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UNDERSTANDING OF THE DEEN (AL-ISLAM) 
Intermediate Islamic (FIQH) course in English 
Conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Isma...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
HOPE WE CAN BBEETTTTEERR AAPPPPRREECCIIAATTEE IISSLLAAMMIICC 
JJUURRIISSPPRRUUDDEENNCCEE BBYY UUNNDDEERRSSTTAANNDDIINNGG T...
AANN IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT QQUUAALLIIFFIICCAATTIIOONN 
NNOOTTEE:: AA CCoommmmoonn MMiissttaakkee 
Actually, Islamic Law has ...
AANN IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT QQUUAALLIIFFIICCAATTIIOONN 
NNOOTTEE:: AA CCoommmmoonn MMiissttaakkee 
It is extremely important ...
AANN IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT QQUUAALLIIFFIICCAATTIIOONN 
NNOOTTEE:: AA CCoommmmoonn MMiissttaakkee 
 However, a number of cont...
FFIIVVEE FFuunnddaammeennttaall GGeenneerraall PPrriinncciipplleess ** iinn IIssllaammiicc JJuurriisspprruuddeennccee 
AL-...
FFIIVVEE FFuunnddaammeennttaall GGeenneerraall PPrriinncciipplleess ** iinn IIssllaammiicc JJuurriisspprruuddeennccee 
AL-...
FFIIVVEE FFuunnddaammeennttaall GGeenneerraall PPrriinncciipplleess ** iinn IIssllaammiicc JJuurriisspprruuddeennccee 
AL-...
FFIIVVEE FFuunnddaammeennttaall GGeenneerraall PPrriinncciipplleess ** iinn IIssllaammiicc JJuurriisspprruuddeennccee 
““H...
FFIIVVEE FFuunnddaammeennttaall GGeenneerraall PPrriinncciipplleess ** iinn IIssllaammiicc JJuurriisspprruuddeennccee 
AL ...
CONTINUE FROM PREVIOUS 
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
” … and sent down upon you from the sky, rain by which 
to purify you and remove from you the evil [suggestions] 
of Satan...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)) 
CONTINUE FROM PREVIOUS TOPIC 
ON TYPES OF ‘NAJASAH’ - IMPURITIES
NNaajjaassaahh rreeffeerrss ttoo iimmppuurree ssuubbssttaanncceess tthhaatt tthhee MMuusslliimm mmuusstt aavvooiidd 
aannd...
““O you who covers himself [with aa ggaarrmmeenntt]].. AArriissee aanndd wwaarrnn.. 
AAnndd mmaaggnniiffyy tthhee gglloorr...
““ VVeerriillyy,, AAllllaahh lloovveess tthhoossee wwhhoo ttuurrnn uunnttoo HHiimm iinn rreeppeennttaannccee 
((TTAAWWWWAA...
TYPES OF IMPURITIES (NAJASAH) 
In the Shafi’e school ooff jjuurriisspprruuddeennccee ((mmaaddzzhhaabb)),, ddoommiinnaanntt...
(A) NAJIS MUGHALLAZHAH (HEAVY IMPURITIES) 
In the Shafi’e madzhab, dogs and pigs are impurities which require 
cleansing i...
(A) NAJIS MUGHALLAZHAH (HEAVY IMPURITIES) 
In the Shafi’e madzhab, dogs and pigs are impurities which require 
cleansing i...
Imam Malik and Dawud r.a. said : “The dog is clean (pure: TwAHIR). 
Small quantity of water licked by the dog is not regar...
(A) NAJIS MUGHALLAZHAH (HEAVY IMPURITIES) 
The commandment to wash, thus indicate it to be najis. With 
regards to pig, it...
(A) NAJIS MUGHALLAZHAH (HEAVY IMPURITIES) 
This view, i.e. sertu for impurities left from pigs, is held by 
most of the tr...
(A) NAJIS MUGHALLAZHAH (HEAVY IMPURITIES) 
This view, i.e. sertu for impurities left from pigs, is held by 
most of the tr...
(B) NAJIS MUKHAFFAFAH (LIGHT IMPURITIES) 
Slight amount of vomit (commonly understood aass aa ssmmaallll 
aammoouunntt oof...
(B) NAJIS MUKHAFFAFAH (LIGHT IMPURITIES) 
““Ali r.a. narrated that the Messenger ooff AAllllaahh ss..aa..ww.. ssaaiidd,, 
...
(B) NAJIS MUKHAFFAFAH (LIGHT IMPURITIES) 
““From Umm Qais r.a., she came to tthhee MMeesssseennggeerr ooff AAllllaahh 
wwi...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
These are impurities categorised between the 2 ssttaatteedd aabboovvee.. TThh...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
1. (CARRION) DEAD ANIMAL 
This refers to animals which die from “natural caus...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
1. (CARRION) DEAD ANIMAL 
EXCEPTIONS TO THE ABOVE ARE: 
DEAD ANIMALS OF THE S...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
1. (CARRION) DEAD ANIMAL 
EXCEPTIONS TO THE ABOVE ARE: 
DEAD ANIMALS THAT HAV...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
1. (CARRION) DEAD ANIMAL 
EXCEPTIONS TO THE ABOVE ARE: 
THE BONES, HORNS, CLA...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
1. (CARRION) DEAD ANIMAL 
EXCEPTIONS TO THE ABOVE ARE: 
“The client of Maimun...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
1. (CARRION) DEAD ANIMAL 
EXCEPTIONS TO THE ABOVE ARE: 
Az-Zuhri (a Tabi’in),...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
1. (CARRION) DEAD ANIMAL 
EXCEPTIONS TO THE ABOVE ARE: 
“And from Ibnu Abbas ...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
1. (CARRION) DEAD ANIMAL 
EXCEPTIONS TO THE ABOVE ARE: 
“…. Then he said, “Wh...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
2. BLOOD 
This includes blood that pours forth from an aanniimmaall’’ss bbood...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
2. BLOOD 
This includes blood that pours forth from an aanniimmaall’’ss bbood...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
3. PUS 
Pus is included in the same category as blood aanndd iiss ccoonnssiid...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
4. URINE & EXCREMENT 
From Anas ibn Malik who said: once tthheerree ccaammee ...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
4. URINE & EXCREMENT 
From Ibn Mas’ud who said: (Once) when the prophet 
s.a....
