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“INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF TAUHEED” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail

“IN USING OF REASON” – THE QUR'ANIC GUIDELINE

CAUSES OF WRONG THINKING

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(Slideshare lesson#2b)tauhid-course-2012.pptx

  1. 1. #2b IN THE NAME OF ALLAH MOST COMPASIONATE LESSON MOST MERCIFUL “INTRODUCTION TO THE M LE ODU E S STUDY OF TAUHEED” A NEW -COUR Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults CH ] BAT [2012 conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail IT CAN ALSO BE A 16 weekly class started from: 3 March 2012 REFRESHER COURSE FOR MUSLIM Every Saturday night @ 8pm – 10pm PARENTS, EDUCATORS, Wisma Indah, 450 Changi Road, IN CONTEMPORARY SINGAPORE. #02-00 next to Masjid Kassim OPEN TO ALL For further information and registration contact E -mail : ad.fardhayn.sg@gmail.com or +65 81234669 developed96838279English-speaking Using curriculum he has / +65 especially for Muslim converts and young English-speaking Adult Muslims. “To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  2. 2. PREVIOUS LESSON . BE R … E M REMAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  3. 3. PREVIOUS LESSON R MBE R EME T…. THAAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  4. 4. PREVIOUS LESSON R MBE R EME T…. THAAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  5. 5. PREVIOUS LESSON R MBE R EME T…. THAAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  6. 6. PREVIOUS LESSON R MBE R EME T…. THAAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  7. 7. PREVIOUS LESSON R EPISTEMOLOGY MBE R EME T…. THAAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  8. 8. PREVIOUS LESSON R MBE R EME T…. THA SINCERE ADVICE TO MUSLIM ‘ INTELLECTUALS ’All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  9. 9. Lesson # 2 A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE & METHOD OF APPROACH RE-CAP PREVIOUS LESSON • USING OF REASON (AQLIYYAH) • AS ONE OF THE MEANS OF DEVELOPING IIMAN (FAITH)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  10. 10. “AND ON EARTH there are signs [of Allah’s existence, visible] to all who are endowed with inner certainty, just as [there are signs thereof] within your own selves: can you not, then, see?” (Qur’an: Dzaariyat: 51: 20-21)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  11. 11. “[All this have We expounded in this] blessed divine writ which We have revealed unto thee, [O Muhammad,] so that men may ponder over its mes-sages, and that those who are endowed with insight may take them to heart.” (Qur’an: Swad: 38: 29)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
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  13. 13. “And We have certainly created for Hell many of the jinn and mankind. They have hearts with which they do not understand, they have eyes with which they do not see, and they have ears with which they do not hear. Those are like livestock; rather, they are more astray. It is they who are the heedless.” (Qur’an: 7: 179)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  14. 14. PREVIOUS LESSON The Holy Quran calls upon people to think and to draw conclusions through thought process. It even regards thinking as part of worship, and does not recognise the belief in its doctrinal tenets if it is not the outcome of correct thinking. Islam in this connection has paid attention to a basic point, that although people are capable of thinking, still they can end up with erroneous conclusion - if they neglect to use, or inappropriately allow certain factors to influence their thought process.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  15. 15. PREVIOUS LESSON • Thus, in Islam, we are provided basic guidelines - basic lessons on how to think correctly. • Firstly, in the Quran, it has pointed out the major causes which lead to wrong thinking and has explained what to do to avoid error and deviation.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  16. 16. PREVIOUS LESSONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  17. 17. PREVIOUS LESSONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  18. 18. NOW TO CONTINUE – INSHA-Allah!All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  19. 19. 3. Haste To be able to express an opinion about a question, one should have adequate evidence before him. Unless there is enough evidence, any hasty expression of an opinion is likely to lead to error. In the Holy Quran, Allah repeatedly refers to the insufficiency of human knowledge for pronouncing an opinion in respect of many important questions. For example:All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  20. 20. "And they ask you about the soul. Say: The soul is one of the commands of my Lord, and you have been given but little knowledge.“ (Qur’an : Bani Israil 17 :85)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  21. 21. 3. Haste In this verse, the question posed was to seek something which mans knowledge is inadequate to appreciate any form of detailed answer, thus only a general response suffices. It does not provide fully what was being asked, but responded in accordance with the preparedness of the questioner, but it cautioned him that, although our knowledge about the soul may be little, this general response may suffice.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  22. 22. 3. Haste • So we should not deny its existence just because we cannot fully satisfy our curiosity regarding it. • It teaches us that we should not be hasty in addressing any issue, but to consider carefully what is offered based on available knowledge. • The key point here is, knowledge. To accept is with knowledge, and to deny it also must be based upon knowledge.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  23. 23. 3. Haste • Do not reject something by simply basing it upon our ignorance of that thing - e.g. some people categorically deny something with the irrelevant excuse e.g. "because I have not come across it." • This statement is simply an admission of his ignorance of that thing, not a proof (knowledge) that that thing does not exist!All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  24. 