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[Slideshare] tafaqqahu-(2015)-#4 (d)-contn'd -daily-application-(our-attitude-as-ummah-muhammad)-halal-wa-haram(7-march-2015)

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[Slideshare] tafaqqahu-(2015)-#4 (d)-contn'd -daily-application-(our-attitude-as-ummah-muhammad)-halal-wa-haram(7-march-2015)

  1. 1. UNDERSTANDING OF THE DEEN (AL-ISLAM) Intermediate Islamic (FIQH) course in English Conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail LESSON # 4 [d]LESSON # 4 [d] Using text & curriculum he has developed especially forUsing text & curriculum he has developed especially for Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims.Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims. ““To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE,MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL.MOST MERCIFUL. "O my Lord! Let my entry be by the Gate of Truth and Honour, and likewise my exit by the Gate of Truth and Honour; and grant me from Thy Presence an authority to aid (me)” (Qur’an: Isra’: 17: 80) Daily application of FIQHDaily application of FIQH •OUR IDENTITY AND ATTITUDE BEING OFOUR IDENTITY AND ATTITUDE BEING OF THE UMMAH OF MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W.THE UMMAH OF MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W. ( Knowledge of( Knowledge of Halal-wa-HaramHalal-wa-Haram ) –) – a continuationa continuation Updated 7 MARCH 2015 PARTPART # 2# 2 ((20152015))
  2. 2. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  3. 3. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  4. 4. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) ““O YOU who have attained to faith! Ward off fromO YOU who have attained to faith! Ward off from yourselves (i.eyourselves (i.e. save yourself) and those who are. save yourself) and those who are close to you (AHLIY-KUM) that fire [of the hereafter]close to you (AHLIY-KUM) that fire [of the hereafter] whose fuel is human beings and stones: [lording]whose fuel is human beings and stones: [lording] over it are angelic powers awesome [and] severe,over it are angelic powers awesome [and] severe, who do not disobey Allah in whatever He haswho do not disobey Allah in whatever He has commanded them, but [always] do what they arecommanded them, but [always] do what they are bidden to do.”bidden to do.” ((Qur’an: Tahrim: 66: 6Qur’an: Tahrim: 66: 6))
  5. 5. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) ““Then We put you, [O Muhammad], on (Then We put you, [O Muhammad], on (SHARI-’ATINSHARI-’ATIN) an) an ordained way concerning the matter [of religion];ordained way concerning the matter [of religion]; so follow itso follow it andand do not follow the inclinations of those who do not knowdo not follow the inclinations of those who do not know.―”.―” ((Qur’an: Ja-thiyah: 45: 18Qur’an: Ja-thiyah: 45: 18))
  6. 6. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  7. 7. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) “O you who have attained to faith! Pay heed (obey) unto Allah, and pay heed (obey) unto the Messenger and unto those from among you who have been entrusted with authority (ULIL-AMRI MINKUM) ; and if you are at variance over any matter, refer it unto Allah and the Messenger, if you [truly] believe in Allah and the Last Day. This is the best [for you], and best in the end.” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 69)
  8. 8. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) ““If anyone contends with (i.e. opposes) the MessengerIf anyone contends with (i.e. opposes) the Messenger even aftereven after guidance has been plainly conveyed to himguidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other, and follows a path other than that becoming to men to Faith, We shall leave him in the paththan that becoming to men to Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell, what an evil refuge.”he has chosen, and land him in Hell, what an evil refuge.” ((Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 115)Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 115)
