Arabic   (plural) of  Adab  : meanings – “good breeding, decency, nurture, good manners, refinement, cultured, decorum, co...
Yet, we  are born helpless and have to be cared, nurtured, to be inculcated with discipline, taught and developed  by a  M...
Islam : to submit the entire  self (body, tongue, heart and  Mind) – Freeing it from desire  which needs to always be guid...
Islam :  to submit the entire  self (body, tongue, heart and  Mind) – Freeing it from desire  which needs to always be gui...
“ [O man] be grateful towards Me and towards thy parents, [and remember that] with Me is all journeys’ end.” ( Qur’an: Luq...
<ul><li>These are the rules as listed by Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazalie  r.a. as well as from other traditional sources. </li>...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) TO PROCEED  ... LESSON # 7
“ He is not from my Ummah (community), One who do not respect our elders, or One who is not merciful (kind) to our young, ...
“ The pursuit of knowledge is not carried on without six things which I shall inform you through words that are clear:  [1...
” Verily this is knowledge (contains the rules) of the  DEEN  (Religion), so look thoroughly into  the person from whom yo...
“ An immoral man of learning is a great evil, yet a greater evil is an ignoramus leading a ‘godly’ life. Both are a great ...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) PREVIOUSLY EXPLAINED  EXCERPTS FROM MY PREVIOUS MODULE “ INTRODUCTION T...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA ACHEH PREVIOUSLY EXPLAINED
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA PATTANI
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA CHAMPA
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA SULU MINADANAO
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA SULU MINADANAO
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA MELAKA
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA MELAKA
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA DEMAK AND CIREBON ( AFTER MAJAPAHIT...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA A early 18th century map of Java. N...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) HOPE TO FURTHER ELUCIDATE THIS  IN SEPARATE SESSION –  INSH-ALLAH! Pres...
AHMAD  AL-MUHAJIR Ibrahim Zeinuddin al-Akbar (Ibrahim Asmoro – ‘As-Samarqandi’) Ahmad Rahmatullah SUNAN AMPEL Maulana Isha...
AHMAD  AL-MUHAJIR ‘ ISA ‘ Ubaydullah ‘ Alwi Muhammad ‘ Alwi ‘ Ali  (Khali’ Qasam) Muhammad (Shohib Mirbat) ‘ Ali IMAM  MUH...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) HOPE TO FURTHER ELUCIDATE THIS  IN SEPARATE SESSION –  INSH-ALLAH! Pres...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) ZABID (Yemen) TARIM (Yemen) SURAT (India) PASAI (Acheh) MELAKA (Malaya)...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) HOPE TO FURTHER ELUCIDATE THIS  IN SEPARATE SESSION –  INSH-ALLAH! Pres...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) HOPE TO FURTHER ELUCIDATE THIS  IN SEPARATE SESSION –  INSH-ALLAH! Pres...
TO PROCEED  ... LESSON # 7 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
“ O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority from among you ( ulil-’amri min-kum...
“ ... Ask from those who possess the Message (az-Zikr : the remembrance) in matters which you do not know.“ ( Qur’an: al-N...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
“ Nor should the Believers all go forth  together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devot...
“ Allah will raise up, to (suitable) ranks (and degrees), those of you who believe and who have been granted Knowledge :  ...
“ (Honour) My successors, may Allah s.w.t. be Merciful towards them!.” He was asked: “Who are your successors O Messenger ...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
“ (‘Ali ibn Abi Talib r.a. said) “I asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah! (What are we to do when) matters come before us wherewit...
“ If anyone contends with the Messenger even after  guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows  a path other t...
“ Thus have We made of you an Ummah justly balanced That ye might be witnesses over the nations and the Messenger a witnes...
“ My ummah (community) will never agree  upon matters which are erroneous” ( Hadith reported by Tirmidzi, Abu Dawud, Ibn M...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
&quot; Verily Allah does not remove knowledge from the (hearts of the) people, rather he takes away knowledge by taking aw...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
“ When a trust ( AMANAH )is neglected,  then wait for the time (of its destruction).”  Somebody ask:  ‘ How shall this be ...
“ If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger  *   if ye do believe in Allah and the La...
<ul><li>*   This is especially referring to the Islamic scholars and jurists ( mujtahid ), who are competent to refer back...
From  “Qa-la-da” – to adorn with a necklace;  to entrust authority to someone; to follow, imitate, etc. All Rights Reserve...
<ul><li>In Islamic legal theory, the scholars define “ TAQLID ”  as  : </li></ul><ul><li>“ Accepting the view of someone (...
<ul><li>Those who are not qualified scholars (termed ‘ FAQIH ’ -  one who are competent to do “ IJTIHAD  “   also called “...
From  “Ja-ha-da” – to strive;  effort; exertion, endeavour, labour, etc. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
<ul><li>In Islamic legal theory, scholastic method referred to as “ IJTIHAD ”  means simply ,  ‘ exertion ’, </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>The point here is that “ IJTIHAD   is not just one of scholarly exertion, but of exhaustion. ”  Fathoming the inte...
<ul><li>In Islamic legal theory, such a scholar is called “ MUJTAHID ” – and has many levels, those of the highest categor...
<ul><li>The well-known  MADZAAHIB  that survived are : </li></ul><ul><li>[1]  JA’FARI  – Imam Ja’far ibn Muhammad as-Sodiq...
<ul><li>Imam al-Qurtubi rhm. says: “No difference exists among the scholars that, the laymen are to perform  taqlid   of t...
<ul><li>Contemporary scholar, Imam al-Shanqiti rhm.wrote:  </li></ul><ul><li>“ The prescribed taqlid, which none of the Mu...
“ What are the requirement and necessary  qualification for a  Mujtahid  ?” All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
<ul><li>–  literally means  “an effort or an exercise to arrive at  </li></ul><ul><li>one’s own judgement”  – technically ...
<ul><li>Knowledgeable about the religion of Islam, the  Sunnah  (Ways or traditions of the Prophet s.a.a.w.),  Fiqh   (Jur...
<ul><li>[B]  He must be well versed in the study of the traditions of the Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w. That is, he must know ...
<ul><li>[C]  He must know the principles of  Ijma’  (scholarly consensus) very well; </li></ul><ul><li>[D]  He must know t...
<ul><li>Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the mora...