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
5. VOMIT 
Vomit i.e. food that has been ingested, iiss rreeggaarrddeedd aass ...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
6. AL-MADZI (PROSTATIC FLUID) 
This is a white/clear sticky fluid that flows ...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
6. AL-MADZI (PROSTATIC FLUID) 
‘‘Ali r.a. said, “I used to excrete MMaaddzzii...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
6. AL-MADZI (PROSTATIC FLUID) 
Sahl ibn Hanif said, I used to ssuuffffeerr ff...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
7. AL-WADI (WHITE MURKY DISCHARGE) 
WWaaddii iiss aa tthhiicckk wwhhiittiissh...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
8. AL-MANI (SPERM) 
Some scholars ssaayy tthhaatt ssppeerrmm ((mmaannii)) iis...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
9. WINE & INTOXICANT 
According ttoo mmoosstt sscchhoollaarrss,, ““KKhhaammrr...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
9. WINE & INTOXICANT 
TThhee tteerrmm ““rriijjiiss”” oorr ““rriijjssuunn”” ww...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
9. WINE & INTOXICANT 
The term “ALCOHOL” 
 GGeenneerraallllyy tthhee tteerrm...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
9. WINE & INTOXICANT 
The term “ALCOHOL” 
 No doubt, it has been discovered ...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
9. WINE & INTOXICANT 
The term “ALCOHOL” 
Other views 
•Some other scholars t...
(C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 
9. WINE & INTOXICANT 
The term “ALCOHOL” 
Other views 
•For example, “hashish...
All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
TThhuuss,, nnaajjiiss mmuuttaawwaassssiitthhaahh ((mmeeddiiuumm ccaatteeggoorryy ooff iimmppuurriittiieess)) aarree 
ttoo ...
Sometimes, impurities do not leave any visible or traceable 
evident after some time, as for example, urine. 
But knowledg...
Asma’ bint Abu Bakr r.a. related a woman came to the 
Prophet s.a.a.w. and said, “Our clothes are contaminated 
with menst...
Prophet s.a.a.w. and said : “Sufficient for ppuurriiffyyiinngg tthhee ggrroouunndd 
bbyy ppoouurriinngg wwaatteerr oovveer...
Mirrors, knives, swords, nails, bones, glass, ppaaiinntteedd ppoottss aanndd 
ootthheerr ssmmooootthh ssuurrffaacceess tth...
“If one of you stepped in some filth, the dirt 
(earth) will purify them.” 
(Hadith reported by Abu Dawud) 
When a person ...
(This is for other than pigs & dogs, which in Shaf-ie’s madzhab 
is still regarded as still impure, even after tanning) 
“...
““And there is no blame upon you ffoorr tthhaatt iinn wwhhiicchh yyoouu 
hhaavvee eerrrreedd bbuutt [[oonnllyy ffoorr]] ww...
AAllll wweellccoommee ttoo vviissiitt mmyy wweebb--bblloogg:: 
http://an-nnaasseeeehhaahh..bbllooggssppoott..ccoomm// 
hht...
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[Slideshare] tafaqqahu-(2014)-#2 b -five-fiqh-maxims- najasah-(6-september-2014)

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[Slideshare] tafaqqahu-(2014)-#2 b -five-fiqh-maxims- najasah-(6-september-2014)

  1. 1. UNDERSTANDING OF THE DEEN (AL-ISLAM) Intermediate Islamic (FIQH) course in English Conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail IINN TTHHEE NNAAMMEE OOFF AALLLLAAHH,, MMOOSSTT CCOOMMPPAASSSSIIOONNAATTEE,, MMOOSSTT MMEERRCCIIFFUULL.. LLEESSSSOONN ## 22 bb UUssiinngg tteexxtt && ccuurrrriiccuulluumm hhee hhaass ddeevveellooppeedd eessppeecciiaallllyy ffoorr MMuusslliimm ccoonnvveerrttss aanndd yyoouunngg AAdduulltt EEnngglliisshh--ssppeeaakkiinngg MMuusslliimmss.. ““TToo sseeeekk kknnoowwlleeddggee iiss oobblliiggaattoorryy uuppoonn eevveerryy MMuusslliimm ((mmaallee && ffeemmaallee))”” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)) "O my Lord! Let my entry be by the Gate of Truth and Honour, and likewise my exit by the Gate of Truth and Honour; and grant me from Thy Presence an authority to aid (me)” (Qur’an: Isra’: 17: 80) DDaaiillyy aapppplliiccaattiioonn ooff FFIIQQHH FFiivvee PPrriinncciipplleess MMaaxxiimmss ooff FFIIQQHH TTyyppeess ooff NNaajjaassaahh –– iittss mmeetthhooddss ooff cclleeaannssiinngg Updated 6 Sepyember 2014
  2. 2. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  3. 3. HOPE WE CAN BBEETTTTEERR AAPPPPRREECCIIAATTEE IISSLLAAMMIICC JJUURRIISSPPRRUUDDEENNCCEE BBYY UUNNDDEERRSSTTAANNDDIINNGG TTHHEESSEE:: From word “Qawaa-id “-Arabic (plural) meaning : “a general rule which applies to all its particulars.” (Imam As-Suyuti r.a.). Although admittedly there are exceptions and limitations to some of these, yet it does not undermine the general character of these rules – thus its consistency. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)) ADDENDUM – USUL FIQH
  4. 4. AANN IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT QQUUAALLIIFFIICCAATTIIOONN NNOOTTEE:: AA CCoommmmoonn MMiissttaakkee Actually, Islamic Law has hundreds of maxims and applying them to new situations requires sound knowledge, deep insight, and rigorous training at the hands of experts. A common mistake in our times is to reduce these maxims to the five most universal ones, or to the five universal purposes (maqasid) of Islamic Law, and to then use these limited number of maxims to derive rulings for new circumstances or, even worse, to invalidate rulings that have been established by primary texts. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)) ADDENDUM – USUL FIQH