  9. 9. ““O MANKIND! Worship (serve) your SustainerO MANKIND! Worship (serve) your Sustainer, who has, who has created you and those who lived before you, so that youcreated you and those who lived before you, so that you might remain conscious of (and fear transgression against)might remain conscious of (and fear transgression against) Him (Him (TAQWATAQWA)“)“ ((Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 21Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 21)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  10. 10. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  11. 11. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) ““ Tell them (O Prophet!): 'Let them rejoice in Allah'sTell them (O Prophet!): 'Let them rejoice in Allah's grace and mercy through which this (Book) has come tograce and mercy through which this (Book) has come to you. It is better than all the riches that they accumulate.you. It is better than all the riches that they accumulate. Did you consider thatDid you consider that the sustenance which Allah hadthe sustenance which Allah had sent down for you of your own accord you have declaredsent down for you of your own accord you have declared some of it as unlawful and some as lawful?some of it as unlawful and some as lawful? Ask them:Ask them: 'Did Allah bestow upon you any authority for this or do'Did Allah bestow upon you any authority for this or do you forge lies against Allah?”you forge lies against Allah?” ((Qur’an: Yunus: 10: 58-59Qur’an: Yunus: 10: 58-59))
  12. 12. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) Hence,Hence, do not utter falsehoodsdo not utter falsehoods by letting your tongues determineby letting your tongues determine [at your own discretion], "This is lawful and that is forbidden",[at your own discretion], "This is lawful and that is forbidden", thus attributing your own lying inventions to Allah: for, behold,thus attributing your own lying inventions to Allah: for, behold, they who attribute their own lying inventions to Allah will neverthey who attribute their own lying inventions to Allah will never attain to a happy state (i.e. prosper)!attain to a happy state (i.e. prosper)! ((Qur’an: 16: An-Nahlu: 116Qur’an: 16: An-Nahlu: 116))
  13. 13. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  14. 14. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) ““ O you who have believed,O you who have believed, do not prohibitdo not prohibit thethe goodgood thingsthings whichwhich Allah has made lawful to youAllah has made lawful to you andand do notdo not transgresstransgress. Indeed, Allah does not like transgressors.. Indeed, Allah does not like transgressors. And eat of what Allah has provided for you [which is]And eat of what Allah has provided for you [which is] lawful and good. And (be conscious and) fear Allah, inlawful and good. And (be conscious and) fear Allah, in whom you are believers.”whom you are believers.” ((Qur’an: Maa-idah: 5: 87-88Qur’an: Maa-idah: 5: 87-88))
  15. 15. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  16. 16. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) ““O MANKIND!O MANKIND! Partake of what is lawful (Partake of what is lawful (HHALAALANALAALAN)) and good (and good (TwAI-YIBANTwAI-YIBAN) on earth, and follow not Satan's) on earth, and follow not Satan's footsteps: for, verily, he is your open foe, and bids youfootsteps: for, verily, he is your open foe, and bids you only to do evil (only to do evil (SUU’-ISUU’-I), and to commit deeds of), and to commit deeds of abomination (abomination (FAH-SHAA-IFAH-SHAA-I), and to attribute unto Allah), and to attribute unto Allah something of which you have no knowledge.“something of which you have no knowledge.“ ((Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 168-169Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 168-169))
  17. 17. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  18. 18. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) “O you who have attained to faith! Partake of the good things which We have provided for you as sustenance, and render thanks unto Allah, if it is [truly] Him that you worship.” (Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 172)
  19. 19. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))  We in Nusantara, as non-Mujtahid, are already taught to (TAQLEED) adhere in FIQH matters to the Islamic jurisprudential-legal school of SHAFI’-IE Madzhab and the Fatwas of succeeding scholars, Mufti etc.. Yet, there may be issues (although few) especially in our contemporary time, which may present to us different rulings and views (IKHTILAF) from other MADZAAHIB.  Our exercise here is to learn and understand some of the basis and principle of jurisprudence used, which should make us be respectful of differences among the MADZAAHIB , to remove confusion and avert contentious disputations which may lead to dissension - disunity in the UMMAH.