<ul><li>Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the mora...
<ul><li>Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the mora...
<ul><li>Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the mora...
<ul><li>–  These were those who did  ijtihad   in the matter of  Shari’ah   amongst the companions of the Prophet till the...
<ul><li>–  these are those who did  ijtihad  after the companion ( Sahabi )  era and later found schools of jurisprudence....
<ul><li>–  these are those who follow them ( mujtahid fi-al-Madzhab  ) i.e. the present day  mujtahids  who give Fatwa (or...
AL-QUR’AN The Revealed Book AS-SUNNAH The Way of the Prophet IJMA’ Consensus QIYAS Analogous deduction <ul><li>Generally, ...
<ul><li>Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary s...
<ul><li>Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary s...
<ul><li>Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary s...
<ul><li>Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary s...
<ul><li>Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary s...
“ The learned and wise among Muslims must use constant vigilance in detecting erroneous usage in language which impinges u...
<ul><li>“ Taqlid   is  haram  (forbidden)”  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Following  Madzhab  is  Bid’ah  (innovation) ! ” </li></ul...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
<ul><li>Taqlid  is in fact “ wajib ” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non- Mujtahid .  </li></ul><ul><li>This has bee...
<ul><li>Taqlid  is in fact “ wajib ” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non- Mujtahid .  </li></ul><ul><li>This has bee...
<ul><li>Taqlid  is in fact “ wajib ” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non- Mujtahid .  </li></ul><ul><li>This has bee...
<ul><li>Taqlid  is in fact “ wajib ” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non- Mujtahid .  </li></ul><ul><li>This has bee...
<ul><li>Taqlid  is in fact “ wajib ” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non- Mujtahid .  </li></ul><ul><li>This has bee...
<ul><li>Taqlid  is in fact “ wajib ” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non- Mujtahid .  </li></ul><ul><li>This has bee...
<ul><li>Study in the lives of the  Khulafa’ Rashidun , Ibn Mas’ud, Mu’adz, Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn ‘Umar, A’ishah, Umm Salamah, et...
<ul><li>Some scholars advocate “ it-tiba ’  “ i.e. “ following  ” by also understanding the basis ( dalil ) for a decision...
<ul><li>His knowing of the basis is not compulsory, but only encouraged as a learning process i.e. as encouragement to asp...
<ul><li>Some erroneously assumed that this reliance upon the authority whose competency can be generally ascertained  to b...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
<ul><li>If by “ Bid’ah  “ we mean strictly to refer to any “  innovation ”   i.e. something which has not been done by the...
<ul><li>Yet, amongst the Companions of the Prophet, there are those whom he specifically pointed out to be referred by oth...
<ul><li>So, if some practices occur which is known to the Prophet s.a.w. and he consented (by not forbidding it) then, tec...
<ul><li>As to the concern of varieties of views, yes, there were already “ ikhtilaaf   ” (differences) in the opinions amo...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
<ul><li>Although the slogan “ Let’s go back to Al-Qur’an and As-Sunnah ” may be correct and in vogue, yet it is a general ...
<ul><li>So the obvious response to the above is crucially with a question – “Are you a ‘ Mujtahid ’? “ </li></ul><ul><li>T...
<ul><li>Today those whose advocacy is : “ We do not follow any  Madzhab ” are spewing a contradiction because they are in ...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
<ul><li>No!  Madzaahib  in Islam is not the same as ‘denomination’ or ‘sects’ as in Christianity because: </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>No!  Madzaahib  in Islam is not the same as ‘denomination’ or ‘sects’ as in Christianity because: </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>No!  Madzaahib  in Islam is not the same as ‘denomination’ or ‘sects’ as in Christianity because: </li></ul><ul><l...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
<ul><li>Every one should begin following only one  Madzhab  first. It is not only following the final juristic decision, b...
<ul><li>Because, there are difference in the methodological preferences used between  Madzaahib  – viz. what is stressed s...
<ul><li>However, for those advanced in following a  Madzhab , are known to adopt views  or juristic  opinions from other  ...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
MAIN RIVER SOURCE DISTRIBUTARIES All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
<ul><li>All distributaries emanates from the main river source. </li></ul><ul><li>The nearer it is to the source, the pure...
<ul><li>It may even merge into one another. Or some may completely disappear from the earth’s surface. Or pure water from ...
<ul><li>Thus, the concern is for users of each distributaries to be cautious when drinking from it, lest it may be harmful...
<ul><li>To deprive any one from the available water that they already can access to, with the excuse that it has become po...
<ul><li>Similarly foolish is to argue “ my distributaries is better than your distributaries ” when both actually possesse...
<ul><li>Those who have collected for themselves clean water may share them with others – but, it would be sheer arrogance ...
<ul><li>It is equally foolish, nay irresponsible, to confuse – or rather to “ scare and confound ”- the common people whos...
“ O ye who believe! if you are conscious of and fear Allah ( TAQWA ), He will grant you a criterion ( FURQAN -to judge bet...
ALLAA-HUM-MA – ARI-NAL-HAQ-QA - HAQ-QAN WAR- ZUQ-NAT - TI-BAA- ’A WA-ARI-NAL – BAA-TWILA – BAA-TWI-LAAN WAR-ZUQ-NAJ – TI –...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
&quot;Our Lord, do not impose blame upon us if we have forgotten or erred.  Our Lord, and lay not upon us a burden like th...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
“ O Allah, make my speech be guidance, inspire me with reverential fear, give me success in that which is most pure, and e...
O Allah! Make faith ( iiman ) dear to us and beautify it in our hearts and make disbelief ( Kufr ), sinning ( Fusuq ) and ...
O Allah! Allow us to die as Muslims, live as Muslims  and join us with the ranks of the righteous ones,  without tasting h...
‘ And (may All a h send) salutations and prayers upon Mu h ammad  and upon the household and companions of Mu h ammad  (th...
“ Glory to thy Lord the Lord, of Honour and Power!  (He is free) from what they ascribe (to Him)!  And Peace on the Messen...
http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-am...