  5. 5. AANN IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT QQUUAALLIIFFIICCAATTIIOONN NNOOTTEE:: AA CCoommmmoonn MMiissttaakkee It is extremely important to understand that legal maxims are inductively derived from existing rulings that have been explicitly derived from the primary sources. This means that if all applicable maxims (not just one or two) are taken into consideration, then the existing rulings can be extended to new circumstances. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)) ADDENDUM – USUL FIQH
  6. 6. AANN IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT QQUUAALLIIFFIICCAATTIIOONN NNOOTTEE:: AA CCoommmmoonn MMiissttaakkee  However, a number of contemporary scholars (including Shaykh Muhammad Sa`id Ramadan al-Buti r.a.) point out that it is logically inconsistent to use these inductively derived maxims to invalidate the very rulings that they have been inductively derived from.  In other words, rulings that have been derived using the primary sources cannot be "undone" using legal maxims. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)) ADDENDUM – USUL FIQH
  7. 7. FFIIVVEE FFuunnddaammeennttaall GGeenneerraall PPrriinncciipplleess ** iinn IIssllaammiicc JJuurriisspprruuddeennccee AL- UMUU – RU – BI – MA – QAA – SWEE-DI-HA ““Matters are ddeetteerrmmiinneedd ((jjuuddggeedd)) aaccccoorrddiinngg ttoo tthhee IInntteennttiioonn”” Firstly: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)) HHOOPPEE WWEE CCAANN BBEETTTTEERR AAPPPPRREECCIIAATTEE IISSLLAAMMIICC JJUURRIISSPPRRUUDDEENNCCEE BBYY UUNNDDEERRSSTTAANNDDIINNGG TTHHEESSEE:: ** TThheerree aarree ffuurrtthheerr eellaabboorraattiioonnss aanndd bbrraanncchheess oorr ddeerriivveedd rruulliinnggss ffrroomm tthheessee ffiivvee –– rreeffeerr UUSSUULL FFIIQQHH.. ADDENDUM – USUL FIQH
  8. 8. FFIIVVEE FFuunnddaammeennttaall GGeenneerraall PPrriinncciipplleess ** iinn IIssllaammiicc JJuurriisspprruuddeennccee AL- YA – QEE – NUU - LAA – YU – ZAA- LU – BISH - SHAKK ““Certainty ccaannnnoott bbee rreemmoovveedd ((oovveerrrruulleedd)) bbyy DDoouubbtt”” Second: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)) HHOOPPEE WWEE CCAANN BBEETTTTEERR AAPPPPRREECCIIAATTEE IISSLLAAMMIICC JJUURRIISSPPRRUUDDEENNCCEE BBYY UUNNDDEERRSSTTAANNDDIINNGG TTHHEESSEE:: ** TThheerree aarree ffuurrtthheerr eellaabboorraattiioonnss aanndd bbrraanncchheess oorr ddeerriivveedd rruulliinnggss ffrroomm tthheessee ffiivvee –– rreeffeerr UUSSUULL FFIIQQHH.. ADDENDUM – USUL FIQH
  9. 9. FFIIVVEE FFuunnddaammeennttaall GGeenneerraall PPrriinncciipplleess ** iinn IIssllaammiicc JJuurriisspprruuddeennccee AL- MA – SHAQ – QA – TAJ – LI – BUT – TAI - SIIR ““Difficulty ((hhaarrddsshhiipp)) mmuusstt lleeaadd ttoo EEaassee ((ffaacciilliittyy))”” Third: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)) HHOOPPEE WWEE CCAANN BBEETTTTEERR AAPPPPRREECCIIAATTEE IISSLLAAMMIICC JJUURRIISSPPRRUUDDEENNCCEE BBYY UUNNDDEERRSSTTAANNDDIINNGG TTHHEESSEE:: ** TThheerree aarree ffuurrtthheerr eellaabboorraattiioonnss aanndd bbrraanncchheess oorr ddeerriivveedd rruulliinnggss ffrroomm tthheessee ffiivvee –– rreeffeerr UUSSUULL FFIIQQHH.. ADDENDUM – USUL FIQH
  10. 10. FFIIVVEE FFuunnddaammeennttaall GGeenneerraall PPrriinncciipplleess ** iinn IIssllaammiicc JJuurriisspprruuddeennccee ““Harm ((HHiinnddrraannccee)) iiss ttoo bbee RReemmoovveedd ((eelliimmiinnaatteedd))”” Fourth: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)) HHOOPPEE WWEE CCAANN BBEETTTTEERR AAPPPPRREECCIIAATTEE IISSLLAAMMIICC JJUURRIISSPPRRUUDDEENNCCEE BBYY UUNNDDEERRSSTTAANNDDIINNGG TTHHEESSEE:: ** TThheerree aarree ffuurrtthheerr eellaabboorraattiioonnss aanndd bbrraanncchheess oorr ddeerriivveedd rruulliinnggss ffrroomm tthheessee ffiivvee –– rreeffeerr UUSSUULL FFIIQQHH.. ADDENDUM – USUL FIQH AD-DWA-RA-RU – YU – ZAA-L
  11. 11. FFIIVVEE FFuunnddaammeennttaall GGeenneerraall PPrriinncciipplleess ** iinn IIssllaammiicc JJuurriisspprruuddeennccee AL – ‘AA – DA –TUN – MUH – KA-MAH ““Custom iiss ((aauutthhoorriittaattiivvee ffoorr)) JJuuddggeemmeenntt”” Fifth: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)) HHOOPPEE WWEE CCAANN BBEETTTTEERR AAPPPPRREECCIIAATTEE IISSLLAAMMIICC JJUURRIISSPPRRUUDDEENNCCEE BBYY UUNNDDEERRSSTTAANNDDIINNGG TTHHEESSEE:: ** TThheerree aarree ffuurrtthheerr eellaabboorraattiioonnss aanndd bbrraanncchheess oorr ddeerriivveedd rruulliinnggss ffrroomm tthheessee ffiivvee –– rreeffeerr UUSSUULL FFIIQQHH.. ADDENDUM – USUL FIQH
  12. 12. CONTINUE FROM PREVIOUS All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  13. 13. ” … and sent down upon you from the sky, rain by which to purify you and remove from you the evil [suggestions] of Satan and to make steadfast your hearts and plant firmly thereby your feet.“ (Qur’an: Anfaal: 8: 11) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  14. 14. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)) CONTINUE FROM PREVIOUS TOPIC ON TYPES OF ‘NAJASAH’ - IMPURITIES