  20. 20. ““That which isThat which is HHALALALAL (lawful; permissible) is clear and that which is(lawful; permissible) is clear and that which is HHARAMARAM (unlawful; forbidden) is clear, and between the two of them are(unlawful; forbidden) is clear, and between the two of them are MUSMUSHH-TABIHAT-TABIHAT (doubtful matters) about which many people do not know. .”(doubtful matters) about which many people do not know. .” ((Hadith reported by BukharyHadith reported by Bukhary)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  21. 21. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  22. 22. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) ““He (Allah) has only forbidden to you dead animals,He (Allah) has only forbidden to you dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has beenblood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah. But whoever is forceddedicated to other than Allah. But whoever is forced [by necessity], neither desiring [it] nor transgressing[by necessity], neither desiring [it] nor transgressing [its limit], there is no sin upon him. Indeed, Allah is[its limit], there is no sin upon him. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.”Forgiving and Merciful.” (Q(Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 173ur’an: Baqarah: 2: 173))
  23. 23.  He (Allah SWT) has only forbidden you (Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 173): 1. Carrion, that is, the consumption of it, since this is the subject of the general address here, and similarly [the consumption of] what follows, [all of] which is what has not been slaughtered in accordance with [prescriptions of] the Law; to this the Sunna adds [as also constituting carrion] what has been severed from a living creature. A special status is, however, accorded fish and locusts; 2. Blood, poured forth, as in [sūrat] al-An‘ām [see Q. 6:145], Tafsir al-Jalalayn All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  24. 24. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  25. 25. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) “FORBIDDEN to you is carrion, and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that over which any name other than Allah's has been invoked, and the animal that has been strangled, or beaten to death, or killed by a fall, or gored to death, or savaged by a beast of prey, save that which you [yourselves] may have slaughtered while it was still alive; and [forbidden to you is] all that has been slaughtered on idolatrous altars. And [you are forbidden] to seek to learn through divination what the future may hold in store for you: this is sinful conduct.” (Qur’an: Maa-idah: 5: 3)
  26. 26. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  27. 27. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) ““Those who shall follow the [last] Messenger, the unlettered ProphetThose who shall follow the [last] Messenger, the unlettered Prophet whom they shall find described in the Torah that is with them, andwhom they shall find described in the Torah that is with them, and [later on] in the Gospel: [the Prophet] who will enjoin upon them the[later on] in the Gospel: [the Prophet] who will enjoin upon them the doing of what is right and forbid them the doing of what is wrong, anddoing of what is right and forbid them the doing of what is wrong, and make lawful to them the good things of life (TWAI-YIBAT)make lawful to them the good things of life (TWAI-YIBAT) andand forbidforbid them the bad things (KHABAA-ITH)them the bad things (KHABAA-ITH), and lift from them their burdens, and lift from them their burdens and the shackles that were upon them [aforetime]. Those, therefore,and the shackles that were upon them [aforetime]. Those, therefore, who shall believe in him, and honour him, and succour him, and followwho shall believe in him, and honour him, and succour him, and follow the light that has been bestowed from on high through him-it is theythe light that has been bestowed from on high through him-it is they that shall attain to a happy state."that shall attain to a happy state." (Q(Qur’an: A’raf: 7: 157ur’an: A’raf: 7: 157))
  28. 28. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) ““Lawful to you is all water-game (Lawful to you is all water-game (SWSWAIDUL-BAHRAIDUL-BAHR), and what the sea brings), and what the sea brings forth, as a provision for you [who are settled] as well as for travellers,forth, as a provision for you [who are settled] as well as for travellers, although you are forbidden to hunt on land while you are in the state ofalthough you are forbidden to hunt on land while you are in the state of pilgrimage. And be conscious of Allah, unto whom you shall be gathered.”pilgrimage. And be conscious of Allah, unto whom you shall be gathered.” ((Qur’an: Maa-idah: 5: 96Qur’an: Maa-idah: 5: 96))