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[Slideshare](adab)lesson#7 relationship[following madzhab]

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LESSONS ON ISLAMIC
CONCEPT OF ADAB
By: Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail

"Adab in following Madzhab"
( 30 November 2011 )
Every Wednesday night @ 8pm
Wisma Indah 448 Changi Rd,#02-00
(Next to Masjid Kassim),

Published in: Education, Spiritual
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[Slideshare](adab)lesson#7 relationship[following madzhab]

  1. 1. Arabic (plural) of Adab : meanings – “good breeding, decency, nurture, good manners, refinement, cultured, decorum, courteous, etiquette, propriety, social grace, to educate, discipline, the humanities, etc.” sense of proportion and knowledge of their rightful place in the order of things, the absence of which indicates injustice LESSONS ON ISLAMIC CONCEPT OF ADAB By: Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail Insha’Allah -This is a follow-up course, after completion of 18 weeks course on the kitab “ Ta’lim al-Muta’allim Tariqit Ta’allum ” of Sheikh Tajuddin Nu’man Zarnuji ( 30 November 2011 ) Every Wednesday night @ 8pm Wisma Indah 448 Changi Rd,#02-00 (Next to Masjid Kassim), LESSON# 7 IN THE NAME OF ALLAH MOST COMPASSIONATE MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) 2 ND RUN OF THE MODULE
  2. 2. Yet, we are born helpless and have to be cared, nurtured, to be inculcated with discipline, taught and developed by a Murabbi’ (EDUCATOR) – the first of whom are our PARENTS. Relationship with the Parents and Teacher RECAP PREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  3. 3. Islam : to submit the entire self (body, tongue, heart and Mind) – Freeing it from desire which needs to always be guided to the Will of Allah. THE WORLD TIME SELF BODY TONGUE MIND DESIRE HEART Obedience to Parents and teachers Beginning of education: [1] Tarbiyya pertains to training of the soul still attached to desires, etc. Teacher/Educator: [1] Parent [2] Teacher Although ultimate is Knowledge, (both theoretical and practical) – initial disciplining, rote learning, memorization, etc. may be crucial. PARENTS TEACHERS KNOWLEDGE Relationship with the Parents and Teacher All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  4. 4. Islam : to submit the entire self (body, tongue, heart and Mind) – Freeing it from desire which needs to always be guided to the Will of Allah. THE WORLD TIME SELF BODY TONGUE MIND DESIRE HEART Obedience to Parents and teachers Beginning of education : [1] Tarbiyya pertains to training of the soul still attached to desires, etc. Teacher/Educator : [1] Parent [2] Teacher Although ultimate is Knowledge, (both theoretical and practical) – initial disciplining, rote learning, memorization, etc. may be crucial. KNOWLEDGE Relationship with the Parents and Teacher PARENTS All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) TEACHERS
  5. 5. “ [O man] be grateful towards Me and towards thy parents, [and remember that] with Me is all journeys’ end.” ( Qur’an: Luqman: 31: 14 ) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) RECAP PREVIOUS LESSON
  6. 6. <ul><li>These are the rules as listed by Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazalie r.a. as well as from other traditional sources. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) RECAP PREVIOUS LESSON
  7. 7. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) TO PROCEED ... LESSON # 7
  8. 8. “ He is not from my Ummah (community), One who do not respect our elders, or One who is not merciful (kind) to our young, and one who do not know (and respect the rights of) our ‘Ulama’ (Islamic scholars).” ( Hadith of our Prophet s.a.w. Reported by Tabrany ) Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w. said: All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) EXCERPTS FROM MY PREVIOUS MODULE “ INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH”
  9. 9. “ The pursuit of knowledge is not carried on without six things which I shall inform you through words that are clear: [1] Ingenious acumen, [2] fervent desire, [3] patience, [4] sufficient sustenance, [5] guidance of a teacher, and [6] length of time.” All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  10. 10. ” Verily this is knowledge (contains the rules) of the DEEN (Religion), so look thoroughly into the person from whom you acquire (the knowledge of) your DEEN (Religion).” Imam Muhammad ibnu Sirrin (rhm.a) advices and warns us Muslims: All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  11. 11. “ An immoral man of learning is a great evil, yet a greater evil is an ignoramus leading a ‘godly’ life. Both are a great trial everywhere, to whomever depends to them both, in holding on to his religion” REFLECTION : We would indeed be afflicted with this Fitnah (trial). Only with appropriate knowledge and irshaadah , and more importantly Taufiq wal-Hidaa-ya from Allah SWT. would we be saved from its evil. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  12. 12. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) PREVIOUSLY EXPLAINED EXCERPTS FROM MY PREVIOUS MODULE “ INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH”
  13. 13. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA
  14. 14. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA ACHEH PREVIOUSLY EXPLAINED
  15. 15. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA PATTANI
  16. 16. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA CHAMPA
  17. 17. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA SULU MINADANAO
  18. 18. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA SULU MINADANAO
  19. 19. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA MELAKA
  20. 20. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA MELAKA
  21. 21. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA DEMAK AND CIREBON ( AFTER MAJAPAHIT JAVA)
  22. 22. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) STRATEGIC LOCATION OF THE NUSANTARA A early 18th century map of Java. Note that only major trading ports on the northern coast were known to the European. From west to east: * Banten* Jayakarta* Cirebon * Tegal *  Demak  * Jepara * Tuban* Sedayu, now near Gresik * Surabaya DEMAK AND CIREBON ( AFTER MAJAPAHIT JAVA)
  23. 23. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) HOPE TO FURTHER ELUCIDATE THIS IN SEPARATE SESSION – INSH-ALLAH! Presentation by: Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (Singapore)
  24. 24. AHMAD AL-MUHAJIR Ibrahim Zeinuddin al-Akbar (Ibrahim Asmoro – ‘As-Samarqandi’) Ahmad Rahmatullah SUNAN AMPEL Maulana Ishaq ‘ Ali Murtadho Maulana ‘Ainul Yaqeen SUNAN GIRI Ibrahim SUNAN BONANG Hashim SUNAN DRAJAT Ja’far Sodiq SUNAN QUDUS Jamaluddin Hussain al-Akbar ’ Ali Nurul ‘Alam ’ Abdullah Sharif Hidayatullah SUNAN GUNUNG JATI Zein al-’Alam Barakat ( SHARIF AWLIYA’ ) Maulana Malik Ibrahim SUNAN GERISIK Raden Shahid SUNAN KALIJAGA Raden ‘Umar Sa’id SUNAN MURIA Son-in-law All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) Ahmad Jalal Shah ‘ Abdullah Khan Abdul Malik ‘ Alwi Muhammad (Shohib Mirbat) ‘ Ali (Khali’ Qasam) ‘ Alwi Muhammad ‘ Alwi ‘ Ubaydullah Grandfather to Adzamat Khan family of Hind (India) “ Behold! verily on the ( AWLIYA’ ) friends of Allah there is no fear, nor shall they grieve” ( Qur’an: Yunus: 10: 62 )