  15. 15. NNaajjaassaahh rreeffeerrss ttoo iimmppuurree ssuubbssttaanncceess tthhaatt tthhee MMuusslliimm mmuusstt aavvooiidd aanndd wwaasshh ooffff iiff tthheeyy sshhoouulldd hhaappppeenn ttoo ccoonnttaammiinnaattee hhiiss ccllootthheess,, bbooddyy,, eettcc.. AAss MMuusslliimmss,, kknnoowwlleeddggee ccoonncceerrnniinngg wwhhaatt ccoonnssttiittuutteess NNaajjaassaahh iiss tthheerreeffoorree iimmppoorrttaanntt ssoo tthhaatt wwee ccaann ffuullffiill tthhee ccoommmmaannddmmeenntt ooff AAllllaahh aanndd HHiiss MMeesssseennggeerr.. AAllllaahh ssaayyss iinn tthhee HHoollyy QQuurr’’aann:: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  16. 16. ““O you who covers himself [with aa ggaarrmmeenntt]].. AArriissee aanndd wwaarrnn.. AAnndd mmaaggnniiffyy tthhee gglloorryy ooff yyoouurr LLoorrdd.. AAnndd yyoouurr ccllootthhiinngg ppuurriiffyy.. AAnndd uunncclleeaannlliinneessss aavvooiidd,, aanndd bbeessttooww nnoott ffaavvoouurr iinn oorrddeerr ttoo sseeeekk ffrroomm ootthheerrss aa ggrreeaatteerr rreettuurrnn,, aanndd ppaattiieennttllyy ppeerrsseevveerree ffoorr yyoouurr LLoorrdd''ss ssaakkee..”” ((QQuurr’’aann:: MMuuddddaatthhiirr:: 7744:: 11--77)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  17. 17. ““ VVeerriillyy,, AAllllaahh lloovveess tthhoossee wwhhoo ttuurrnn uunnttoo HHiimm iinn rreeppeennttaannccee ((TTAAWWWWAAAABBIINN)) aanndd HHee lloovveess ((MMUUTTAATTWWAA--HHII--RREEEENN)) tthhoossee wwhhoo kkeeeepp tthheemmsseellvveess ppuurree..”” ((QQuurr’’aann:: MMuuddddaatthhiirr:: 22:: 222222)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  18. 18. TYPES OF IMPURITIES (NAJASAH) In the Shafi’e school ooff jjuurriisspprruuddeennccee ((mmaaddzzhhaabb)),, ddoommiinnaanntt hheerree iinn tthhee NNUUSSAANNTTAARRAA,, iimmppuurriittiieess ((nnaajjaassaahh)) iiss ccaatteeggoorriisseedd iinnttoo 33:: NNaajjiiss MMuugghhaallllaazzhhaahh ((HHeeaavvyy iimmppuurriittyy)) NNaajjiiss MMuukkhhaaffffaaffaahh ((LLiigghhtt iimmppuurriittyy)) NNaajjiiss MMuuttaawwaassssiitthhaahh ((MMeeddiiuumm iimmppuurriittyy)) WWhhiicchh iiss ssuubbddiivviiddeedd iinnttoo ““aaiinniiyyaahh”” ((iimmppuurriittiieess wwhhiicchh ccaann bbee sseeeenn)) aanndd ““hhuukkmmiiyyyyaahh”” ((iimmppuurriittiieess tthhaatt lleeaavvee nnoo vviissiibbllee ttrraacceess)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  19. 19. (A) NAJIS MUGHALLAZHAH (HEAVY IMPURITIES) In the Shafi’e madzhab, dogs and pigs are impurities which require cleansing in the manner prescribed by the Messenger s.a.a.w ., commonly termed in Malay as sertu (samak) : All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  20. 20. (A) NAJIS MUGHALLAZHAH (HEAVY IMPURITIES) In the Shafi’e madzhab, dogs and pigs are impurities which require cleansing in the manner prescribed by the Messenger s.a.a.w ., commonly termed in Malay as sertu (samak) : “Cleanse one of your containers if a dog licks it, by washing it seven times; the beginning of washing being with soil (earth).” (Hadith reported by Muslim) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  21. 21. Imam Malik and Dawud r.a. said : “The dog is clean (pure: TwAHIR). Small quantity of water licked by the dog is not regarded as unclean or impure (NAJIS), whereas the religious obligation to wash that vessels (as in the Hadith as commanded by the Prophet s.a.w.) is to be performed out of obedience: TA-’ABBUDA (i.e. not because it is to be regarded as impurity – NAJIS). (Kitab : Fathul Mu’in – Sheikh Zainuddin al-Malibariy) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  22. 22. (A) NAJIS MUGHALLAZHAH (HEAVY IMPURITIES) The commandment to wash, thus indicate it to be najis. With regards to pig, it is included in the same category as dog by ways of Qiyas (analogy) since the Qur’an indicated it as impure or loathsome (Rijis): “… (the flesh of swine) for that, behold, is loathsome or a sinful ..” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)) (Q: Al An’am: 6: 145)
  23. 23. (A) NAJIS MUGHALLAZHAH (HEAVY IMPURITIES) This view, i.e. sertu for impurities left from pigs, is held by most of the traditional Shafi’e scholars, but there are others whose views on this matter differs because of the following reasons: HOW TO CLEAN ? - it was a matter determined by qiyyas (analogous deduction), but without a clear argument as its similarity (the effective cause common to pig and dog i.e. the ‘illah), therefore speculative or Dzann. Although it is still considered as loathsome and impure (Najis) and requirement for cleansing is still obligatory. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  24. 24. (A) NAJIS MUGHALLAZHAH (HEAVY IMPURITIES) This view, i.e. sertu for impurities left from pigs, is held by most of the traditional Shafi’e scholars, but there are others whose views on this matter differs because of the following reasons: HOW TO CLEAN ? Some other scholars opined, the verses in surah Al An ’am: 145, concerns itself with food forbidden for consumption, therefore such method of cleansing of the traces of them is precautionary, but not limited to only one method , so long as one is convinced that no traces of them remained. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  25. 25. (B) NAJIS MUKHAFFAFAH (LIGHT IMPURITIES) Slight amount of vomit (commonly understood aass aa ssmmaallll aammoouunntt ooff lliiqquuiidd)) iiss eexxccuusseedd,, aanndd tthhee uurriinnee ooff aann uunnwweeaann ((ssttiillll bbrreeaassttffeeeeddiinngg oorr hhaavvee nnoott ttaakkeenn aannyy ootthheerr ffoooodd)) mmaallee bbaabbyy aarree rreeggaarrddeedd aass NNaajjiiss MMuukkhhaaffffaaffaahh ((lliigghhtt iimmppuurriittiieess)) HOW TO CLEAN ? TThhee mmaannnneerr ooff cclleeaannssiinngg iiss bbyy mmeerreellyy sspprriinnkklliinngg wwaatteerr oovveerr iitt.. ((ffeemmaallee bbaabbyy’’ss uurriinnee iiss ttoo bbee wwaasshheedd..)