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[Slideshare]intermediate islam introductnakhlaq-lesson#4b(26-nov2011)

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“INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF ‘ILM -AL-AKHLAQ ” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail

LESSON # 4b –

ABOUT THE ‘NAFS’ (SELF)

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[Slideshare]intermediate islam introductnakhlaq-lesson#4b(26-nov2011)

  1. 1. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF ‘ ILM AL-AKHLAQ “ Verily! You (Muhammad) are upon the most exalted (Kuluq) disposition.” Using text & curriculum he has developed especially for Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims. “ To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)” “ INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF ‘ ILM -AL-AKHLAQ ” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail LESSON # 4b – ABOUT THE ‘ NAFS’ (SELF) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) 26 Nov 2011 1 Muharram 1433AH
  2. 2. “ And they ask you, [O Muhammad], about the soul ( RU H ). Say, "The soul ( RU H ) is of the affair of my Lord. And mankind have not been given of knowledge except a little.” ( Qur’an: al-Isra‘: 17: 85 ) IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  3. 3. “ Guide us to the straight path -The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favour, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. ( Qur’an: al-Fatihah: 1: 5-7 ) IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  4. 4. “ O you who have attained to faith! ( ISwBIRU ) Be patient in adversity, and ( SwOBIRU ) vie in patience with one another ; and ( ROBITwU ) remain stationed (ever ready to do what is right) and (be conscious and) fear Allah ( TAQWALLAH ); that you may be successful.” ( Qur’an: Aali-’Imran: 3: 200 ) IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  5. 5. “ But as for those who strive hard in Our cause ( JAHIDU ) -We shall most certainly guide them onto paths that lead unto Us : for, behold, Allah is indeed with the doers of good.” ( Qur’an: Ankabut: 29: 69 ) IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  6. 6. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  7. 7. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) “ Consider the human self ( NAFS ), and how it is formed in accordance with what it is meant to be, and how it is imbued with moral failings as well as with consciousness of Allah! To a happy state shall indeed attain he who causes this [ NAFS - self] to grow in purity , and truly lost is he who buries it [in darkness].” ( Qur’an: Shams: 91: 7-10 )
  8. 8. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) <ul><li>The teaching of Islam is not merely concerned about the outward manifestation of one’s submission (although important and indispensible). </li></ul><ul><li>Its perfection which as important and indispensible – perhaps many may disregard - is the concept of IHSAN that requires the inner dimension of a Muslim’s servitude and worship. Since the essence of ‘ibadat is the intention, residing in our spiritual heart/mind ( QALB ) which requires sincerity ( IKHLAS ), knowledge on how to maintain it’s purity and growth is vital. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus knowledge about the nature and state of our spiritual Self ( NAFS ) is very important. </li></ul>
  9. 9. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  10. 10. “ He (Allah) it is who has sent unto the unlettered people a messenger from among themselves, to convey unto them His messages, and to cause them to grow in purity , and to impart unto them the divine writ as well as wisdom - whereas before that they were indeed, most obviously, lost in error.” ( Qur’an: Jumu’ah: 62: 2 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  11. 11. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) <ul><li>Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. was sent as the educator of mankind par excellence. The previous verse explains the manner of his approach and most significant (important and indispensible) is the stage of TAZKIYYATUN-NUFUS (Purification and growth of the spiritual Selves) before his imparting or teaching them the Qur’an ( al-Kitab ) and As-Sunnah ( al-Hikmah ). </li></ul><ul><li>And unlike secular education, what truly defines the essence of a person in Islamic worldview is his soul or spiritual Self. Mere outward transformation only is unacceptable without also a corresponding inner change. </li></ul>
  12. 12. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) <ul><li>For in Islam, the success of our education is not merely in Muslims being knowledgeable but requires that such knowledge must transform their disposition ( AKHLAQ ) with noble virtues - the raison d'être of our Prophet’s mission as in one of his sayings. </li></ul>“ Verily, I have not been sent (as Prophet) except to perfect the noble Akhlaq (disposition of mankind).” ( Hadith reported by Malik )
  13. 13. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) <ul><li>And “ AKHLAQ “ , as asserted by Imam Hujwiri rahm.a. : </li></ul><ul><li>“ are non-contrived praiseworthy actions not proceeding from particular motives. Their outer form is in harmony with their inner truth; they are actions devoid of pretension.” </li></ul>