  29. 29. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  30. 30. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) (Narrated by Adi ibn Hatim r.a.) I asked the Prophet(Narrated by Adi ibn Hatim r.a.) I asked the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ ((about the hunting dogsabout the hunting dogs) and he replied, "If you let loose) and he replied, "If you let loose (with Allah's name) your tamed dog after a game and it(with Allah's name) your tamed dog after a game and it hunts it, you may eat it, but if the dog eats of (that game)hunts it, you may eat it, but if the dog eats of (that game) then do not eat it because the dog has hunted it for itself." Ithen do not eat it because the dog has hunted it for itself." I further said, "Sometimes I send my dog for hunting and findfurther said, "Sometimes I send my dog for hunting and find another dog with it. He said, "Do not eat the game for youanother dog with it. He said, "Do not eat the game for you have mentioned Allah's name only on sending your dog andhave mentioned Allah's name only on sending your dog and not the other dog.“not the other dog.“ ((Hadith reported by BukharyHadith reported by Bukhary))
  31. 31. The Messenger of AllahThe Messenger of Allah ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ said: “said: “Two kinds of dead meat and twoTwo kinds of dead meat and two kinds of blood have been permitted to uskinds of blood have been permitted to us. The two kinds of dead meat are. The two kinds of dead meat are fish and locusts, and the two kinds of blood are the liver and spleen.”fish and locusts, and the two kinds of blood are the liver and spleen.” ((Hadith reported by Ibn MajahHadith reported by Ibn Majah)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  32. 32. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) ““And not alike are the two bodies of water. One is fresh andAnd not alike are the two bodies of water. One is fresh and sweet, palatable for drinking, and one is salty and bitter.sweet, palatable for drinking, and one is salty and bitter. And from each you eat tender meatAnd from each you eat tender meat ….”….” ((Qur’an: Faatir: 35: 12Qur’an: Faatir: 35: 12))
  33. 33. From Abu Hurairah, that the ProphetFrom Abu Hurairah, that the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ (said), concerning the(said), concerning the water of the sea: "Its water is pure (and Purification) and its 'deadwater of the sea: "Its water is pure (and Purification) and its 'dead meat' (meat' (MAI-TATUHUMAI-TATUHU) is) is permissiblepermissible (to eat)."(to eat)." ((Hadith reported by An-Nasaa-iHadith reported by An-Nasaa-i)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  34. 34.  He (Allah SWT) has only forbidden you (Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 173): 2. The flesh of swine, the meat is singled out for mention because that [part] is what people mostly seek, every other [part] being implied thereby; 3. What has been hallowed to other than Allah, that is to say, what has been slaughtered in other than His Name (al-ihlāl is the raising of one’s voice, which they used to do when sacrificing for their gods). Tafsir al-Jalalayn All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  35. 35. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) “This day [all] good foods have been made lawful, and the food of those who were given the Scripture is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them.” (Qur’an: Maa-idah: 5: 5)
  36. 36.  He (Allah SWT) has only forbidden you (Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 173):  Yet whoever is constrained, forced by dire need to eat of the above- mentioned, not desiring, to rebel against Muslims, nor transgressing, committing aggression against them by waylaying them, no sin shall be on him, for eating it.  Allah is Forgiving, to His friends, Merciful, to those who are obedient to Him, for He has granted them wide berth in this matter.  The aggressor and the transgressor are excluded from this [dispensation], and to these two [categories] one should also add every person that sets out on a journey in disobedience, such as the fugitive or the excise collector, for whom it would be unlawful to eat any of the mentioned, unless they repent [of their disobedience]; this is the opinion of al-Shāfi‘ī. Tafsir al-Jalalayn All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  37. 37. “'Every predator possessing fangs is forbidden to eat." (Hadith reported by An-Nasa-i) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  38. 38. Ibn ‘Abbas r.a. said : The Messenger of Allah ‫ﷺ‬ prohibited the eating of every beast of prey with fang, and every bird with a talon." (Hadith reported by Abu Dawud) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  39. 39. ““That which isThat which is HHALALALAL (lawful; permissible) is clear and that which is(lawful; permissible) is clear and that which is HHARAMARAM (unlawful; forbidden) is clear, and between the two of them are(unlawful; forbidden) is clear, and between the two of them are MUSMUSHH-TABIHAT-TABIHAT (doubtful matters) about which many people do not know …”(doubtful matters) about which many people do not know …” ((Hadith reported by BukharyHadith reported by Bukhary)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  40. 40. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  41. 