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  26. 26. (B) NAJIS MUKHAFFAFAH (LIGHT IMPURITIES) ““Ali r.a. narrated that the Messenger ooff AAllllaahh ss..aa..ww.. ssaaiidd,, ““TThhee uurriinnee ooff aa bbaabbyy bbooyy sshhoouulldd hhaavvee wwaatteerr sspprriinnkklleedd uuppoonn iitt.. TThhee uurriinnee ooff bbaabbyy ggiirrll iiss ttoo bbee wwaasshheedd ooffff..”” ((HHaaddiitthh rreeppoorrtteedd bbyy AAbbuu DDaawwuudd && TTiirrmmiiddzzii)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  27. 27. (B) NAJIS MUKHAFFAFAH (LIGHT IMPURITIES) ““From Umm Qais r.a., she came to tthhee MMeesssseennggeerr ooff AAllllaahh wwiitthh hheerr uunnwweeaanneedd ssoonn.. AAfftteerr aa wwhhiillee,, tthhee bbaabbyy uurriinnaatteedd oonn tthhee PPrroopphheett’’ss llaapp.. TThhee PPrroopphheett ss..aa..aa..ww.. ccaalllleedd ffoorr ssoommee wwaatteerr wwhhiicchh wwaass tthheenn sspprriinnkklleedd oovveerr hhiiss ccllootthheess,, aanndd ddiidd nnoott ggiivvee tthheemm aa ccoommpplleettee wwaasshhiinngg..”” ((HHaaddiitthh rreeppoorrtteedd bbyy BBuukkhhaarrii && MMuusslliimm)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  28. 28. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) These are impurities categorised between the 2 ssttaatteedd aabboovvee.. TThheeyy aarree ssuubbddiivviiddeedd iinnttoo::  ““aaiinniiyyaahh”” ((iimmppuurriittiieess wwhhiicchh ccaann bbee sseeeenn))  ““hhuukkmmiiyyyyaahh”” ((iimmppuurriittiieess tthhaatt lleeaavvee nnoo vviissiibbllee ttrraacceess)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  29. 29. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 1. (CARRION) DEAD ANIMAL This refers to animals which die from “natural causes” i.e. without the proper Islamic way of slaughtering. It also includes anything that is cut off of a live animal. “What is cut off of a living animal is considered carrion (animal that has not been properly slaughtered.)” (Hadith reported by Abu Dawud & Tirmidzi) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  30. 30. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 1. (CARRION) DEAD ANIMAL EXCEPTIONS TO THE ABOVE ARE: DEAD ANIMALS OF THE SEA AND DEAD LOCUSTS “Two types of dead animals and two types of blood have been made lawful for us. The types of dead animals are seafood and locusts. The two type of blood are the (blood of the) liver and spleen.” (Hadith reported by Ahmad, as-Shafi’e, Baihaqy & Daraqutni) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  31. 31. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 1. (CARRION) DEAD ANIMAL EXCEPTIONS TO THE ABOVE ARE: DEAD ANIMALS THAT HAVE NO FLOWING BLOOD (i.e. insects etc.) If they fell into some substance and died, the substance will not become impure. Only if it changes the state of the water, then will the water be considered as impure All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  32. 32. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 1. (CARRION) DEAD ANIMAL EXCEPTIONS TO THE ABOVE ARE: THE BONES, HORNS, CLAWS, FUR, FEATHERS, SKIN (AFTER TANNING),ETC. OF DEAD ANIMALS (OTHER THAT PIGS & DOGS) All these are considered pure, except for the by-products of pigs & dogs which in the Shafi’e madzhab is still considered as impure. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  33. 33. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 1. (CARRION) DEAD ANIMAL EXCEPTIONS TO THE ABOVE ARE: “The client of Maimunah was given a sheep as charity, and it died. The Messenger of Allah s.a.a.w. passed by it and said, “Why do you not remove the skin, treat it and put it to use?” She said, “it is dead (i.e. it has not been slaughtered properly). He said to her, “Only eating it is forbidden.” (Hadith reported by all except Ibn Majah) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  34. 34. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 1. (CARRION) DEAD ANIMAL EXCEPTIONS TO THE ABOVE ARE: Az-Zuhri (a Tabi’in), has been reported by Bukhary, said, “I have met some scholars of the preceding generations who used such objects for combs and pots to put oil, and they did not see anything wrong in that.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  35. 35. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 1. (CARRION) DEAD ANIMAL EXCEPTIONS TO THE ABOVE ARE: “And from Ibnu Abbas r.a. (a companion) who quoted the Qur’an and said: “Say (O Muhammad): “In all that has been revealed to me, I do not find anything forbidden to eat; if one wants to eat thereof, unless it be carrion, or blood poured forth, or swine flesh… (Qur’an: Surah al-An’ am: 6: 145)” …. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  36. 36. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 1. (CARRION) DEAD ANIMAL EXCEPTIONS TO THE ABOVE ARE: “…. Then he said, “What is forbidden is its meat. As for its skin, skin used for water skins, teeth, bones, fur and wool, they are permissible.” (Hadith marfu’ reported by Ibn Mundzir & Ibn Hatim)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  37. 37. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 2. BLOOD This includes blood that pours forth from an aanniimmaall’’ss bbooddyy,, ssuucchh aass bblloooodd ffrroomm aa ssllaauugghhtteerreedd aanniimmaall,, oorr ffrroomm mmeennssttrruuaattiioonn,, eexxcceepptt ffoorr wwhhaatt iiss ssmmaallll aammoouunntt wwhhiicchh iiss eexxccuusseedd.. IIbbnn JJuurraaiijj wwaass aasskkeedd ccoonncceerrnniinngg tthhee QQuurr’’aanniicc vveerrssee:: ((aall--AAnn ’’aamm:: 114455)) aanndd ssaaiidd ““tthhaatt tthhiiss iiss tthhaatt bblloooodd tthhaatt fflloowwss oouutt.. TThhee bblloooodd tthhaatt ddooeess nnoott ffllooww oouutt,, bbuutt rreemmaaiinnss iinn tthhee vveeiinnss,, iiss ppeerrmmiissssiibbllee..”” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)) ((RReellaatteedd bbyy IIbbnn MMuunnddzziirr))
