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[Slideshare] fiqh-course(sept-2012-batch)-#5-adab followgmadzhab(20-oct-2012)

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[Slideshare] fiqh-course(sept-2012-batch)-#5-adab followgmadzhab(20-oct-2012)

  1. 1. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. “INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH ” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail LESSON # 5 – ADAB IN FOLLOWING A MADZHAB And say: O Lord! Increase for me my knowledge Using text & curriculum he has developed especially for Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims. “To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) UPDATED – 18 OCTOBER 2012
  2. 2. “O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority from among you (ulil-’amri min-kum).” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  3. 3. “... Ask from those who possess the Message (az-Zikr : the remembrance) in matters which you do not know.“ (Qur’an: al-Nahlu: 16: 43)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
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  5. 5. “Nor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion (faqih fid-deen) and admonish the people when they return to them ― that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil).” (Qur’an: Taubah: 9: 122)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  6. 6. “Allah will raise up, to (suitable) ranks (and degrees), those of you who believe and who have been granted Knowledge : and Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do.“ (Qur’an: Mujadilah: 58: 11)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  7. 7. “(Honour) My successors, may Allah s.w.t. be Merciful towards them!.” He was asked: “Who are your successors O Messenger of Allah?” And he said: “They are those who revive my Sunnah and teaches them to the servants of Allah.” (Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w.)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
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  9. 9. “(‘Ali ibn Abi Talib r.a. said) “I asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah! (What are we to do when) matters come before us wherewith there is no (explicit) indication regarding them in the Qur’an nor in the Sunnah from you regarding them (regarding its ruling)?’ (The Prophet s.a.w.) he said: “You are to gather together the learned (‘ulama) amongst them” – or he may have said “The worshippers (‘abideen ) from amongst the Believers” – “Convene with them shura (mutual consultations to derive a collective decision) in regard to religious rulings. Do not decide based upon (idea or knowledge of) only one (singular) person’s thought.” (Hadith reported by Ibnu Abdil Barr)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
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  11. 11. “If anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men to Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell, what an evil refuge.” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 115)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  12. 12. “Thus have We made of you an Ummah justly balanced that ye might be witnesses over the nations and the Messenger a witness over yourselves.” (Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 143)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  13. 13. “My ummah (community) will never agree upon matters which are erroneous” (Hadith reported by Tirmidzi, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah & Daruqutni )All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
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  15. 15. "Verily Allah does not remove knowledge from the (hearts of the) people, rather he takes away knowledge by taking away its people (the true scholars – ‘ULAMA), until there are no more scholars, the people then take leaders that are ignorant, and when they are asked, and give fatwas – religious rulings, (they give) without knowledge, so they misguide and are misguided.“ (Hadith reported by Ashaab as-Sunnan from Ibnu ‘Umar r.a .)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
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  17. 17. “When a trust (AMANAH)is neglected, then wait for the time (of its destruction).” Somebody ask: ‘How shall this be neglected O Messenger of Allah?’ He the replied: “When a matter (affair) is given over, not to its rightful (legitimate) person (AHLIHA), then wait for its time (of destruction).” (Hadith reported by Bukhary)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  18. 18. “If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger * if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination.” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  19. 19. IMPORTANT CLARIFICATION * This , (refer it to Allah and His Messenger *) is especially referring to the Islamic scholars and jurists (mujtahid), who are competent to refer back to these two primary sources – not just any one.  