  25. 25. AHMAD AL-MUHAJIR ‘ ISA ‘ Ubaydullah ‘ Alwi Muhammad ‘ Alwi ‘ Ali (Khali’ Qasam) Muhammad (Shohib Mirbat) ‘ Ali IMAM MUHAMMAD (al-Faqih al-Muqaddam) ‘ Alwi Abdul Malik MUHAMMAD IMAM ‘ALI AL-URAIDHI IMAM JA’FAR SODIQ IMAM MUHAMMAD AL-BAQIR IMAM ‘ALI ZEIN AL-’ABIDIN IMAM ‘ALI BIN ABI TOLIB IMAM HUSSAYN FATIMAH AL-ZAHRA’ MUHAMMAD (RASULULLAH) S.A.A.W. Descent lineage to Wali Songo THE LINEAGE OF THE BA-’ALAWI OF HADHRAMAWT ( AND THE ISLAMIZATION OF THE NUSANTARA ) FOUNDER OF TARIQAH ‘ALAWIYYAH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) SHEIKH ABU MADYAN His spiritual chain ( silsilah – khirqa ) linked
  26. 26. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) HOPE TO FURTHER ELUCIDATE THIS IN SEPARATE SESSION – INSH-ALLAH! Presentation by: Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (Singapore )
  27. 27. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) ZABID (Yemen) TARIM (Yemen) SURAT (India) PASAI (Acheh) MELAKA (Malaya) PATTANI (Siam) DEMAK (Java) PALEMBANG (Sumatra) BANDJARMASIN (Kalimantan) KELANTAN (Malaya) HARAMAIN ( Makkah & Madinah ) DAMASCUS (Syria) BAGHDAD (Iraq) ADEN (Yemen) PENYENGAT (Bintan-Riau) SEIYWUN (Yemen) BAYT AL-MAQDIS (Palestine) CAIRO (Egypt) ISTANBUL (Turkey) BUKIT TINGGI (Sumatra) MULUKU MAKASAR SULAWESI QARAWIYIN (Morroco) TERENGGGANU BASRAH
  28. 28. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) HOPE TO FURTHER ELUCIDATE THIS IN SEPARATE SESSION – INSH-ALLAH! Presentation by: Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (Singapore )
  29. 29. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011 ) HOPE TO FURTHER ELUCIDATE THIS IN SEPARATE SESSION – INSH-ALLAH! Presentation by: Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (Singapore)
  30. 30. TO PROCEED ... LESSON # 7 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  31. 31. “ O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority from among you ( ulil-’amri min-kum ).” ( Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59 ) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  32. 32. “ ... Ask from those who possess the Message (az-Zikr : the remembrance) in matters which you do not know.“ ( Qur’an: al-Nahlu: 16: 43 ) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  33. 33. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  34. 34. “ Nor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion ( faqih fid-deen ) and admonish the people when they return to them ― that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil).” ( Qur’an: Taubah: 9: 122 ) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  35. 35. “ Allah will raise up, to (suitable) ranks (and degrees), those of you who believe and who have been granted Knowledge : and Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do .“ ( Qur’an: Mujadilah: 58: 11 ) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  36. 36. “ (Honour) My successors, may Allah s.w.t. be Merciful towards them!.” He was asked: “Who are your successors O Messenger of Allah?” And he said: “They are those who revive my Sunnah and teaches them to the servants of Allah.” ( Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w .) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  37. 37. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  38. 38. “ (‘Ali ibn Abi Talib r.a. said) “I asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah! (What are we to do when) matters come before us wherewith there is no (explicit) indication regarding them in the Qur’an nor in the Sunnah from you regarding them (regarding its ruling)?’ (The Prophet s.a.w.) he said: “You are to gather together the learned ( ‘ulama ) amongst them” – or he may have said “The worshippers ( ‘abideen ) from amongst the Believers” – “Convene with them shura (mutual consultations to derive a collective decision) in regard to religious rulings. Do not decide based upon (idea or knowledge of) only one (singular) person’s thought.” ( Hadith reported by Ibnu Abdil Barr ) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  39. 39. “ If anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men to Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell, what an evil refuge.” ( Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 115) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  40. 40. “ Thus have We made of you an Ummah justly balanced That ye might be witnesses over the nations and the Messenger a witness over yourselves .” ( Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 143 ) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  41. 41. “ My ummah (community) will never agree upon matters which are erroneous” ( Hadith reported by Tirmidzi, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah & Daruqutni ) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  42. 42. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  43. 43. &quot; Verily Allah does not remove knowledge from the (hearts of the) people, rather he takes away knowledge by taking away its people (the true scholars – ‘ULAMA ), until there are no more scholars, the people then take leaders that are ignorant, and when they are asked, and give fatwas – religious rulings, (they give) without knowledge, so they misguide and are misguided.“ ( Hadith reported by Ashaab as-Sunnan from Ibnu ‘Umar r.a .) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  44. 44. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  45. 45. “ When a trust ( AMANAH )is neglected, then wait for the time (of its destruction).” Somebody ask: ‘ How shall this be neglected O Messenger of Allah?’ He the replied: “When a matter (affair) is given over, not to its rightful (legitimate) person ( AHLIHA ), then wait for its time (of destruction).” ( Hadith reported by Bukhary ) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  46. 46. “ If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger * if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination.” ( Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59 ) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  47. 47. <ul><li>* This is especially referring to the Islamic scholars and jurists ( mujtahid ), who are competent to refer back to these two primary sources – not just any one. </li></ul><ul><li>The general Muslims must rely upon those jurists and scholars ( mujtahid of a madzhab ) decisions by Taqlid . </li></ul><ul><li>Differences of opinions amongst madzaahib termed “ khilafiyyah ” are to be respected with Adab which is expected of Muslim students towards all our Islamic teachers and scholars ( ulama’ .) </li></ul>IMPORTANT CLARIFICATION All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  48. 48. From “Qa-la-da” – to adorn with a necklace; to entrust authority to someone; to follow, imitate, etc. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  49. 49. <ul><li>In Islamic legal theory, the scholars define “ TAQLID ” as : </li></ul><ul><li>“ Accepting the view of someone (who is a qualified jurist – termed : FAQIH / MUJTAHID ) without a proof” </li></ul><ul><li>( qabuu-lu qaw-lil-ghayr min ghay-ri -Hujjah).” 1 </li></ul>1 – Imam al-Ghazalie r.h.m. Al-Mustasfå min ‘Ilm al-Usul (Cairo: Maktabah al-Tijariyyah, 1356), 2:387. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  50. 