  38. 38. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 2. BLOOD This includes blood that pours forth from an aanniimmaall’’ss bbooddyy,, ssuucchh aass bblloooodd ffrroomm aa ssllaauugghhtteerreedd aanniimmaall,, oorr ffrroomm mmeennssttrruuaattiioonn,, eexxcceepptt ffoorr wwhhaatt iiss ssmmaallll aammoouunntt wwhhiicchh iiss eexxccuusseedd.. AAllssoo,, AAll--HHaassaann ssaaiidd:: ““TThhee MMuusslliimmss aallwwaayyss pprraayyeedd,, eevveenn wwhhiillee tthheeyy wweerree bblleeeeddiinngg..”” ((TThhiiss wwaass mmeennttiioonneedd bbyy BBuukkhhaarryy)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  39. 39. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 3. PUS Pus is included in the same category as blood aanndd iiss ccoonnssiiddeerreedd iimmppuurree All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  40. 40. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 4. URINE & EXCREMENT From Anas ibn Malik who said: once tthheerree ccaammee aann AArraabb ppeeaassaanntt wwhhoo tthheenn uurriinnaatteedd iinn oonnee ccoorrnneerr ooff tthhee mmoossqquuee.. HHee wwaass ssccoollddeedd bbyy tthhee ppeeooppllee bbuutt tthhee MMeesssseennggeerr ss..aa..aa..ww.. ssttooppppeedd tthheemm ((ffrroomm ssccoollddiinngg hhiimm)).. WWhheenn tthhee AArraabb ffiinniisshheedd uurriinnaattiinngg,, tthhee MMeesssseennggeerr ss..aa..aa..ww.. ccaalllleedd ffoorr aa vveesssseell ooff wwaatteerr,, wwhhiicchh hhee ppoouurreedd iitt oovveerr tthhee ppllaaccee ((tthheerreebbyy cclleeaannssiinngg iitt)).. (Hadith reported by Bukhary & Muslim) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  41. 41. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 4. URINE & EXCREMENT From Ibn Mas’ud who said: (Once) when the prophet s.a.a.w. wanted to relieve himself, he requested me to find 3 stones. I managed to find only 2. Then I picked up some dried dung (excrement of animal) and gave it to him. He (the prophet s.a.a.w.) took the 2 stones but threw the dung away, saying, “This is impure.” (Hadith reported by Bukhary, Ibn Majah & Ibn Khuzaimah) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  42. 42. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 5. VOMIT Vomit i.e. food that has been ingested, iiss rreeggaarrddeedd aass iimmppuurree.. SSlliigghhtt aammoouunntt ooff vvoommiitt iiss eexxccuusseedd.. FFoooodd wwhhiicchh iiss eexxppeelllleedd iimmmmeeddiiaatteellyy aafftteerr ccoonnssuummppttiioonn iiss nnoott rreeggaarrddeedd aass vvoommiitt.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  43. 43. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 6. AL-MADZI (PROSTATIC FLUID) This is a white/clear sticky fluid that flows from tthhee sseexxuuaall oorrggaannss wwhheenn aa ppeerrssoonn bbeeccoommeess sseexxuuaallllyy eexxcciitteedd ffrroomm tthhiinnkkiinngg aabboouutt sseexx oorr dduurriinngg ffoorreeppllaayy eettcc.. tthhee ppeerrssoonn iiss uussuuaallllyy nnoott aawwaarree ooff wwhheenn eexxaaccttllyy iitt iiss sseeccrreetteedd.. TThhiiss aapppplliieess ttoo bbootthh mmaallee aanndd ffeemmaallee.. SScchhoollaarrss aaggrreeee tthhaatt iitt iiss iimmppuurree.. IIff iitt ggeettss oonn tthhee bbooddyy,, iitt iiss oobblliiggaattoorryy ttoo wwaasshh iitt ooffff.. IIff oonn ccllootthheess,, iitt ssuuffffiicceess ttoo sspprriinnkkllee tthhee aarreeaa wwiitthh wwaatteerr,, aass iitt iiss ddiiffffiiccuulltt ffoorr oonnee ttoo bbee ccoommpplleetteellyy pprrootteecctteedd ffrroomm tthhiiss,, eessppeecciiaallllyy ffoorr yyoouunngg,, ssiinnggllee ppeeooppllee.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  44. 44. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 6. AL-MADZI (PROSTATIC FLUID) ‘‘Ali r.a. said, “I used to excrete MMaaddzzii,, ssoo II aasskkeedd aa mmaann ttoo aass tthhee MMeesssseennggeerr ss..aa..aa..ww.. aabboouutt iitt aass II wwaass sshhyy ttoo ddoo ssoo bbeeccaauussee ooff mmyy ppoossiittiioonn wwiitthh rreessppeecctt ttoo hhiiss ddaauugghhtteerr ((‘‘AAllii wwaass tthhee pprroopphheett’’ss ssoonn--iinn--llaaww)).. HHee ((tthhee pprroopphheett)) ssaaiidd,, ““MMaakkee aabblluuttiioonn aanndd wwaasshh yyoouurr ppeenniiss..”” ((HHaaddiitthh rreeppoorrtteedd bbyy BBuukkhhaarryy aanndd ootthheerrss)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  45. 45. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 6. AL-MADZI (PROSTATIC FLUID) Sahl ibn Hanif said, I used to ssuuffffeerr ffrroomm eexxcceessssiivvee aammoouunnttss ooff mmaaddzzii,, aanndd II uusseedd ttoo ttaakkee aa lloott ooff bbaatthhss ((gghhuussll’’)) bbeeccaauussee ooff iitt.. SSoo II mmeennttiioonneedd tthhiiss ttoo tthhee MMeesssseennggeerr ooff AAllllaahh ss..aa..aa..ww.. aanndd hhee ssaaiidd,, ““IItt iiss ssuuffffiicciieenntt ttoo ttaakkee aa hhaannddffuull ooff wwaatteerr aanndd sspprriinnkkllee iitt oovveerr yyoouurr ccllootthheess wwhheerreevveerr tthhee fflluuiidd aappppeeaarrss..”” ((HHaaddiitthh rreeppoorrtteedd bbyy AAbbuu DDaawwuudd,, IIbbnn MMaajjaahh && TTiirrmmiiddzzii)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  46. 46. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 7. AL-WADI (WHITE MURKY DISCHARGE) WWaaddii iiss aa tthhiicckk wwhhiittiisshh sseeccrreettiioonn ddiisscchhaarrggeedd bbyy ssoommee ppeeooppllee aafftteerr uurriinnaattiioonn.. IItt iiss ccoonnssiiddeerreedd iimmppuurree.. ‘‘AA’’iisshhaahh rr..aa.. ((tthhee wwiiffee ooff tthhee MMeesssseennggeerr ss..aa..aa..ww..)) ssaaiidd,, ““WWaaddii ccoommeess oouutt aafftteerr uurriinnaattiioonn.. TThhee ppeerrssoonn sshhoouulldd wwaasshh tthhee pprriivvaattee ppaarrttss aanndd ppeerrffoorrmm wwuuddhhuu’’ ((aabblluuttiioonn)).. IItt iiss nnoott nneecceessssaarryy ttoo ppeerrffoorrmm gghhuussll’’ ((bbaatthh))..”” ((TThhiiss iiss rreellaatteedd bbyy IIbbnn aall--MMuunnddzziirr)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  47. 47. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 8. AL-MANI (SPERM) Some scholars ssaayy tthhaatt ssppeerrmm ((mmaannii)) iiss iimmppuurree,, bbuutt aappppaarreennttllyy iitt iiss ppuurree,, aanndd iitt iiss rreeccoommmmeennddeedd ffoorr uuss ttoo wwaasshh iitt ooffff iiff iitt iiss ssttiillll wweett,, aanndd ttoo ssccrraattcchh iitt ooffff iiff iitt iiss ddrryy.. IIbbnn AAbbbbaass rr..aa.. ssaaiidd:: ““II aasskkeedd tthhee MMeesssseennggeerr ooff AAllllaahh ss..aa..aa..ww.. ccoonncceerrnniinngg ssppeerrmm oonn ccllootthheess.. HHee ssaaiidd:: ““iitt iiss tthhee ssaammee aass mmuuccuuss aanndd ssppiittttllee.. IItt iiss ssuuffffiicciieenntt ttoo rruubb tthhee aarreeaa wwiitthh rraagg oorr ccllootthh..”” ((HHaaddiitthh rreeppoorrtteedd bbyy DDaarraaqquutthhnnii,, BBaaiihhaaqqyy && aatt--TTaahhaawwii)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  48. 48. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 9. WINE & INTOXICANT According ttoo mmoosstt sscchhoollaarrss,, ““KKhhaammrr”” ((iinnttooxxiiccaanntt)) iiss iimmppuurree bbeeccaauussee AAllllaahh ssaaiidd iinn tthhee QQuurr’’aann:: ““OO YYOOUU wwhhoo hhaavvee aattttaaiinneedd ttoo ffaaiitthh!! IInnttooxxiiccaannttss,, aanndd ggaammeess ooff cchhaannccee,, aanndd iiddoollaattrroouuss pprraaccttiicceess,, aanndd tthhee ddiivviinniinngg ooff tthhee ffuuttuurree aarree bbuutt ((RRIIJJSSUUNN)) aa llooaatthhssoommee eevviill ooff SSaattaann''ss ddooiinngg::'' sshhuunn iitt,, tthheenn,, ssoo tthhaatt yyoouu mmiigghhtt aattttaaiinn ttoo aa hhaappppyy ssttaattee!!”” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)) ((QQuurr’’aann:: MMaaaa--iiddaahh:: 55:: 9900))
  49. 49. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 9. WINE & INTOXICANT TThhee tteerrmm ““rriijjiiss”” oorr ““rriijjssuunn”” wwhhiicchh mmeeaannss llooaatthhssoommee,, ffiilltthhyy oorr aabboommiinnaattiioonn,, aass ssttaatteedd aabboovvee,, rreeqquuiirreess uuss ttoo sshhuunn aawwaayy ffrroomm iitt.. TThhuuss tthhee SShhaaffii’’ee sscchhooooll’’ss vviieeww ccoonncceerrnniinngg iitt iiss tthhaatt iitt iiss iimmppuurree aanndd cclleeaannssiinngg oonneesseellff ffrroomm iitt iiss oobblliiggaattoorryy.. WWhhaatteevveerr mmaayy bbee tthhee ddiiffffeerreenntt vviieewwss hheelldd bbyy ootthheerr sscchhoooollss,, SShhaaffii’’ee sscchhooooll cchhoossee aa ccaauuttiioouuss aapppprrooaacchh iinn tthhiiss mmaatttteerr.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  50. 50. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 9. WINE & INTOXICANT The term “ALCOHOL”  GGeenneerraallllyy tthhee tteerrmm ““kkhhaammrr”” ((ddeerriivveedd ffrroomm tthhee vveerrbb ““kkhhaammaarraa””,, ““hhee ccoonncceeaalleedd”” oorr ““oobbssccuurreedd””)) ddeennootteess eevveerryy ssuubbssttaannccee tthhee uussee ooff wwhhiicchh oobbssccuurreedd tthhee iinntteelllleecctt ii..ee.. iinnttooxxiiccaatteess..  TThhee ccoonntteexxtt ooff tthhiiss vveerrssee rreeffeerrrreedd ttoo iinnttooxxiiccaattiinngg ddrriinnkkss // bbeevveerraaggeess pprroodduucceedd ffrroomm pprreesssseedd ggrraappeess dduurriinngg tthhee ttiimmee ooff tthhee PPrroopphheett ss..aa..aa..ww..  TTooddaayy,, tthheerree aarree ssoommee wwhhoo mmaayy hhaavvee eerrrroonneeoouussllyy ttrraannssllaatteedd iitt aass tthhoouugghh ttoo bbee ssyynnoonnyymmoouuss wwiitthh tthhee tteerrmm ““aallccoohhooll””.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  51. 51. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 9. WINE & INTOXICANT The term “ALCOHOL”  No doubt, it has been discovered that “alcohol” ((oorr iittss kkiinndd)) ccaann aallssoo bbee ddeerriivveedd ffrroomm pprroocceesssseess ootthheerr tthhaann tthhee pprroodduuccttiioonn ooff wwiinnee oorr iinnttooxxiiccaattiinngg bbeevveerraaggeess,, ssuucchh aass bbyy--pprroodduuccttss ooff ppeettrroo--cchheemmiiccaall ddiissttiillllaattiioonn ee..gg.. iinndduussttrriiaall ssppiirriitt,, eetthhaannooll,, eettcc.. oorr eevveenn ffeerrmmeennttaattiioonn ooff yyeeaasstt eettcc.. TThhuuss ttoo aaggrreeee tthhaatt ““kkhhaammrr”” iiss iimmppuurree aanndd pprroohhiibbiitteedd ddooeess nnoott nneecceessssaarriillyy iimmppllyy tthhaatt aallll ““aallccoohhooll”” ((nnoott ddeerriivveedd ffrroomm ““kkhhaammrr””)) iiss aallssoo iimmppuurree.. TThhuuss ssppiirriittss aanndd aallccoohhooll uusseedd iinn sstteerriilliissiinngg mmeeddiiccaall iinnssttrruummeennttss eettcc.. iiss rreeggaarrddeedd aass ppuurree.