation to our present life on this earth. </li></ul>SIFAT MA-’ANAWIYAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  76. 76. <ul><li>For example, although one can understand God to be endowed with power, having a Will, Knowing, Living, Hearing, Seeing and Speaking, there may be people who erroneously assume these as mere potentialities of God. </li></ul>SIFAT MA-’ANAWIYYAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  77. 77. <ul><li>For example, although one can understand God to be endowed with power, having a Will, Knowing, Living, Hearing, Seeing and Speaking, there may be people who erroneously assume these as mere potentialities of God. </li></ul><ul><li>But, some may doubt by still asking: “can God only be said to be ‘having these attributes’ or does He (even ‘now’) ever manifesting those attributes?” </li></ul>SIFAT MA-’ANAWIYYAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  78. 78. <ul><li>This possibility of it being ambiguous as some people perhaps may regard God’s existence to be detached from their own, therefore, majority of Islamic scholars added these to the seven previous attributes, to remove that ambiguity. </li></ul>SIFAT MA-’ANAWIYYAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  79. 79. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE QUDRAH POSSESSING POWER HE IS EVER POWERFUL KAU-NUHU QAADIRAN
  80. 80. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE HE IS EVER WILLING KAU-NUHU MUREEDAN IRAADAH POSSESSING WILL
  81. 81. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE ‘ ILMUN KNOWING KAU-NUHU ‘ALEEMAN HE IS EVER KNOWING
  82. 82. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE HAYAAT LIVING KAU-NUHU HAY-YAN HE IS EVER ALIVE
  83. 83. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE SAM’UN HEARING KAU-NUHU SAMEE-’AN HE IS EVER HEARING
  84. 84. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE BASWARUN SEEING KAU-NUHU BASWEE-RAN HE IS EVER SEEING
  85. 85. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 EXISTENCE KALAAMUN SPEECH KAU-NUHU MUTAKAL-LIMAN HE IS EVER SPEAKING
  86. 86. SIFAT MA-’ANAWIYYAH SIFAT MA-’AANIY SIFAT SAL-BIYYAH SIFAT NAFSIYYAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  87. 87. 1 – An attribute which is also the Essence. 5 – Distinctive (negating) attributes. 7 – Attributes in the meanings. 7 – Attributing full consequence and relevance to the meanings. SIFAT MA-’ANAWIYYAH SIFAT MA-’AANIY SIFAT SAL-BIYYAH SIFAT NAFSIYYAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010
  88. 88. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010 “ Glory to thy Lord, the Lord of Honour and Power! (He is free) from what they ascribe (to Him)! And Peace on the Messengers! And praise to Allah, the Lord and Cherisher of the Worlds.”
  89. 89. http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ All welcome to visit my web-blog: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2010

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