50. <ul><li>Those who are not qualified scholars (termed ‘ FAQIH ’ - one who are competent to do “ IJTIHAD “ also called “ MUJTAHID ”) , are the ordinary Muslim (still technically regarded as a “ MUQOLLID ” ) , it is obligatory to “ TAQLID ” to opinions of a mujtahid . </li></ul>All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  51. 51. From “Ja-ha-da” – to strive; effort; exertion, endeavour, labour, etc. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  52. 52. <ul><li>In Islamic legal theory, scholastic method referred to as “ IJTIHAD ” means simply , ‘ exertion ’, </li></ul><ul><li>Religiously speaking, it refers to a competent jurist ( FAQIH ) “ expending every possible effort to examine ” the textual evidences, so as to arrive at a ruling of the Sacred Law. </li></ul>CLARIFICATION All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  53. 53. <ul><li>The point here is that “ IJTIHAD is not just one of scholarly exertion, but of exhaustion. ” Fathoming the intent of the Lawgiver, and inferring new rulings from the primary sources extensively - so as to reach a sound legal conclusion - is indeed a most arduous and demanding task not for just any or everyone. </li></ul>CLARIFICATION All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  54. 54. <ul><li>In Islamic legal theory, such a scholar is called “ MUJTAHID ” – and has many levels, those of the highest category, whose juristic methods and decisions are widely followed termed – “ MUJTAHID MUTLAQ ” – became as a school of jurisprudence called “ MADZHAB ” (singular) or “ MADZAAHIB ”(plural). </li></ul>CLARIFICATION All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  55. 55. <ul><li>The well-known MADZAAHIB that survived are : </li></ul><ul><li>[1] JA’FARI – Imam Ja’far ibn Muhammad as-Sodiq </li></ul><ul><li>[2] HANAFI – Imam Abu Hanifah Nu’man ibn Tsabit </li></ul><ul><li>[3] MALIKI – Imam Malik bin Anas </li></ul><ul><li>[4] SHAFI-’IE – Imam Muhammad Idris as-Shafi-’ie </li></ul><ul><li>[5] HANBALI – Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal </li></ul>CLARIFICATION All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  56. 56. <ul><li>Imam al-Qurtubi rhm. says: “No difference exists among the scholars that, the laymen are to perform taqlid of their scholars ( MUJJTAHID ) .” * </li></ul><ul><li>Ibn Qudamah explicitly states: “As far as taqlid in the details of the Sacred Law ( FURU‘ ) is concerned, it is allowed by consensus ( IJMA ’ ).” + </li></ul>CLARIFICATION * Al-Jami‘ li Ahkam al-Qur’an (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah), + Al-Rawdatu’l-Nazir wa Jannat al-Manazir (Riyadh: Maktabah al-Rushd), All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  57. 57. <ul><li>Contemporary scholar, Imam al-Shanqiti rhm.wrote: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The prescribed taqlid, which none of the Muslims contest, is the layman’s performing taqlid of a scholar qualified to issue fatwa on various matters. This type of taqlid was in vogue during the time of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and there was no contention about it. The layman asked whosoever he wished from the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah be pleased with them, about the ruling for a given case. Whenever a fatwa was given, he simply complied with it.” * </li></ul>CLARIFICATION * Adwa’ al-Bayån, 7:318 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  58. 58. “ What are the requirement and necessary qualification for a Mujtahid ?” All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  59. 59. <ul><li>– literally means “an effort or an exercise to arrive at </li></ul><ul><li>one’s own judgement” – technically it is used in regards </li></ul><ul><li>to “the exertion by a ( mujtahid ) qualified Islamic scholar </li></ul><ul><li>in ( istinbat ) extracting legal rulings from the primary </li></ul><ul><li>sources.” </li></ul>IJTIHAD All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  60. 60. <ul><li>Knowledgeable about the religion of Islam, the Sunnah (Ways or traditions of the Prophet s.a.a.w.), Fiqh (Jurisprudence) and Usul-al-Fiqh (Principles of Jurisprudence) especially: </li></ul><ul><li>[A] He must be so very well versed in the study of Qur’an, that he must know its sciences, the reason why and when the verses and chapters of the Qur’an were revealed ( Asbab-al-Nuzul ), the eloquence, the commentaries etc.; </li></ul>REQUIREMENT All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  61. 61. <ul><li>[B] He must be well versed in the study of the traditions of the Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w. That is, he must know the distinction between authentic Hadith from the spurious and the various other technical categories of Ahadith – viz. Mutawwatir, Shahih, Hasan, Dho’if, Maudhu’ etc.; </li></ul>REQUIREMENT All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  62. 62. <ul><li>[C] He must know the principles of Ijma’ (scholarly consensus) very well; </li></ul><ul><li>[D] He must know the injunctions of Qiyas (jurisdistic analogy). </li></ul>REQUIREMENT All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  63. 63. <ul><li>Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the moral qualities are: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) He must be a good Muslim. That he must not be a nominal Muslim; rather, must be a practising one. </li></ul>OTHER IMPORTANT CRITERIA All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  64. 64. <ul><li>Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the moral qualities are: </li></ul><ul><li>(b) He must be very pious and law-abiding to all the injunctions of the Holy Qur’an. </li></ul>OTHER IMPORTANT CRITERIA All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  65. 65. <ul><li>Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the moral qualities are: </li></ul><ul><li>(c) He must not be influenced by any heretical influences. </li></ul>OTHER IMPORTANT CRITERIA All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  66. 66. <ul><li>Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the moral qualities are: </li></ul><ul><li>(d) He must be just, reliable, trustworthy and pure from iniquitous practices. </li></ul>OTHER IMPORTANT CRITERIA All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  67. 67. <ul><li>– These were those who did ijtihad in the matter of Shari’ah amongst the companions of the Prophet till the third century of Islam. </li></ul>AL-MUJTAHID FI - AL-SHARI-’AH (reference from “Shariah: The Islamic Law” by Abdur Rahman I. Doi) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  68. 68. <ul><li>– these are those who did ijtihad after the companion ( Sahabi ) era and later found schools of jurisprudence. There are today 5 main surviving schools of Jurisprudence, viz. Ja’fari, Maliki, Hanafi, Shafi’ie and Hanbali </li></ul>AL-MUJTAHID FI - AL-MADZHAB (reference from “Shariah: The Islamic Law” by Abdur Rahman I. Doi) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  69. 69. <ul><li>– these are those who follow them ( mujtahid fi-al-Madzhab ) i.e. the present day mujtahids who give Fatwa (or Juristic opinions) on religious matters when required. </li></ul>AL-MUJTAHID FI - AL-MASAA-IL (reference from “Shariah: The Islamic Law” by Abdur Rahman I. Doi) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  70. 