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  52. 52. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 9. WINE & INTOXICANT The term “ALCOHOL” Other views •Some other scholars take the meaning of “rijis” (as applied to intoxicant), as impure only in its abstract sense but it is not impure in a definite sensory way, just like when the Qur’an says that idols are “impure”. •In the book “Subulus-salaam” it says, “Their origin is pure, and their being prohibited does not mean that the object itself is impure. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  53. 53. (C) NAJIS MUTAWASSITHAH (MEDIUM IMPURITIES) 9. WINE & INTOXICANT The term “ALCOHOL” Other views •For example, “hashish” is prohibited but it is pure.” •The rule that something is impure is prohibited, but it cannot be said that whatever is prohibited is therefore impure e.g. man is prohibited from wearing silk and gold, but they are considered to be pure by Ijma’ (consensus of the scholars). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  54. 54. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  55. 55. TThhuuss,, nnaajjiiss mmuuttaawwaassssiitthhaahh ((mmeeddiiuumm ccaatteeggoorryy ooff iimmppuurriittiieess)) aarree ttoo bbee cclleeaannsseedd ffrroomm oouurr bbooddiieess aanndd ccllootthheess.. IIff tthheeyy ccaann bbee sseeeenn ((ii..ee.. tthheerree aarree ttrraacceess ooff tthheemm)) –– TThhee mmeetthhoodd ooff cclleeaannssiinngg iiss bbyy wwaasshhiinngg ttoo rreemmoovvee tthhee ssmmeellll,, ccoolloouurr oorr tteexxttuurree.. IIff aafftteerr wwaasshhiinngg,, oonnee ooff tthheessee ssttiillll rreemmaaiinn,, ee..gg.. ssttaaiinn ((ccoolloouurr)) wwhhiicchh iiss lleefftt bbeehhiinndd,, ccoouulldd nnoott bbee rreemmoovveedd ((aass iinn tthhee ccaassee ooff bblloooodd)),, tthhiiss iiss eexxccuusseedd.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  56. 56. Sometimes, impurities do not leave any visible or traceable evident after some time, as for example, urine. But knowledge (certainty) that it is there requires us to cleanse it This is by just pouring water over it. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  57. 57. Asma’ bint Abu Bakr r.a. related a woman came to the Prophet s.a.a.w. and said, “Our clothes are contaminated with menstrual blood. What should we do about this?” He said, “Scrape it, rub it with water, pour water over it and then pray in it.” (Hadith reported by Bukhary & Muslim) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  58. 58. Prophet s.a.a.w. and said : “Sufficient for ppuurriiffyyiinngg tthhee ggrroouunndd bbyy ppoouurriinngg wwaatteerr oovveerr iitt”” aass rreeppoorrtteedd uunnddeerr tthhee ttooppiicc oonn ““uurriinnee”” bbyy aa BBeeddoouuiinn iinn tthhee mmoossqquuee ((HHaaddiitthh ffrroomm BBuukkhhaarryy && MMuusslliimm)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  59. 59. Mirrors, knives, swords, nails, bones, glass, ppaaiinntteedd ppoottss aanndd ootthheerr ssmmooootthh ssuurrffaacceess tthhaatt hhaavvee nnoo ppoorreess aarr ppuurriiffiieedd bbyy ssiimmppllyy wwiippiinngg tthheemm aanndd rreemmoovviinngg aannyy iimmppuurree rreemmaaiinnss.. TThhee CCoommppaanniioonnss ooff tthhee PPrroopphheett ss..aa..aa..ww.. uusseedd ttoo pprraayy wwhhiillee wweeaarriinngg tthheeiirr sswwoorrddss,, aalltthhoouugghh ssmmeeaarreedd wwiitthh bblloooodd,, tthheeyy uusseedd ttoo jjuusstt wwiippee tthheemm.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  60. 60. “If one of you stepped in some filth, the dirt (earth) will purify them.” (Hadith reported by Abu Dawud) When a person comes to the mosque, he should look at his shoes. If he finds any filth on them, he should wipe them against the ground and pray in them. (Hadith reported by Ahmad & Abu Dawud) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  61. 61. (This is for other than pigs & dogs, which in Shaf-ie’s madzhab is still regarded as still impure, even after tanning) ““If the animal skin is ttaannnneedd,, iitt iiss ppuurriiffiieedd..”” ((HHaaddiitthh rreellaatteedd bbyy BBuukkhhaarryy && MMuusslliimm)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))
  62. 62. ““And there is no blame upon you ffoorr tthhaatt iinn wwhhiicchh yyoouu hhaavvee eerrrreedd bbuutt [[oonnllyy ffoorr]] wwhhaatt yyoouurr hheeaarrttss iinntteennddeedd.. AAnndd eevveerr iiss AAllllaahh FFoorrggiivviinngg aanndd MMeerrcciiffuull..”” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)) ((QQuurr’’aann:: SSuurraahh AAll--AAhhzzaabb:: 3333:: 55)) TO BE CONTINUED – INSHAA ALLAH
  63. 63. AAllll wweellccoommee ttoo vviissiitt mmyy wweebb--bblloogg:: http://an-nnaasseeeehhaahh..bbllooggssppoott..ccoomm// hhttttpp::////iinnttrroodduuccttiioonnttoottaauuhhiidd..bbllooggssppoott..ccoomm// hhttttpp::////ooyyoouubbeelliieevveerrss..bbllooggssppoott..ccoomm// hhttttpp::////aall--aammtthhaaaall..bbllooggssppoott..ccoomm// hhttttpp::////zzhhuullkkeefflleeee--aarrcchhiivvee..bbllooggssppoott..ccoomm// hhttttpp::////ccrriitteerriiaaffoorraahhoollyybbooookk--qquurraann..bbllooggssppoott..ccoomm// hhttttpp::////wwiitthh--tthhee--ttrruutthhffuull..bbllooggssppoott..ccoomm// hhttttpp ::////mmuuqqaaddddaamm--nnuurruull..bbllooggssppoott..ccoomm// All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014))

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