  14. 14. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  15. 15. “ Consider the human self ( NAFS ), and how it is formed in accordance with what it is meant to be ,” ( Qur’an: Shams: 91: 7-10 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  16. 16. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) <ul><li>The first that a person is naturally aware of is – “ himself / herself ”. This consciousness naturally develops and everything else becomes identified relative to it. </li></ul><ul><li>As mankind is created in “ the best conformation ”, he is equipped with capabilities. Inherent within him are faculties with great potentials, if not properly nurtured may cause its growth to become distorted or unbalanced. </li></ul><ul><li>Amongst the latent powers or faculties termed as “ Quw-wah ”, some of which are also inherent in some other beings, yet it is mankind that possess all of these. Yet which one uniquely distinguishes mankind as human? </li></ul>
  17. 17. NON-LIVING PLANTS ANIMALS HUMANS Sustenance Growth (Physical) Reproduction (sexual) Movement at will Thought & Speech <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>X X X X X X X X X All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  18. 18. “ THE MOST GRACIOUS has imparted this Qur’an [unto man]. He has created man: He has imparted unto him articulate thought and speech ( AL-BAYAN ).” ( Qur’an: Rahman: 55: 1-4 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  19. 19. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  20. 20. “ [At His behest] the sun and the moon run their appointed courses; [before Him] prostrate them­selves the stars and the trees. And the skies has He raised high, and has devised [for all things] a measure, so that you [too, O men,] might never transgress the measure [of what is right]:weigh, therefore, [your deeds] with equity ( QISTw ), and cut not the measure short!” ( Qur’an: ar-Rahman: 55: 5-9 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  21. 21. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  22. 22. “ Alif. Lam. Ra. A DIVINE WRIT [is this -a revelation] which We have bestowed upon thee from on high in order that thou might bring forth all mankind, by their Sustainer's leave, out of the depths of darkness into the light: onto the way that leads to the Almighty , the One to whom all praise is due -” ( Qur’an: Ibrahim: 14: 1 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  23. 23. “ Verily we have honoured the children of Adam . We carry them on the land and the sea, and have made provision of good things for them, and have preferred them above many of those whom We created with a marked preferment.” ( Qur’an: al-Isra’: 17: 70 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  24. 24. “ Verily We created Man from a drop of mingled sperm, in order to try him: so We gave him (the gifts), of Hearing and Sight. We showed him the Way : whether he be grateful or ungrateful ( rests on his will ).” ( Qur’an: al-Insan: 76:2-3 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  25. 25. “ Verily never will Allah change the condition of a people until they change it themselves (within their own souls/selves).” ( Qur’an: ar-Ra’d: 13: 11 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  26. 26. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  27. 27. “ Many are the Jinns and men We have made for Hell: they have hearts wherewith they understand not, eyes wherewith they see not, and ears wherewith they hear not. They are like cattle nay more misguided: for they are heedless (of warning).” ( Qur’an: al-A’raf: 7:179 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  28. 28. “ But nay - they who are bent on evildoing follow but their own desires , without having any knowledge (of the truth). And who could guide those whom Allah has [thus] let go astray, and who (thereupon) have none to succour them?” ( Qur’an: Rum: 30: 29 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  29. 29. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  30. 30. “ AND SO, set thy face steadfastly towards the [one ever-true] faith, turning away from all that is false, in accordance with the natural disposition ( FITwRAH ) which Allah has instilled into man: [for,] not to allow any change to corrupt what Allah has thus created this is the [purpose of the one] ever-true faith; but most people know it not.-” ( Qur’an: Rum: 30: 30 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  31. 31. “ VERILY, in the Messenger of Allah (Muhammad) you have a good example for everyone who looks forward [with hope and awe] to Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah unceasingly. ” ( Qur’an: Ahzab: 33: 21 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  32. 32. “ Verily, I have not been sent (as Prophet) except to perfect the noble Akhlaq (disposition of mankind).” ( Hadith reported by Malik ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  33. 33. “ And you (Q Muhammad, stands) on an exalted standard of character (disposition).” ( Qur’an: Qalam: 68: 4 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  34. 34. “ Say: Our life takes its colour from Allah ! And who could give a better colour (to life) than Allah? And it is He (alone) Whom we worship.” ( Qur’an: al-Baqarah: 2: 138 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  35. 35. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  36. 