70. AL-QUR’AN The Revealed Book AS-SUNNAH The Way of the Prophet IJMA’ Consensus QIYAS Analogous deduction <ul><li>Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “ Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi ”. </li></ul><ul><li>What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ ijtihad ” that has many approaches, of priority is “ ijma ” and “ Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more .... </li></ul>All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  71. 71. <ul><li>Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “ Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi ”. </li></ul><ul><li>What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ ijtihad ” that has many approaches, of priority is “ ijma ” and “ Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more .... </li></ul>Istidlal and Istishab deduction by logic and reasoning; and relying on presumption; continuation of a rule for a certain situation in a circumstance where it is not known whether or not the original situation still exists All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  72. 72. <ul><li>Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “ Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi ”. </li></ul><ul><li>What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ ijtihad ” that has many approaches, of priority is “ ijma ” and “ Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more .... </li></ul>Istihsan preference Maslahah al-mursalah for public interest All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  73. 73. <ul><li>Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “ Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi ”. </li></ul><ul><li>What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ ijtihad ” that has many approaches, of priority is “ ijma ” and “ Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more .... </li></ul>al-‘Urf Customs or norms Sadd-uz-zara-’i “ closing the door of mischief” All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  74. 74. <ul><li>Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “ Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi ”. </li></ul><ul><li>What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ ijtihad ” that has many approaches, of priority is “ ijma ” and “ Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more .... </li></ul>‘ Amal ahl-al-madinah “ practices of the people of Madinah” Ash-shar-’u manqablana the path traversed by those before us – i.e. the jurists ( mujtahidun ) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  75. 75. <ul><li>Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “ Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi ”. </li></ul><ul><li>What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ ijtihad ” that has many approaches, of priority is “ ijma ” and “ Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more .... </li></ul>‘ Madzhab Sahaabiy opinions of Companions of the Prophet All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  76. 76. “ The learned and wise among Muslims must use constant vigilance in detecting erroneous usage in language which impinges upon semantic change in major key elements and creates general confusion and error in the understanding of Islam and of its worldview.” Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  77. 77. <ul><li>“ Taqlid is haram (forbidden)” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Following Madzhab is Bid’ah (innovation) ! ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I want to follow only the Madzhab of the Prophet s.a.w. ! ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We should not follow any Madzhab , we must all follow only the Qur’an and Sunnah ! ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ There is no priesthood in Islam, so why must we obey the ‘ulama’. After all each one of us can now easily access the Qur’an and Ahadith ! ” etc. </li></ul>Some people carelessly argues: Allow me to respond and clarify.. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  78. 78. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  79. 79. <ul><li>Taqlid is in fact “ wajib ” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non- Mujtahid . </li></ul><ul><li>This has been the consensus ( ijma’ ) of Islamic scholars since the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned, and the Qur’anic basis are many viz: </li></ul>“ Is Taqlid is Haram (forbidden)” ? #1 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  80. 80. <ul><li>Taqlid is in fact “ wajib ” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non- Mujtahid . </li></ul><ul><li>This has been the consensus ( ijma’ ) of Islamic scholars since the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned, and the Qur’anic basis are many viz: </li></ul>“ Is Taqlid is Haram (forbidden)” ? #1 “ ask of those who possess the Message, in matters which you do not know.” ( Qur’an: An-Nahlu: 16:43 ) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  81. 81. <ul><li>Taqlid is in fact “ wajib ” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non- Mujtahid . </li></ul><ul><li>This has been the consensus ( ijma’ ) of Islamic scholars since the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned, and the Qur’anic basis are many viz: </li></ul>“ Is Taqlid is Haram (forbidden)” ? #1 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  82. 82. <ul><li>Taqlid is in fact “ wajib ” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non- Mujtahid . </li></ul><ul><li>This has been the consensus ( ijma’ ) of Islamic scholars since the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned, and the Qur’anic basis are many viz: </li></ul>“ Is Taqlid is Haram (forbidden)” ? #1 “ Allah will raise up, to (suitable) ranks (and degrees), those of you who believe and who have been granted Knowledge” ( Qur’an: Mujadilah: 58: 11 ) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  83. 83. <ul><li>Taqlid is in fact “ wajib ” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non- Mujtahid . </li></ul><ul><li>This has been the consensus ( ijma’ ) of Islamic scholars since the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned, and the Qur’anic basis are many viz: </li></ul>“ Is Taqlid is Haram (forbidden)” ? #1 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  84. 84. <ul><li>Taqlid is in fact “ wajib ” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non- Mujtahid . </li></ul><ul><li>This has been the consensus ( ijma’ ) of Islamic scholars since the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned, and the Qur’anic basis are many viz: </li></ul>“ Is Taqlid is Haram (forbidden)” ? #1 “ O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you” ( Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59 ) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  85. 85. <ul><li>Study in the lives of the Khulafa’ Rashidun , Ibn Mas’ud, Mu’adz, Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn ‘Umar, A’ishah, Umm Salamah, etc. show that they not only convey Ahadith , but also give “ iftah ” religious rulings on certain matters. </li></ul><ul><li>This is where Madzhab has its beginnings – i.e. during the Prophet’s time – “ Madzhab Sahaby ” (juristic opinions of the Companions). And the Prophet s.a.w. knew and even sanctioned this practice. </li></ul>“ Is Taqlid is Haram (forbidden)” ? #1 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  86. 