Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

[Slideshare] fiqh-course(sept-2012-batch)-#4a-historyof madzahib-(6-oct-2012)

403 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

[Slideshare] fiqh-course(sept-2012-batch)-#4a-historyof madzahib-(6-oct-2012)

  1. 1. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. “INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH ” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail LESSON # 4a – PRESERVATION OF PRIMARY SOURCES AND BRIEF HISTORY OF MADZAAHIB And say: O Lord! Increase for me my knowledge Using text & curriculum he has developed especially for Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims. “To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  2. 2. PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  3. 3. PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “ Verily, in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example for everyone who looks forward (with hope and awe) to Allah and the Last day, and who engages in the remembrance of Allah unceasingly.” (Qur’an : Al-Ahzab : 33 : 21)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  4. 4. PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  5. 5. PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “……and neither does he speak out of his own desire : that (which he conveys to you) is but (a divine) inspiration with which he is being inspired - something that a very mighty one has imparted to him……” (Qur’an : An-Najm : 53 : 3-4)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  6. 6. PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  7. 7. PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “Hence, accept (willingly) whatever the Messenger gives you (thereof), and refrain from (demanding) anything that he withholds from you; and remain conscious of Allah : for verily, Allah is severe in retribution.” (Qur’an : Al-Hashr : 59 : 7)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  8. 8. PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “For We have never sent any Messenger except that he should be heeded (obeyed) by Allah’s leave”. (Qur’an : An-Nisa : 4 : 64)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  9. 9. PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  10. 10. PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “But nay. By thy Sustainer! They do not [really] believe unless they make thee [O Prophet] the judge of all on which they disagree among themselves, and then find in their hearts no resistance against thy decision, but accept it in full submission.” (Qur’an : An-Nisa : 4 : 65)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  11. 11. PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  12. 12. PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “The answer of the Believers when summoned to Allah and His Messenger in order that He may judge between them, is no other than this: they say "We hear and we obey": it is such as these that will attain felicity.” (Qur’an : An-Nur : 24 :51 )All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  13. 13. PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  14. 14. PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “ Now whenever Allah and His Messenger have decided a matter, it is not for a believing man or a believing woman to claim freedom of choice insofar as they themselves are concerned; for he who (thus) rebels against Allah and His Messenger has already, most obviously, gone astray.” (Qur’an : Al-Ahzab : 33 :36 )All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  15. 15. PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  16. 16. PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “He (Allah) it is who has sent unto the unlettered people a Messenger from among themselves, to convey unto them His messages, and to cause them to grow in purity, and to impart unto them the divine Writ as well as Wisdom - whereas before that they were indeed, most obviously, lost in error …. ” (Qur’an : Al-Jumu’ah : 62 :2)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  17. 17. PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  18. 18. PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “…. and (to cause the message to spread) from them unto other people as soon as they come into contact with them : for He (Allah) alone is almighty, truly wise ! ” (Qur’an : Al-Jumu’ah : 62 :3)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  19. 19. PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  20. 20. PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS THE SOURCE FOR GUIDANCE “O You who believe ! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority from among you. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it back to Allah and to His Messenger, if you do believe in Allah and the Last day : That is best and most suitable for final determination.” (Qur’an : An-Nisa’ : 4 :59)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  21. 21. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  22. 22. “And I leave behind me for you all, for clarifying in your affairs (of this religion), whosoever holdfast to them shall never be led astray – (these are) the Book of Allah and the Sunnah (Way or tradition) of His Messenger.” (From Sermon reported by Ibnu Hisham in his “Seerah” )All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  23. 23. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  24. 24. “Verily, I am leaving behind me for you all, whosoever clings to them shall never be astray after this till the hereafter :- the Book of Allah - the rope stretched from heaven to the earth; and my ‘itrah’ [progeny] from my Household – These two will never be separated from each other until they return upon the Pool (in Paradise). See that you do not differ from (the guidance of) these two after me.” (Hadith reported by Tirmidzi)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  25. 25. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  26. 26. “We (Allah) have, without doubt, send down the Message (Al-Qur’an) And We will assuredly guard it (from corruption)” (Qur’an: Surah al- Hijr: 15: 9)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  27. 27. Prophetic Revelation to Prophet Era Muhammad * memorised * Dictated13 BH – 10 AH * Recorded * Collated * Counter- checkedAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  28. 28. Battle of Yamamah 1st Mushaf * original materials which have been recorded by the Prophet’s scribe 12 AH were sorted out, checked and bound into a single Book.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  29. 29. Expansion of Islam Mushaf • Uthman’s recension - Uthmani 7 official copies made from the 1st Mushaf – these sent to all Islamic centres 30 AH accompanied by a Reciter (muqri’) • (extant copies of these are available even to this day)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  30. 30. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  31. 31. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  32. 32. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  33. 33. Diacritical (Science) Ilmu- Qira’atil Qur’an marking * inclusion of markings to the script conforming 65 AH with Prophet’s recitation, and to facilitate non-Arab learning recitationAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  34. 34. Compare with verses inthe present Mushaf TextAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  35. 35. Compare with verses inthe present Mushaf TextAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  36. 36. MUSHAF From Mushaf Uthmani, text FUAD compiled at AL- AZHAR with one of the original 1342 AH manner of Recitation which has been famously preserved - from HAFASH.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  37. 37. SCHOOLS OF RECITATION (QIRA’AT) STILL BEING PRESERVED AND TAUGHT – THE QIRA’AT OF :  Imam Nafe’ Madani (teacher of Qaalun – Warash)  Imam Ibn Kathir Makki  Imam Abu ‘Umar Basri  Imam Ibn ‘Amir Shami  Imam ‘Asim Kufi (teacher of Hafs) THE MOST WIDESPREAD  Imam Hamza Ziyat Kufi  Imam Abul Hassan Kasa-i  Imam Abu Jafar Gazid Al-Madani  Imam Abu Gaqarb  Imam KhalafAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  38. 38. Hafash ‘Asim ibn Abin Nujud Abi Abdur Rahman Abd ibn Habib as-Sulaimi ‘Ali Abi Talib Uthman ‘Affan Zaid Tsabit Ubay Ka’ab Holy Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  39. 39. MUSHAF Commissioned by Saudi King, text MADINAH using the Rasm’ Uthmani - 1403 AH following strictly (1980) the spelling, letter for letter, identical to Mushaf Uthmani.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  40. 40. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  41. 41. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  42. 42. “And upon thee (too) have We bestowed from on high this reminder, so that thou (Muhammad) might make clear unto mankind all that has ever been thus bestowed upon them, and that they might take thought. (Qur’an : An-Nahl : 16: 44)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  43. 43. (Qur’an : al-Baqarah : 2 : 43) But the Qur’an does not provide the detail, thus the Prophet (pbuh) said :All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 43