36. <ul><li>ANGELS </li></ul><ul><li>JINN (spirits) </li></ul><ul><li>MANKIND </li></ul><ul><li>ANIMALS </li></ul><ul><li>PLANTS </li></ul><ul><li>Elevated to the highest, even higher than Angels </li></ul><ul><li>Debased to be the lowest of the low. </li></ul>IN THE CENTRE All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  37. 37. <ul><li>Angelic </li></ul><ul><li>Satanic </li></ul><ul><li>Adamic </li></ul><ul><li>Animalistic </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetative </li></ul><ul><li>‘ AQLIYYAH </li></ul><ul><li>WAHM/KHAYALI </li></ul><ul><li>FITRAH SALIMA </li></ul><ul><li>BAHIMIYAH </li></ul><ul><li>NABATIYY </li></ul>WITHIN MAN, HE SHARES MANY POWERS AS IN OTHER SPECIES MANKIND CREATED IN THE BEST OF MOULD All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  38. 38. <ul><li>Al-‘ AQLIYYAH </li></ul><ul><li>Power of intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Al- WAHMIYYAH / KHAYALIYYAH </li></ul><ul><li>Power of abstraction / imagination </li></ul>WITHIN MAN, HE SHARES MANY POWERS AS IN OTHER SPECIES MANKIND CREATED IN THE BEST OF MOULD All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  39. 39. <ul><li>AL-GHADABIYYAH </li></ul><ul><li>Power of anger </li></ul><ul><li>AL-SHAWIYYAH </li></ul><ul><li>Power of desires </li></ul>WITHIN MAN, HE SHARES MANY POWERS AS IN OTHER SPECIES MANKIND CREATED IN THE BEST OF MOULD All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  40. 40. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) <ul><li>The function and value of every one of these powers or faculties of the “ nafs ” is commonly well understood. If man did not have the power of reason (intelligence), it would have been impossible for him to distinguish between good and evil, right and wrong, true and false. </li></ul><ul><li>If he did not possess the faculty of anger, he could not defend himself against attack and aggression. </li></ul>
  41. 41. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) <ul><li>If force of sexual attraction and desire did not exist in man, the continued existence of the human species would be endangered. </li></ul><ul><li>And finally if man lacked the power of imagination, he could not visualise universals or particulars, and he would be unable to make any inference based on them. </li></ul>
  42. 42. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) <ul><li>As in all things which Allah has created, the principle of moderation and balance is applicable. The principle also applies to these faculties which are to be developed in man. </li></ul><ul><li>The means to attain to this Islamic principle of “justice; excellence; balance or equilibrium” in the Qur’anic terms of ‘ADALA, IHSAN, QISTw etc. manifesting these in ourselves as witnesses to TAU H EED - attestation to Oneness of Allah. </li></ul><ul><li>The golden rule is moderation - WASAT - neither lacking in nor too much excessive use of these inherent powers - it will produce certain traits or disposition ( AKHLAQ ) in man. The following chart may explain: </li></ul>
  43. 43. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) <ul><li>“ Quwwah ” </li></ul><ul><li>( Faculty or Power ) </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Desire </li></ul><ul><li>Imagination / </li></ul><ul><li>abstraction </li></ul><ul><li>DEFICIENT </li></ul><ul><li>Stupidity </li></ul><ul><li>Cowardice </li></ul><ul><li>Lethargy </li></ul><ul><li>Submissive </li></ul><ul><li>EXCESSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Slyness </li></ul><ul><li>Foolhardiness </li></ul><ul><li>Rapacious </li></ul><ul><li>Tyranny </li></ul><ul><li>MODERATION </li></ul><ul><li>Wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Courage </li></ul><ul><li>Chaste </li></ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul>
  44. 44. “ Have you seen the one who takes as his god his own desire? Then would you be responsible for him? Or do you think that most of them hear or reason? They are not except like livestock. Rather, they are [even] more astray in [their] way.” ( Qur’an:Furqan: 35: 43-44 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  45. 45. “ And We gave them clear proofs of the matter [of religion]. And they did not differ except after knowledge had come to them - out of jealous animosity between themselves. Indeed, your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that over which they used to differ.” ( Qur’an: Jatsiyah: 45: 17 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  46. 46. “ Then We put you, [O Muhammad], on an ordained way concerning the matter [of religion – SHARI’AH ]; so follow it and do not follow the inclinations of those who do not know. Indeed, they will never avail you against Allah at all. And indeed, the wrongdoers are allies of one another; but Allah is the protector of the righteous.” ( Qur’an: Jatsiyah: 45: 18 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  47. 47. “ Fair in the eyes of men is the love of things they covet: women and sons; heaped-up hoards of gold and silver; horses branded (for blood and excellence); and (wealth of) cattle and well-tilled land. Such are the possessions of this world's life; but in nearness to Allah is the best of the goals (to return to).” ( Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3:14 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  48. 