86. <ul><li>Some scholars advocate “ it-tiba ’ “ i.e. “ following ” by also understanding the basis ( dalil ) for a decision. This is to prevent laziness and cult-like blind adherence ( ta’assub ) merely towards personalities and their charisma. </li></ul><ul><li>Howbeit, this “ it-tiba’ “ is still regarded as “ Taqlid ” because the person ( muttabi’ ) still has to rely upon whatever the scholars have presented, for he (who obviously is not mujtahid ) has no competency to adequately assess the basis from its sources independently. </li></ul>“ Is Taqlid is Haram (forbidden)” ? #1 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  87. 87. <ul><li>His knowing of the basis is not compulsory, but only encouraged as a learning process i.e. as encouragement to aspire to upgrade himself towards becoming knowledgeable of the Deen ; as well as for him to appreciate and learn the methodology. </li></ul><ul><li>It is only in matters of AQEEDAH or in matters that outwardly opposes known principles and teachings of Islam, that “ Taqlid “ (in the sense of following blindly) is Haram (forbidden) i.e. for those who can think and who can verify. </li></ul>“ Is Taqlid is Haram (forbidden)” ? #1 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  88. 88. <ul><li>Some erroneously assumed that this reliance upon the authority whose competency can be generally ascertained to be forbidden, while they conveniently forget that this itself is in fact complying to Allah’s commandment: </li></ul>“ Is Taqlid is Haram (forbidden)” ? #1 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) “ ... Ask from those who possess the Message (az-Zikr : the remembrance) in matters which you do not know.“ ( Qur’an: al-Nahlu: 16: 43 ) WaAllaahu a’lam
  89. 89. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  90. 90. <ul><li>If by “ Bid’ah “ we mean strictly to refer to any “ innovation ” i.e. something which has not been done by the Prophet s.a.a.w. himself ” - then yes, of course it is “ Bid’ah “. </li></ul><ul><li>This was because there was no necessity for the Prophet s.a.a.w. to be following any one else’s opinion on religious matter. </li></ul>“ Is following Madzhab is Bid’ah (innovation) ? ” # 2 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  91. 91. <ul><li>Yet, amongst the Companions of the Prophet, there are those whom he specifically pointed out to be referred by others, because these were acknowledged by him as competent scholars and teachers in the Prophet’s absence. </li></ul><ul><li>So if by “ madzhab “ we mean “ school of thoughts in matters of juristic, Qur’anic interpretations ”, then this is clearly already advocated by the Prophet s.a.w. himself during his life-time. </li></ul>“ Is following Madzhab is Bid’ah (innovation) ? ” # 2 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  92. 92. <ul><li>So, if some practices occur which is known to the Prophet s.a.w. and he consented (by not forbidding it) then, technically it is to be regarded as a Sunnah ( Taqririyya ). Here, then the argument in fact supports that following “ madzhab ” is not a “ Bid’ah ” but rather is actually a “ Sunnah ”. </li></ul>“ Is following Madzhab is Bid’ah (innovation) ? ” # 2 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  93. 93. <ul><li>As to the concern of varieties of views, yes, there were already “ ikhtilaaf ” (differences) in the opinions amongst the companions themselves, although few, but it was wisely tolerated by the Prophet s.a.w. himself even during that period, to teach us how we are supposed to regard differences of opinions with Adab , amongst the learned. These differences are even regarded as a mercy. </li></ul><ul><li>WaAllaahu a’lam. </li></ul>“ Is following Madzhab is Bid’ah (innovation) ? ” # 2 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  94. 94. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  95. 95. <ul><li>Although the slogan “ Let’s go back to Al-Qur’an and As-Sunnah ” may be correct and in vogue, yet it is a general statement which must be read with a caveat – i.e. “ for those knowledgeable and who truly are competent to do so ” – which therefore is not a licence for just everyone. </li></ul><ul><li>The general Muslims are required to refer to Islamic jurists and scholars whose opinions, explicitly or implicitly as a rule, must be founded upon the Qur’an and As-Sunnah. </li></ul>“ Why must we follow Madzhab when we can go to the Qur’an and Ahadith ourselves ? ” # 3 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  96. 96. <ul><li>So the obvious response to the above is crucially with a question – “Are you a ‘ Mujtahid ’? “ </li></ul><ul><li>The claim of one’s ability to “going back to Al-Qur’an and Ahadith” must first be ascertained and verified . Without which one still has to rely upon those who can. </li></ul><ul><li>And all “ Madzaahib ” are in fact a body or collegiate of competent Islamic scholars whose task are to refer matters to the Qur’an and As-Sunnah. </li></ul>“ Why must we follow Madzhab when we can go to the Qur’an and Ahadith ourselves ? ” # 3 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  97. 97. <ul><li>Today those whose advocacy is : “ We do not follow any Madzhab ” are spewing a contradiction because they are in fact setting up a new “ Madzhab ” i.e. technically it is still “ a madzhab of those who reject traditional Madzhab” , except that they may not even be learned themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, it is a misguidance of the misguided. May Allah safeguard us all from every kinds of misguidance. </li></ul><ul><li>WaAllaahu a’lam. </li></ul>“ Why must we follow Madzhab when we can go to the Qur’an and Ahadith ourselves ? ” # 3 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  98. 98. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  99. 99. <ul><li>No! Madzaahib in Islam is not the same as ‘denomination’ or ‘sects’ as in Christianity because: </li></ul><ul><li>[1] Muslim scholars of every Madzhab adhere to similar principles – Al-Qur’an, As-Sunnah, Ijma’, Qiyas, etc. – they differ only in some few secondary matters of interpretations, but are generally in agreement in most fundamental issues. </li></ul>“ Would not following Madzhab a form of sectarianism like the denominations of the Christian churches ? ” # 4 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  100. 100. <ul><li>No! Madzaahib in Islam is not the same as ‘denomination’ or ‘sects’ as in Christianity because: </li></ul><ul><li>[2] Whereas in Christianity, ‘denominations’ amongst them differ in regard to fundamentals and primary sources viz. the Bible, their dogmas, their rites , etc. </li></ul>“ Would not following Madzhab a form of sectarianism like the denominations of the Christian churches ? ” # 4 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  101. 101. <ul><li>No! Madzaahib in Islam is not the same as ‘denomination’ or ‘sects’ as in Christianity because: </li></ul><ul><li>[3] All Muslims is to aspire to become ‘Ulama (scholars) to some degree, and they can re-check whatever opinions with other scholars - whereas in Christianity, most of their Church cleric has almost an excusive authority, and are unquestionably followed by the ordinary congregation. </li></ul>“ Would not following Madzhab a form of sectarianism like the denominations of the Christian churches ? ” # 4 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011) WaAllaahu a’lam