  44. 44. “ .....and be constant in ‘as-Solah’ (that is the fixed obligatory daily prayer)…” (Qur’an : al-Baqarah : 2 : 43) But the Qur’an does not provide the detail, thus the Prophet (pbuh) said : “Establish ‘as-Solah’ as you see me do” (Hadith reported by Bukhary)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 44
  45. 45. …(it means) : “the way ... or ... the law “ It is usually used to indicate the practice or the teachings of our Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and are divided into : Qau-liyyah (sayings) Taqririyyah (consent) Fi’liyyah (actions) Hammiyyah (resolve)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 45
  46. 46. …(it means) : “the way ... or ... the law “ HADITH REGARDING ‘SUNNAH QAULIYYAH’ IS GENERALLY DIVIDED INTO TYPES HADITH QUDSI HADITH NABAWWIY The Prophet saying but he indicates the quote to be God’s Direct statement of the Prophet words which are other than those in Qur’anAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 46
  47. 47. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  48. 48. Prophet (pbuh) taught by : (1) Verbal teaching (2) Written medium (dictation to scribes) (3) Practical demonstrationAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 48
  49. 49. …(Plural is “AHADITH” - it means) : “the news , the report ..or .. narration“ It is usually used to refer to the report or sayings, transmitted through a chain of people, and originated from or up to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Thus a “Hadith” contains the “Sunnah”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 49
  50. 50. “An Ansarite complained to the Prophet (pbuh) that he had weak memory and that he easily forgot the Prophet’s instructive discourses. The Prophet (pbuh) replied : “Take the aid of thy right hand (i.e. write it down).” (Hadith reported by at-Tirmidzi)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 50
  51. 51. Abdallah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-’As, a young Meccan had a habit of writings down all that the Prophet used to say. Abdallah went to the Prophet and asked him if one could note all that he said. He replied :”Yes”. Abdallah persisted :”Even when thou art happy and satisfied, even when thou art annoyed ?” The Prophet said : “Of course, by Allah ! Nothing that comes out of this mouth is ever a lie.” (Hadith reported by at-Tirmidzi)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 51
  52. 52.  Yes, there is a report (Hadith) in which in contain words in which the Prophet s.a.w. “forbade” the writing of anything which he had uttered except the Qur’an.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 52
  53. 53.  Islamic scholars all understood this Hadith to refer to a specific contexts – instructions to scribes to whom the Prophet was dictating the revelations to; as also when to new converts in their learning , he emphasized firstly the Qur’an, but they were eager to take notes of everything, which if not corrected, the possibility of them confusing the Qur’an with the Prophets’ words on their notations.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 53
  54. 54.  Proof is that this Hadith was narrated from companions whom were known to have written down Hadith in their lifetime.  Thus, this instruction may have been given to them in a certain context – not an absolute instruction.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 54
  55. 55.  Also, there exist evidence of many letters, dictations, orders, treaties, etc. from the Prophet s.a.w. – which indicate the permissibility of writing down Hadith.  Thus those who says the Hadith was never written during the time of the Prophet s.a.w. is not correct.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 55
  56. 56. (1) Sama’ - reading by teacher (2) ‘Ardl - reading to teacher (3) Ijazah - confer permission (4) Munawalah - conferring the materials to be copied (5) Mukatabah – writing , correspondence (6) I’lam - conferring authority (7) Wasiyah - bequeathing books (8) *Wijadah - writings which are found * Not authorized to use except after verificationAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 56 by the “Rawi” concerned
  57. 57. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  58. 58. It contains two parts : ISNAD (chain of narrators of the report) (the content of the teaching from MATN the Prophet [pbuh])All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 58
  59. 59. Example of Hadith Imam Bukhary -reported ISNAD from Musa from Abu ‘Awanah from Abu Hussain from Abu Hurayrah - who heard Prophet Muhammad [pbuh] said : MATNAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 59