The general Muslims must rely upon those jurists and scholars (mujtahid of a madzhab) decisions by Taqlid.  Differences of opinions amongst madzaahib termed “khilafiyyah ” are to be respected with Adab which is expected of Muslim students towards all our Islamic teachers and scholars (ulama’.)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  20. 20. From “Qa-la-da” – to adorn with a necklace; to entrust authority to someone; to follow, imitate, etc.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  21. 21.  In Islamic legal theory, the scholars define “ TAQLID” as : “Accepting the view of someone (who is a qualified jurist – termed : FAQIH / MUJTAHID) without a proof” (qabuu-lu qaw-lil-ghayr min ghay-ri -Hujjah).”1 1 – Imam al-Ghazalie r.h.m. Al-Mustasfå min ‘Ilm al-Usul (Cairo: Maktabah al-Tijariyyah, 1356), 2:387.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  22. 22.  Those who are not qualified scholars (termed ‘ FAQIH’ - one who are competent to do “IJTIHAD “ also called “MUJTAHID”) , are the ordinary Muslim (still technically regarded as a “MUQOLLID” ) , it is obligatory to “TAQLID” to opinions of a MUJTAHID.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  23. 23. From “Ja-ha-da” – to strive; effort; exertion, endeavour, labour, etc.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  24. 24.  In Islamic legal theory, scholastic method referred to as “ IJTIHAD” means simply, ‘exertion’,  Religiously speaking, it refers to a competent jurist ( FAQIH) “expending every possible effort to examine” the textual evidences, so as to arrive at a ruling of the Sacred Law.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  25. 25.  The point here is that “IJTIHAD is not just one of scholarly exertion, but of exhaustion.” Fathoming the intent of the Lawgiver, and inferring new rulings from the primary sources extensively - so as to reach a sound legal conclusion - is indeed a most arduous and demanding task not for just any or everyone.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  26. 26.  In Islamic legal theory, such a scholar is called “ MUJTAHID” – and has many levels, those of the highest category, whose juristic methods and decisions are widely followed termed – “MUJTAHID MUTLAQ ” – became as a school of jurisprudence called “MADZHAB” or “MADZAAHIB”(plural).All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  27. 27.  The well-known MADZAAHIB that survived are : [1] JA’FARI – Imam Ja’far ibn Muhammad as-Sodiq [2] HANAFI – Imam Abu Hanifah Nu’man ibn Tsabit [3] MALIKI – Imam Malik bin Anas [4] SHAFI-’IE – Imam Muhammad Idris as-Shafi-’ie [5] HANBALI – Imam Ahmad bin HanbalAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  28. 28.  Imam al-Qurtubi rhm. says: “No difference exists among the scholars that, the laymen are to perform taqlid of their scholars (MUJJTAHID).” *  Ibn Qudamah explicitly states: “As far as taqlid in the details of the Sacred Law (FURU‘) is concerned, it is allowed by consensus (IJMA’).”+ * Al-Jami‘ li Ahkam al-Qur’an (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah), + Al-Rawdatu’l-Nazir wa Jannat al-Manazir (Riyadh: Maktabah al-Rushd),All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  29. 29.  Contemporary scholar, Imam al-Shanqiti rhm.wrote: “The prescribed taqlid, which none of the Muslims contest, is the layman’s performing taqlid of a scholar qualified to issue fatwa on various matters. This type of taqlid was in vogue during the time of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and there was no contention about it. The layman asked whosoever he wished from the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah be pleased with them, about the ruling for a given case. Whenever a fatwa was given, he simply complied with it.” * * Adwa’ al-Bayån, 7:318All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  30. 30. “What are the requirement and necessary qualification for a Mujtahid ?”All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  31. 31. IJTIHAD – literally means “an effort or an exercise to arrive at one’s own judgement” – technically it is used in regards to “the exertion by a (MUJTAHID) qualified Islamic scholar in (ISTINBAT) extracting legal rulings from the primary sources.”All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  32. 32. REQUIREMENT  Knowledgeable about the religion of Islam, the Sunnah (Ways or traditions of the Prophet s.a.a.w.), Fiqh (Jurisprudence) and Usul-al- Fiqh (Principles of Jurisprudence) especially: [A] He must be so very well versed in the study of Qur’an, that he must know its sciences, the reason why and when the verses and chapters of the Qur’an were revealed (Asbab-al-Nuzul), the eloquence, the commentaries etc.;All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  33. 33. REQUIREMENT [B] He must be well versed in the study of the traditions of the Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w. That is, he must know the distinction between authentic Hadith from the spurious and the various other technical categories of Ahadith – viz. Mutawwatir, Shahih, Hasan, Dho’if, Maudhu’ etc.;All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  34. 