41. “ … So whoever saves himself from these suspicious (doubtful) things saves his religion and his honour. And whoever indulges in these suspicious (doubtful) things is like a shepherd who grazes (his animals) near the HIMA (private pasture) of someone else and at any moment he is liable to get in it. (O people!) Beware! Every king has a HIMA and the HIMA of Allah on the earth is whatever that has been declared (ruled as) forbidden (MUHARRIMAT).” (Hadith reported by Bukhary) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  42. 42. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  43. 43. Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas r.a. : ”The people of pre-Islamic times used to eat some things and leave others alone, considering them unclean. Then Allah sent His Prophet ‫ﷺ‬ and sent down His Book, marking some things lawful and others unlawful; so what He made lawful is lawful, what he made unlawful is unlawful, and what he said nothing about is allowable. And he recited: "Say: I find not in the message received by me by inspiration any (meat) forbidden to be eaten by one who wishes to eat it...." up to the end of the verse.” (Hadith reported by Abu Dawud) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  44. 44. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) HALAL (Permissible – Lawful) HARAM HARUS (MUBAH) (Optional-neutral) MAKRUH (Undesirable) MUSTAHAAB (MANDUB) (Recommended) Forbidden Unlawful (Clearly known) (Clearly known) SHUB-HAT (Doubtful) ““Certainty cannot be removed (overruled) by DoubtCertainty cannot be removed (overruled) by Doubt”” TWO WAYS OF SINNING IN MATTERS OF OBLIGATORY  Sinning by commission  Sinning by omission FARD- ’ AIN – Fixed personal obligation FARD-KIFAAYAH – Fixed community obligation WAJIB – Whatever is ruled by Shari’ah as Obligatory
  45. 45. “The essence (original rule) for all things is that it is permissible” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  46. 46. “The essence (original rule) for all things is that it is permissible” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) “Have you not seen that Allah has subjected to your service all that is in the heavens and on the earth and has abundantly bestowed upon you all His bounties, both visible and invisible? Yet some persons dispute regarding Allah without having any knowledge or guidance or any illuminating Book.” (Qur’an: Luqman: 31: 30)
  47. 47. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) ““Certainty cannot be removed (overruled) by Doubt”Certainty cannot be removed (overruled) by Doubt”
  48. 48. LEVELS OF CERTAINTYLEVELS OF CERTAINTY LEVELS OF UNCERTAINTY ‘ILMUL YAQEEN Certainty with knowledge and Intellection. ‘AINUL YAQEEN Certainty by sight and sensory perception. HAQQUL YAQEEN True certainty – ‘tasting’; direct experience of Reality; RAIBA – suspicious misgivings; wavering doubt; uncertainty; SHAKK – doubt,; uncertainty, distrust; sceptical; DZONN – conjecture; assumption; yet still not certain; guess; inclining towards holding opinion even though still without valid proof of certainty. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  49. 49. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) ““Custom is (authoritative for) Judgement”Custom is (authoritative for) Judgement”
  50. 50. ““Difficulty (hardship) must lead to Ease (facility)”Difficulty (hardship) must lead to Ease (facility)” ** There are further elaborations and branches orThere are further elaborations and branches or derived rulings from these fivederived rulings from these five – refer USUL FIQH.– refer USUL FIQH. ““Whatever is permitted because of aWhatever is permitted because of a DwDwarura is limited toarura is limited to the extent of existence of thatthe extent of existence of that DwDwarura (as impediment)”arura (as impediment)” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  51. 51. ANIMALS 1.Flesh of swine and any form of pork products; 2.Carrion and animal slaughtered invoking name other than Allah or in a manner not approved by Islam; 3.Blood gush forth – except for liver and spleen, and remnant left in blood vessels/organ of lawfully slaughtered animal. 4.Disgusting small animals that creep or walk on the ground, insects (except locust); All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  52. 52. ANIMALS 4.Predatory land animals with fangs or tusk; 5.Those – birds of prey -which hunt with talons; 6.Off springs from (cross-bred between) animal permissible with animal forbidden; 7.It is permissible to eat any aquatic game (SWSWAIDUL-BAHRAIDUL-BAHR), except for frog and crocodile; generally analogous refer to amphibians and reptiles (except desert lizards which the Prophet s.a.a.w. did not forbid) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015))
  53. 53. SUBSTANCES 1.Anything harmful (proven to be harmful; if suspected then it falls under doubtful); 2.Anything regarded as impure (NAJASAH) - whether in itself or by a lawful thing which it has been contamiated with; included in this category are things generally regarded as repulsive, abhorrent etc. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2015)) TO BE CONTINUED – INSHA-ALLAH

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