24. 3. Haste From the above, we are taught, nay, warned against being hasty in 2 things : • (1) That we must not believe a thing unless we have sure knowledge about it. (Warning against hasty believing something without knowledge). • (2) That we must not deny a thing unless we have sure knowledge about it. (Warning against hasty denial without knowledge).All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  25. 25. “As it is, man [often] prays for things that are bad as if he were praying for something that is good: for man is prone to be hasty [in his judgments].” (Qur’an: Isra’: 17: 11)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  26. 26. “FIGHTING is ordained for you, even though it be hateful to you; but it may well be that you hate a thing the while it is good for you, and it may well be that you love a thing the while it is bad for you: and Allah knows, whereas you do not know.” (Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 216)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
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  28. 28. “IS MAN, then, not aware that it is We who create him out of a [mere] drop of sperm - whereupon, lo! he shows himself endowed with the power to think and to argue? And [now] he [argues about Us, and] thinks of Us in terms of comparison, and is oblivious of how he himself was created! [And so] he says, “Who could give life to bones that have crumbled to dust?” (Qur’an: Ya Seen: 77: 78)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
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  30. 30. “Why do not the believing men and women, whenever such [a rumour] is heard, think the best of one another and say, “This is an obvious falsehood”? why do they not [demand of the accusers that they] their allegation? for, if they do not produce four such witnesses, it is those [accusers] who, in the sight of Allah, are liars indeed!” (Qur’an: Nur : 24: 12-13)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
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  32. 32. 4. Traditional thinking and looking to the past • Man has a tendency to readily accept an idea or a belief that was accepted by past generations, without giving it any further thought. • Allah s.w.t. in the Holy Quran, reminds people that they should have independent thinking and should not accept anything without judging it carefully, simply because it was accepted by others in the past. • Thus:All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
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  34. 34. "But when they are told, "Follow what Allah has revealed" some answers, "Nay, we shall follow (only) that which we found our forefathers believe in and did." What! even though their forefathers did not understand anything and had no guidance?“ (Qur’an : Baqarah 2 :170)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  35. 35. 4. Traditional thinking and looking to the past • In spite of advancement in education, yet when it concerns religious beliefs and practices, many people tend to blindly imitate or follow whatever their forefathers may have passed on for them. • When new and verifiable evidence are offered, they refused to even consider them but rely only on this blind fanaticism.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  36. 36. ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATION • This does not therefore mean we reject “TRADITIONS”, like the group advocating post-modernism and ‘liberal ’ tendencies are promoting. They wish to present a truncated version of ‘truth’ by ignoring the past. • By denying the validity of truth as embedded within the continuous and valid historical legacy of true scholars, they hope to usurp and hijack the Islamic discourse only with their ‘newly ’ enlightened liberal ideas - by simplistically branding all earlier scholars’ views as ‘backward’, hiding all the valid arguments already established.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  37. 37. ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATION “(Honour) My successors, may Allah s.w.t. be Merciful towards them!.” He was asked: “Who are your successors O Messenger of Allah?” And he said: “They are those who revive my Sunnah and teaches them to the servants of Allah.” (Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w.)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  38. 38. ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATION “He is not from my Ummah (community), One who do not respect our elders, or One who is not merciful (kind) to our young, and one who do not know (and respect the rights of) our ‘Ulama’ (Islamic scholars).” (Hadith of our Prophet s.a.w. Reported by Tabrany)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
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  40. 40. 5. Cult of personality • In this last era, another cause of wrong thinking is, the cult of personality. • Because of the great respect in which they are held, some of the celebrated historical and contemporary personalities influence the thinking and the will of others. Some famous / infamous personalities have been known to control the thinking of others such that these people think and have the same opinion as they.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  41. 41. 5. Cult of personality Other people do not dare differ from the (so-called) ‘great people’ and so lose their independence of thought and will. Allah s.w.t. calls upon people to think independently and not to follow their elders and other influential personalities blindly. They, the misguided and heedless people will regret them on Judgement Day:All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  42. 42. "And they will say (in the Hereafter) : “O our Lord! Behold! We (obeyed) paid heed unto our leaders and great men, and it is they who have led us astray from the right path!” (Qur’an: Ahzab: 33: 67)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  43. 43. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATION • ‘Cult of personality’ - It is when a person is being followed, obeyed or imitated unconditionally, i.e. without him needing to provide any authoritative basis or verifiable knowledge; – relying only upon his charisma, power, charm, popularity or whatever factor he possesses, which held people to be in awe or captivated by him – but devoid of any rationale proof, true knowledge or in accordance with certain reasonable criteria.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  44. 44. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATION • Prophets (a.s.) and all Islamic scholars who are true heirs of the prophets (warathatul-anbiya), such as those proven scholars of Islam (e.g. A-immah, mujtahidun, Hujjatul Islam Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, Imam An-Nawaawi and Qutb al-Irshad Habib ‘Abdillah Al-Haddad, and our ‘Ulama in the Nusantara that follow them faithfully; etc. – may Allah bless their souls and elevate their ranks), do not fall into this category of cults.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  45. 45. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATION Their works have been continuously studied, checked, discussed and disseminated through generations of Islamic scholars up till the present; and the classical original texts are still available to be referred to. This cross-referencing and scrutiny by fellow scholars, ensures the faithful transmission, and the learning process would inevitably trained Muslims to verify whatever they are taught.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  46. 46. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATION • Yet, in the present age, we need to be cautious of pseudo-scholars who may use religion to start a cult-following. Devoid of knowledge ( JAHIL ), they would attract followings only through a display of outward ‘piety’ or ‘holiness’ as though these are sufficient and valid credentials to prove that they are learned and thus by this method, they manipulate obedience of their followers. Unfortunately, many followers of cult are themselves ignorant, devoid of criterion, attracted only to charms and charisma. It is only those truly learned, that can detect the ignorance.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  47. 47. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATION • One tell-tale sign of cult is that the ‘teacher’ would strictly forbid their students/followers from asking him questions (which he fear would expose his own ignorance); or forbid them from learning or consulting with other Islamic scholars and teachers of the Deen. • Traditionally, Islamic scholars requires an ‘ijazah’ (permission) from his teacher or established Islamic scholars before he can teach (not mere self-reading or paper qualifications certificates).All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  48. 48. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATION • As in most profession, he must have the permission of qualified Islamic scholar or scholars of standing ( from the community of practitioners ). And whatever his teachings, it can and open to being scrutinised. • Therefore, to know who his past (and perhaps, present) teachers, is very important – not merely knowing which school, university or faceless organization he claims to be from. With this, even his character, moral standings and competency can be cross-referenced with other known scholars who may be his colleagues under the same teacher.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  49. 49. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATION • And learning in Islam must be “TALAQQI” (face-to-face), student- teacher in sessions (class or halaqah), and preferably being under mentoring, for a duration under a living teacher – from which the Islamic teacher’s “ijazah” is then given. This ensures “Sanad ” (chain of transmission) and of the blessings of knowledge is kept. • From traditional Islamic perspective, viewing videos, mere reading from books, or watching on ‘YouTube’, does not qualify one to be regarded as the student of the particular scholar.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  50. 50. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATION • Imam Burhanuddin Zarnuji rh.a. expresses this concern in a couplet:All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  51. 51. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATION “An immoral man of learning is a great evil, yet greater evil is an ignoramus (jaahilun) leading a ‘godly pious’ life (mutanassik). Both are a great trial everywhere, to whomsoever (wishing to) cling to his religion (by having to follow people like them).”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  52. 52. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATION • Most important today is that, those who are not Muslims, cannot be regarded as our ‘Ulama (Islamic scholars), no matter how much he may have learnt or have ‘taught’ Islamic studies. • Although we may benefit from some of their research and learning, yet we have to be very discerning and careful in deriving any Islamic knowledge or information from them. We need to rely upon our Islamic ‘Ulama , and constantly check whatever input they may disseminate.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  53. 53. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATIONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  54. 54. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATION “O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and (ULIL-’AMRI MINKUM) those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination.” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  55. 55. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATIONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  56. 56. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATION “Nor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion (FAQ-QIH FID-DEEN) and admonish the people when they return to them ― that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil).” (Qur’an: Taubah: 9: 122)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  57. 57. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATIONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  58. 58. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATION “O ye who believe! Take not into your intimacy (bitwaa-nah*) those outside your ranks; they will not fail to corrupt you. They only desire your ruin: rank hatred has already appeared from their mouths; what their hearts conceal is far worse. We have made plain to you the Signs, if ye have wisdom. (Qur’an : Aali’Imran: 3:118) *bitwaa-nah : advisors, consultants, protectors, intimate friends, helpers ...All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  59. 59. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATIONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  60. 60. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATION “If anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men to Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell, what an evil refuge.” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 115)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  61. 61. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATION Imam Muhammad ibnu Sirrin (rh.a) advices and warns us Muslims: ”Verily this is knowledge (contains the rules) of the DEEN (Religion), so look thoroughly into the person from whom you acquire (the knowledge of) your DEEN (Religion).”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  62. 62. RELEVANT EXCERPTS FROM “Introduction to the Approach to Study FIQH” TEACHER : AN IMPORTANT QUALIFICATION • When we speak of learning and education in Islam, the role of the learned scholar – MU’ALLIM, the USTAZ (teacher) whose capacity is also as a MU-ADDIB (Educator) who provides IRSHADAH (spiritual guidance) etc., cannot be overlooked. • Remember, the ‘ULAMA is an ‘institution’ within the persons or the personalities - and cannot be ‘hijacked’ by the corporate people as though to refer to organizations, bodies, schools etc.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  63. 63. RELEVANT EXCERPTS FROM “Introduction to the Approach to Study FIQH” TEACHER : AN IMPORTANT QUALIFICATION • The proper development of Islamic teachers : with the correct belief, worldview, passion and committed to DA’WAH, who understand the AMANAH (Trust) which they are supposed to be shouldering, constantly vigilant regarding the challenges to the UMMAH etc. - is the most vital consideration. • Without this factor – the teachers, their training and their development - it is rather useless to speak of any curriculum.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  64. 64. RELEVANT EXCERPTS FROM “Introduction to the Approach to Study FIQH” TEACHER : AN IMPORTANT QUALIFICATION • Unfortunately today, certain people’s obsession with only producing texts, experimenting with educational aids and latest in information technology , overawed by other system of learning, that they inadvertently ignored the difference in the Islamic educational philosophy, the aims, approach and objective etc. until Muslims are learning ‘Islam’ merely as subjects, rather than subjecting themselves to ‘Islam’.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  65. 65. RELEVANT EXCERPTS FROM “Introduction to the Approach to Study FIQH” TEACHER : AN IMPORTANT QUALIFICATION • Thus, the tendency towards teaching FIQH as subjects to be taught according to whatever text / books popularly chosen may be predominant. And given that most of these books were written as reference manual on FIQH, the class should rather focus on students understanding, inculcating the appreciation of how relevant these rulings are to Muslims in life. • Therefore this depends much upon who is teaching FIQH.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  66. 66. RELEVANT EXCERPTS FROM “Introduction to the Approach to Study FIQH” CHALLENGES AND DEVELOPMENT • It must be noted that today, with the availability of easy access to books and information on the internet; with greater reliance to self- study rather than undergoing right tutelage under the guidance of competent teachers; with the proliferations of ideologies of groups promoting unknown agendas in the name of Islam; - Muslims being deprived of a competent teacher’s guidance in FIQH should be a very grave concern - indeed.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  67. 67. RELEVANT EXCERPTS FROM “Introduction to the Approach to Study FIQH” CHALLENGES AND DEVELOPMENT • Indeed it is alarming, with people entering discourses and meddling in Islam beyond their competency (by Muslims and even non-Muslims), and compounded by the relative ignorance of general Muslims regarding their own basics knowledge of their DEEN. • Especially when this involves specialized fields and subjects, for which they do not have any authority to be giving their opinion to the public.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  68. 68. RELEVANT EXCERPTS FROM “Introduction to the Approach to Study FIQH” CHALLENGES AND DEVELOPMENT • Can any one claim the right to be involved in giving or engaging in serious discourse in other specialised fields like medicine or engineering without adequate knowledge? • Or even if one knows something about draughtsmanship or have read medical journals, without the proper training and approval of the true practitioners in their respective fields, messing in these would be deemed a crime – wouldn’t it?All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  69. 69. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – SO LET US MAKE DU’A TO ALLAH S.W.T. "ALLAA-HUM-MA ARINAL-HAQ-QA - HAQ-QA , WAR-ZUQ-NAT –TIBAA - ’A- WA-ARINAL – BAA-TWI-LA BAA-TWILA , WAR-ZUQ-NAJ- TI-NAA-BA”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  70. 70. 5. What is meant by “Cult of personality”? – SO LET US MAKE DU’A TO ALLAH S.W.T. H L LA A -A N SH “O Allah! Make us to see truth as true .. I D. and grant us the ability to follow it;TIN UE N CO And make us to see falsehood as false BE TO and make us able to reject it.”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  71. 71. All welcome to visit my web-blog: http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ 71All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2011)

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