48. &quot;But seek, with the (wealth) which Allah has bestowed on thee, the Home of the Hereafter, nor forget thy portion in this world: but do thou good, as Allah has been good to thee, and seek not (occasions for) mischief in the land: for Allah loves not those who do mischief.&quot;  ( Qur’an: Qasas: 28: 77 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  49. 49. “ Behold, Allah commands justice, the doing of good, and the giving (i.e. generosity) to kith and kin (i.e. fellow man), and He forbids all shameful deeds, and injustice and rebellion: He instructs you, that ye may receive admonition.” ( Qur’an: an-Nahlu: 16 : 90 ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  50. 50. TO BE CONTINUED - All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  51. 51. &quot;O Allah! I ask Your Blessings and peace be upon Muhammad and his Household and companions.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  52. 52. “ O Allah! Make us see the Truth to be true and grant us the ability to follow it. And make us see Falsehood to be false and grant us the ability to reject it.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  53. 53. &quot;O Allah! I ask Your Blessings and peace be upon Muhammad and his Household and companions.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  54. 54. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) O Allah, Thou art the All-Eternal the ever Existing the Source of every great Bestowals. And thanks to Thy great mercy and grace which is the source of everything happening.
  55. 55. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) This new year we beseech You (O Allah) to accept our supplication seeking (Your) protection for us all from satan, and from his allies and from his armies.
  56. 56. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) And help us to overcome our commanding Self ( NAFS -AL-AMARAH ) which inclines towards evil and wrong. Make it (our Self – NAFS ) to always be engaged and busy in matters that will bring us closer to You.
  57. 57. “ O Allah! Verily I beg of You for a NAFS (self-soul) that is in tranquillity with You, a NAFS (a self-soul) that is certain and believes in meeting with You, (a self-soul that is always) pleased with whatever You have decreed for me, and satisfied with all that You have given me.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  58. 58. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) O You Who is the Possessor of Honour and Majesty. O You Who is the Most Merciful of those who show Mercy.
  59. 59. &quot;O Allah! I ask Your Blessings and peace be upon Muhammad and his Household and companions.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  60. 60. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) &quot;Our Lord! Forgive us our sins and anything we may have done that transgressed our duty; establish our feet firmly and help us against those that resist Faith.&quot;
  61. 61. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  62. 62. &quot;Our Lord, do not impose blame upon us if we have forgotten or erred. Our Lord, and lay not upon us a burden like that which You laid upon those before us. Our Lord, and burden us not with that which we have no ability to bear. And pardon us; and forgive us; and have mercy upon us. You are our protector, so give us victory over the disbelieving people.&quot; All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  63. 63. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) “ Our Lord! we believe; then do Thou forgive us, and have mercy upon us: for Thou art the Best of those Who show mercy!”
  64. 64. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) &quot;Our Lord! Grant unto us wives/husbands and offspring who will be the comfort of our eyes and give us (the grace) to lead the righteous.&quot;
  65. 65. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) &quot;Our Lord! Bestow on us Mercy from Thyself, and dispose of our affair for us in the right way! “
  66. 66. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) “ Our Lord! we have wronged our own souls: if Thou forgive us not and bestow not upon us Thy Mercy we shall certainly be lost.&quot;
  67. 67. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) &quot;O our Lord! cover (us) with Thy Forgiveness― me, my parents, and (all) Believers, on the Day that the Reckoning will be established!&quot;
  68. 68. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) &quot;Our Lord! Forgive us, and our brethren who came before us into the Faith and leave not in our hearts, rancour (or sense of injury) against those who have believed Our Lord! Thou art indeed Full of Kindness, Most Merciful.“
  69. 69. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) “ Our Lord! Give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter and save us from the torment of the fire!&quot;
  70. 70. And salutations of Allah and Peace be upon our Leader Muhammad, and upon His household and Companions . All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  71. 71. And all the Praises belongs to Allah, Lord Sustainer of all the world All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  72. 72. http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ All welcome to visit my web-blog: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)

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