  102. 102. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  103. 103. <ul><li>Every one should begin following only one Madzhab first. It is not only following the final juristic decision, but also to learn the principles, methods and approaches to its juristic interpretation. </li></ul>“ Must we follow only one Madzhab ? Can we not move to the opinion of other Madzaahib ?” # 5 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  104. 104. <ul><li>Because, there are difference in the methodological preferences used between Madzaahib – viz. what is stressed strictly ( ‘azeemah ), what can be given dispensation ( rukhshah ), etc. therefore, changing or mixing opinions of Madzaahib before knowing each of the basis, is forbidden as it can lead to confusion for novice. </li></ul><ul><li>This is to prevent ‘hybrid’ opinion which strictly speaking is neither of this madzhab nor of that – termed ‘ talfiq ’. </li></ul>“ Must we follow only one Madzhab ? Can we not move to the opinion of other Madzaahib ?” # 5 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  105. 105. <ul><li>However, for those advanced in following a Madzhab , are known to adopt views or juristic opinions from other Madzaahib after comparing the basis used, as well as to consider which opinions can offer the best solution to an issue at hand (but avoiding the error of ‘ talfiq ’) . </li></ul><ul><li>Yet even so, they do not have to declare, nor necessary to regard themselves to have changed Madzhab . </li></ul><ul><li>WaAllaahu a’lam </li></ul>“ Must we follow only one Madzhab ? Can we not move to the opinion of other Madzaahib ?” # 5 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  106. 106. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  107. 107. MAIN RIVER SOURCE DISTRIBUTARIES All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  108. 108. <ul><li>All distributaries emanates from the main river source. </li></ul><ul><li>The nearer it is to the source, the purer will be the water. </li></ul><ul><li>None of the distributaries alone can claim to represent the entire main river, yet as long as they are connected to the main source, they are all part of the river system (no doubt). </li></ul>All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  109. 109. <ul><li>It may even merge into one another. Or some may completely disappear from the earth’s surface. Or pure water from the sky may be added to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Each distributaries could also be affected by the soil upon which it flows through, or impurities may have been thrown into them, or other pollutants inadvertently introduced as when irrigation or dam have to be constructed etc.. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  110. 110. <ul><li>Thus, the concern is for users of each distributaries to be cautious when drinking from it, lest it may be harmful, although one has to still drink from it- or else die from thirst. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  111. 111. <ul><li>To deprive any one from the available water that they already can access to, with the excuse that it has become polluted is foolish, just as long as the stream they are drinking from, still contain the water which is from the main source. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  112. 112. <ul><li>Similarly foolish is to argue “ my distributaries is better than your distributaries ” when both actually possesses life-sustaining water (H 2 O). </li></ul>All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  113. 113. <ul><li>Those who have collected for themselves clean water may share them with others – but, it would be sheer arrogance to ‘ incite or instigate ’ common people who have always relied upon these distributaries for their sustenance, to abandon benefitting from the abundant flow of these streams, for the sake of ‘ small insignificant cisterns and tanks ’ being offered. </li></ul>All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  114. 114. <ul><li>It is equally foolish, nay irresponsible, to confuse – or rather to “ scare and confound ”- the common people whose need for water does not necessarily require him to be expert chemists themselves – only for them to heed whatever advises of the medical experts amongst them as well as from the “ water authority ”. </li></ul><ul><li>WaAllaahu a’lam . </li></ul>All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  115. 115. “ O ye who believe! if you are conscious of and fear Allah ( TAQWA ), He will grant you a criterion ( FURQAN -to judge between right and wrong), remove from you (all) evil (that may afflict) you, and forgive you: for Allah is the Lord of grace unbounded.” ( Qur’an: Anfaal: 8: 29 ) REMEMBER THIS IMPORTANT COMMAND All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  116. 116. ALLAA-HUM-MA – ARI-NAL-HAQ-QA - HAQ-QAN WAR- ZUQ-NAT - TI-BAA- ’A WA-ARI-NAL – BAA-TWILA – BAA-TWI-LAAN WAR-ZUQ-NAJ – TI –NAA - BAH “ O Allah! Make me see the Truth to be true and grant me ability to follow it. And make me see Falsehood to be false and grant me the ability to reject it.” IMPORTANT DU’A All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  117. 117. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  118. 118. &quot;Our Lord, do not impose blame upon us if we have forgotten or erred. Our Lord, and lay not upon us a burden like that which You laid upon those before us. Our Lord, and burden us not with that which we have no ability to bear. And pardon us; and forgive us; and have mercy upon us. You are our protector, so give us victory over the disbelieving people.&quot; All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  119. 119. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  120. 120. “ O Allah, make my speech be guidance, inspire me with reverential fear, give me success in that which is most pure, and employ me in what is most pleasing to Thee! O Allah, let me tread the most exemplary path and make me live and die in Thy creed! O Allah, bless Muhammad and his Household, give me to enjoy moderation, make me into one of the people of right behaviour, the proofs of right conduct, and the servants of righteousness,&quot; All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  121. 121. O Allah! Make faith ( iiman ) dear to us and beautify it in our hearts and make disbelief ( Kufr ), sinning ( Fusuq ) and rebelliousness ( `isyan ) hateful to us, and make us among the rightly guided ( Raa-shi-duun ). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  122. 122. O Allah! Allow us to die as Muslims, live as Muslims and join us with the ranks of the righteous ones, without tasting humiliation or turmoil. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  123. 123. ‘ And (may All a h send) salutations and prayers upon Mu h ammad and upon the household and companions of Mu h ammad (the pure ones of his family and all the loyal followers). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  124. 124. “ Glory to thy Lord the Lord, of Honour and Power! (He is free) from what they ascribe (to Him)! And Peace on the Messengers! And praise to Allah, the Lord and Cherisher of the Worlds.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)
  125. 125. http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ All welcome to visit my web-blog: All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)

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