34. REQUIREMENT [C] He must know the principles of Ijma’ (scholarly consensus) very well; [D] He must know the injunctions of Qiyas (jurisdistic analogy).All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  35. 35. OTHER IMPORTANT CRITERIA Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the moral qualities are:  (a) He must be a good Muslim. That he must not be a nominal Muslim; rather, must be a practising one.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  36. 36. OTHER IMPORTANT CRITERIA Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the moral qualities are:  (b) He must be very pious and law-abiding to all the injunctions of the Holy Qur’an.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  37. 37. OTHER IMPORTANT CRITERIA Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the moral qualities are:  (c) He must not be influenced by any heretical influences.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  38. 38. OTHER IMPORTANT CRITERIA Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the moral qualities are:  (d) He must be just, reliable, trustworthy and pure from iniquitous practices.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  39. 39. AL-MUJTAHID FI - AL-SHARI-’AH – These were those who did ijtihad in the matter of Shari’ah amongst the companions of the Prophet till the third century of Islam. (reference from “Shariah: The Islamic Law” by Abdur Rahman I. Doi)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  40. 40. AL-MUJTAHID FI - AL-MADZHAB – these are those who did ijtihad after the companion (Sahabi) era and later found schools of jurisprudence. There are today 5 main surviving schools of Jurisprudence, viz. Ja’fari, Maliki, Hanafi, Shafi’ie and Hanbali (reference from “Shariah: The Islamic Law” by Abdur Rahman I. Doi)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  41. 41. AL-MUJTAHID FI - AL-MASAA-IL – these are those who follow them (mujtahid fi-al-Madzhab ) i.e. the present day mujtahidun who give Fatwa (or Juristic opinions) on religious matters when required. (reference from “Shariah: The Islamic Law” by Abdur Rahman I. Doi)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  42. 42. AL-QUR’AN The Revealed Book AS-SUNNAH The Way of the Prophet IJMA’ Consensus QIYAS Analogous deduction  Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi”.  What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ijtihad” that has many approaches, of priority is “ijma” and “Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more ....All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  43. 43. Istidlal and Istishab deduction by logic and reasoning; and relying on presumption; continuation of a rule for a certain situation in a circumstance where it is not known whether or not the original situation still exists  Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi”.  What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ijtihad” that has many approaches, of priority is “ijma” and “Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more ....All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  44. 44. Istihsan preference Maslahah al-mursalah for public interest  Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi”.  What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ijtihad” that has many approaches, of priority is “ijma” and “Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more ....All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  45. 45. al-‘Urf Customs or norms Sadd-uz-zara-’i “closing the door of mischief”  Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi”.  What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ijtihad” that has many approaches, of priority is “ijma” and “Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more ....All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  46. 46. ‘Amal ahl-al-madinah “practices of the people of Madinah” Ash-shar’u manqablana the path traversed by those before us – i.e. the jurists (mujtahidun)  Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi”.  What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ijtihad” that has many approaches, of priority is “ijma” and “Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more ....All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  47. 47. ‘Madzhab Sahaabiy opinions of Companions of the Prophet  Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi”.  What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ijtihad” that has many approaches, of priority is “ijma” and “Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more ....All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  48. 48. “The learned and wise among Muslims must use constant vigilance in detecting erroneous usage in language which impinges upon semantic change in major key elements and creates general confusion and error in the understanding of Islam and of its worldview.” Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-AttasAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  49. 49. Some people carelessly argues:  “Taqlid is haram (forbidden)”  “Following Madzhab is Bid’ah (innovation) ! ”  “I want to follow only the Madzhab of the Prophet s.a.w. ! ”  “Don’t follow Madzhab, we must all follow only the Qur’an and Sunnah ! ”  “There is no priesthood in Islam, so why must we obey the ‘ulama’. After all each one of us can now easily access the Allow me to respond and clarify.. Qur’an and Ahadith ! ” etc.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  50. 50. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  51. 51. “Is Taqlid haram (forbidden)” ? #1  Taqlid is in fact “wajib” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non- Mujtahid.  This has been the consensus (ijma’ ) of Islamic scholars since the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned, and the Qur’anic basis are many viz:All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  52. 52. “Is Taqlid haram (forbidden)” ? #1  Taqlid is in fact “wajib” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non- Mujtahid.  This has been the consensus (ijma’ ) of Islamic scholars since the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned, and the Qur’anic basis are many viz: “ask of those who possess the Message, in matters which you do not know.” (Qur’an: An-Nahlu: 16:43)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  53. 53. “Is Taqlid haram (forbidden)” ? #1  Taqlid is in fact “wajib” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non- Mujtahid.  This has been the consensus (ijma’ ) of Islamic scholars since the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned, and the Qur’anic basis are many viz:All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  54. 54. “Is Taqlid haram (forbidden)” ? #1  Taqlid is in fact “wajib” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non- Mujtahid.  This has been the consensus (ijma’ ) of Islamic scholars since the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned, and the Qur’anic basis are many viz: “Allah will raise up, to (suitable) ranks (and degrees), those of you who believe and who have been granted Knowledge” (Qur’an: Mujadilah: 58: 11)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  55. 55. “Is Taqlid haram (forbidden)” ? #1  Taqlid is in fact “wajib” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non- Mujtahid.  This has been the consensus (ijma’ ) of Islamic scholars since the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned, and the Qur’anic basis are many viz:All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  56. 56. “Is Taqlid haram (forbidden)” ? #1  Taqlid is in fact “wajib” (obligatory) for every Muslim who are non- Mujtahid.  This has been the consensus (ijma’ ) of Islamic scholars since the Prophet’s time – to follow those who are the learned, and the Qur’anic basis are many viz: “O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  57. 57. “Is Taqlid haram (forbidden)” ? #1  Study in the lives of the Khulafa’ Rashidun, Ibn Mas’ud, Mu’adz, Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn ‘Umar, A’ishah, Umm Salamah, etc. show that they not only convey Ahadith, but also give “iftah” religious rulings on certain matters.  This is where Madzhab has its beginnings – i.e. during the Prophet’s time – “Madzhab Sahaby” (juristic opinions of the Companions). And the Prophet s.a.w. knew and even sanctioned this practice.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  58. 58. “Is Taqlid haram (forbidden)” ? #1  Some scholars advocate “it-tiba’ “ i.e. “following ” by also understanding the basis (dalil) for a decision. This is to prevent laziness and cult-like blind adherence (ta’assub) merely to personalities and charisma.  Howbeit, this “it-tiba’ “ is still regarded as “Taqlid ” because the person (muttabi’) still has to rely upon whatever the scholars have presented, for he (who obviously is not mujtahid) has no competency to adequately assess the basis from its sources independently.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  59. 59. “Is Taqlid haram (forbidden)” ? #1  His knowing of the basis is not compulsory, but only encouraged as a learning process i.e. as encouragement to aspire to upgrade himself towards becoming knowledgeable of the Deen; as well as for him to appreciate and learn the methodology.  It is only in matters of Aqeedah or in matters that outwardly opposes known principles and teachings of Islam, that “Taqlid “ (in the sense of following blindly) is Haram (forbidden) i.e. for those who can think and can verify.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  60. 60. “Is Taqlid haram (forbidden)” ? #1  Some erroneously assumed that this reliance upon the authority whose competency can be generally ascertained to be forbidden, while they conveniently forget that this itself is in fact complying to Allah’s commandment: “... Ask from those who possess the Message (az-Zikr : the remembrance) in matters which you do not know.“ (Qur’an: al-Nahlu: 16: 43) WaAllaahu a’lamAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  61. 61. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  62. 62. “Is following Madzhab a Bid’ah (innovation) ? ” #2  If by “Bid’ah “ we mean strictly to refer to any “ innovation” i.e. something which has not been done by the Prophet s.a.a.w. himself ” - then yes, of course it is “Bid’ah “.  This was because there was no necessity for the Prophet s.a.a.w. to be following any one else’s opinion on religious matter.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  63. 63. “Is following Madzhab a Bid’ah (innovation) ? ” #2  Yet, amongst the Companions of the Prophet, there are those whom he specifically pointed out to be referred by others, because these were acknowledged by him as competent scholars and teachers in the Prophet’s absence.  So if by “madzhab “ we mean “school of thoughts in matters of juristic, Qur’anic interpretations”, then this is clearly already advocated by the Prophet s.a.w. himself during his life-time.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  64. 64. “Is following Madzhab a Bid’ah (innovation) ? ” #2  So, if some practices occur which is known to the Prophet s.a.w. and he consented (by not forbidding it) then, technically it is to be regarded as a Sunnah (Taqririyya). Here, then the argument in fact supports that following “madzhab ” is not a “Bid’ah ” but rather is actually a “Sunnah ”.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  65. 65. “Is following Madzhab a Bid’ah (innovation) ? ” #2  As to the concern of varieties of views, yes, there were already “ikhtilaaf ” (differences) in the opinions amongst the companions themselves, although few, but it was wisely tolerated by the Prophet s.a.w. himself even during that period, to teach us how we are supposed to regard differences of opinions with Adab, amongst the learned.  These differences are even regarded as a mercy. WaAllaahu a’lam.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  66. 66. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  67. 67. “Why must we follow Madzhab when we can go #3 to the Qur’an and Ahadith ourselves ? ”  Although the slogan “Let’s go back to Al-Qur’an and As-Sunnah” may be correct and in vogue, yet it is a general statement which must be read with a caveat – i.e. “only for those knowledgeable and who truly are competent to do so” – which therefore is not a licence for just everyone.  The general Muslims are required to refer to Islamic jurists and scholars whose opinions, explicitly or implicitly as a rule, must be founded upon the Qur’an and As-Sunnah.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  68. 68. “Why must we follow Madzhab when we can go #3 to the Qur’an and Ahadith ourselves ? ”  So the obvious response to the above is crucially with a question – “Are you a ‘Mujtahid’? “  The claim of one’s ability to “going back to Al-Qur’an and Ahadith” must first be ascertained and verified . Without which one still has to rely upon those who can.  And all “Madzaahib” are in fact a body or collegiate of competent Islamic scholars whose task are to refer matters to the Qur’an and As- Sunnah.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  69. 69. “Why must we follow Madzhab when we can go #3 to the Qur’an and Ahadith ourselves ? ”  Today those whose advocacy is : “We do not follow any Madzhab” are spewing a contradiction because they are in fact setting up a new “Madzhab” i.e. technically it is still “a madzhab of those who reject traditional Madzhab”, except that they may not even be learned themselves.  Thus, it is a misguidance of the misguided. May Allah safeguard us all from every kinds of misguidance. WaAllaahu a’lam.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
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  71. 71. “Would not following Madzhab a form of sectarianism #4 like the denominations of the Christian churches ? ”  No! Madzaahib in Islam is not the same as ‘denomination’ or ‘sects’ as in Christianity because: [1] Muslim scholars of every Madzhab adhere to similar principles – Al-Qur’an, As-Sunnah, Ijma’, Qiyas, etc. – they differ only in some few secondary matters of interpretations, but are generally in agreement in most fundamental issues.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  72. 72. “Would not following Madzhab a form of sectarianism #4 like the denominations of the Christian churches ? ”  No! Madzaahib in Islam is not the same as ‘denomination’ or ‘sects’ as in Christianity because: [2] Whereas in Christianity, ‘denominations’ amongst them differ in regard to fundamentals and primary sources viz. the Bible, their dogmas, their rites , etc.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  73. 73. “Would not following Madzhab a form of sectarianism #4 like the denominations of the Christian churches ? ”  No! Madzaahib in Islam is not the same as ‘denomination’ or ‘sects’ as in Christianity because: [3] All Muslims is to aspire to become ‘Ulama (scholars) to some degree, and they can re-check whatever opinions with other scholars - whereas in Christianity, most of their Church cleric has almost an excusive authority, and are unquestionably followed by the ordinary congregation. WaAllaahu a’lamAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  74. 74. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  75. 75. “Must we follow only one Madzhab? Can we not move #5 to the opinion of other Madzaahib ?”  Every one should begin following only one Madzhab first. It is not only following the final juristic decision, but also to learn the principles, methods and approaches to its juristic interpretation.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  76. 76. “Must we follow only one Madzhab? Can we not move #5 to the opinion of other Madzaahib ?”  Because, there are difference in the methodological preferences used between Madzaahib – viz. what is stressed strictly (‘azeemah), what can be given dispensation (rukhshah), etc. therefore, changing or mixing opinions of Madzaahib before knowing each of the basis, is forbidden as it can lead to confusion for novice.  This is to prevent ‘hybrid’ opinion which strictly speaking is neither of this madzhab nor of that – termed ‘talfiq’.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  77. 77. “Must we follow only one Madzhab? Can we not move #5 to the opinion of other Madzaahib ?”  However, for those advanced in following a Madzhab, are known to adopt views or juristic opinions from other Madzaahib after comparing the basis used, as well as to consider which opinions can offer the best solution to an issue at hand (but avoiding the error of ‘talfiq’) .  Yet even so, they do not have to declare, nor is it necessary to regard themselves to have changed Madzhab. WaAllaahu a’lamAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  78. 78. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  79. 79. DISTRIBUTARIES MAIN RIVER SOURCEAll Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  80. 80.  All distributaries emanates from the main river source.  The nearer it is to the source, the purer will be the water.  None of the distributaries alone can claim to represent the entire main river, yet as long as they are connected to the main source, they are all part of the river system (no doubt).All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  81. 81.  It may even merge into one another. Or some may completely disappear from the earth’s surface. Or pure water from the sky may be added to it.  Each distributaries could also be affected by the soil upon which it flows through, or impurities may have been thrown into them, or other pollutants inadvertently introduced as when irrigation or dam have to be constructed etc..All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  82. 82.  Thus, the concern is for users of each distributaries to be cautious when drinking from it, lest it may be harmful, although one has to still drink from it- or else die from thirst.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  83. 83.  To deprive any one from the available water that they already can access to, with the excuse that it has become polluted is foolish, just as long as the stream they are drinking from, still contain the water which is from the main source.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  84. 84.  Similarly foolish is to argue “my distributaries is better than your distributaries” when both actually possesses life-sustaining water (H₂O).All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  85. 85.  Those who have collected for themselves clean water may share them with others – but, it would be sheer arrogance to ‘incite’ common people who have always relied upon these distributaries for their sustenance, to abandon benefitting from the abundant flow of these streams, for the sake of ‘small insignificant cisterns and tanks’ being offered.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  86. 86.  It is equally foolish, nay irresponsible, to confuse – or rather to “scare and confound”- the common people whose need for water does not necessarily require him to be expert chemists themselves – only for them to heed whatever advises of the medical experts amongst them as well as from the “water authority”. WaAllaahu a’lam.All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  87. 87. REMEMBER THIS IMPORTANT COMMAND “O ye who believe! if you are conscious of and fear Allah (TAQWA), He will grant you a criterion (FURQAN-to judge between right and wrong), remove from you (all) evil (that may afflict) you, and forgive you: for Allah is the Lord of grace unbounded.” (Qur’an: Anfaal: 8: 29)All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  88. 88. IMPORTANT DU’A ALLAA-HUM-MA – ARI-NAL-HAQ-QA - HAQ-QAN WAR- ZUQ-NAT - TI-BAA- ’A WA-ARI-NAL – BAA-TWILA – BAA-TWI-LAAN WAR-ZUQ-NAJ – TI –NAA - BAH “O Allah! Make us see the Truth to be true and grant us ability to follow it. And make us see Falsehood to be false and grant us the ability to reject it.”All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)
  89. 89. All welcome to visit my web-blog: http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012)

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