  60. 60. Example of Hadith Imam Bukhary -reported ISNAD from Musa from Abu ‘Awanah from Abu Hussain from Abu Hurayrah - who heard Prophet Muhammad [pbuh] said : “Whosoever fabricates falsehood intentionally against me, let him seek his abode in hell-fire.” MATNAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 60
  61. 61. According to the number of “Isnad” MUTAWWATIR a “Sunnah” reported by 4 or more chains of narrators (ISNAD)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 61
  62. 62. THIS TYPE OF HADITH IS UNIVERSALY ACCEPTED AS MOST AUTHENTIC Al-Bukhary Muslim Ad-Darimi Abu Dawud Ibn Majah Musa Ali al-Hidir Muhammad b Esa ‘Amr b ‘Aun Muhamad b Ramh Abu ‘Awanah Ali b Mushir Haitsam Musaddad Al-Laits Abu Hussain Muhammad b Qais Abu Zubair Wabrah Abnu Shihab Abu Hurairah Ali b Rabi’ah Jabir ‘Amir Anas Al-Mughirah Abdullah b Zubair Az-Zubair At-Tirmidzi Ath-Thayalisi Abu Hanifah Ath-Thabrani Al-Hakim Abu Hisham Abdur Rahman ‘Athiyah Abu Ishaq Abul-Fadl b Al-Husain Abu Bakr b Ayyasy Abis-Zinad Abi Sa’ied al-Khudri Ibrahim Muhamad b A Wahab ‘Ashim Amr b Sa’ied Nubaith b Ja’afar b ‘Aun Zirr Uthman Syarieth Abu Hayyan Ibnu Mas’ud Jazid b Hayyan Zaid b ArqamAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  63. 63. THIS TYPE OF HADITH IS UNIVERSALY ACCEPTED AS MOST AUTHENTIC Al-Bukhary Muslim Ad-Darimi Abu Dawud Ibn Majah Musa Ali al-Hidir Muhammad b Esa ‘Amr b ‘Aun Muhamad b Ramh Abu ‘Awanah Ali b Mushir Haitsam Musaddad Al-Laits Abu Hussain Muhammad b Qais Abu Zubair Wabrah Abnu Shihab Abu Hurairah Ali b Rabi’ah Jabir ‘Amir Anas Al-Mughirah Abdullah b Zubair Az-Zubair “Whosoever fabricates falsehood intentionally against me, let him seek his abode in hell-fire.” At-Tirmidzi Ath-Thayalisi Abu Hanifah Ath-Thabrani Al-Hakim Abu Hisham Abdur Rahman ‘Athiyah Abu Ishaq Abul-Fadl b Al-Husain Abu Bakr b Ayyasy Abis-Zinad Abi Sa’ied al-Khudri Ibrahim Muhamad b A Wahab ‘Ashim Amr b Sa’ied Nubaith b Ja’afar b ‘Aun Zirr Uthman Syarieth Abu Hayyan Ibnu Mas’ud Jazid b Hayyan Zaid b ArqamAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  64. 64. According to the number of “Isnad” MUTAWWATIR a “Sunnah” reported by 4 or more chains of narrators (ISNAD) VERY RELIABLEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 64
  65. 65. According to the number of “Isnad” MUTAWWATIR AHAD a “Sunnah” reported a “Sunnah” reported by 4 or more chains by 3 or less chains of narrators (ISNAD) of narrators (ISNAD) RELIABILITY DEPENDS ON VERY RELIABLE STRENGTH OF CHAINAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 65
  66. 66. THE RATIONALE: “THE STRENGTH OF A CHAIN IS AT THE WEAKEST LINK” “Therefore if only one link (narrator) in a report is weak, the whole report is to be regarded as weak.”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  67. 67. THE RATIONALE: “AN OBJECT MUST ALSO BE SUPPORTED BY AT LEAST ONE OTHER SEPARATE CHAIN TO BE REGARDED SAVE AND RELIABLE” “Therefore a report which cannot be independently corroborated is ground for it being regarded as weak or unreliable.”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  68. 68. THE RATIONALE: “A CHAIN MUST BE CONTINUOUSLY LINKED TO THE SOURCE OF WHICH IT IS SUPPOSED TO BE CONNECTED” “Therefore a report which has gaps in the links (of narrators) is a reason for its rejection.”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  69. 69. Further categorization of “AHAD” hadith on the basis of number of Chains. Mash-hur Aziz Gharib (well-known) (strong) (rare) Narrated by way Narrated by way Narrated by way of 3 chains of 2 chains of a single chains CAN BE CONSIDERED CAN BE CONSIDERED FOR FURTHER FOR FURTHER BASED ON ISNAD USUALLY CATERGORIZATION CATERGORIZATION THIS CATEGORY IS REJECTEDAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 69
  70. 70. Al-‘ilm al-Jarh wa al-Ta’dil (The knowledge of invalidating and declaring reliable of Hadith)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  71. 71. Checking upon the “ISNAD” (chain of narrators) Checking upon the “MATN” (the text) Checking the integrity of the “RAWI” (the narrators)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 71
  72. 72. Detailed account of every narrators (SAHABI, TABI’IN, TABI’- TABI’IN), compiled and verified. Their strength and weakness subjected to scrutiny Grading them according grades of reliability (‘Adl, Tsiqa, Saduq, Saduq yahim, Maqbul, Layyin) Even those unreliable were identified (Majhul, Muttaham bil-kadzib, Kadzaab)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 72
  73. 73. Ahadith which are “MASH-HUR” or “AZIZ “ Maqbul Mardud (Accepted) ( Rejected ) Shahih Hassan Dho’if Maudhu’ Authentic Good Weak FabricationAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 73
  74. 74. Due to defects of the narrator. Due to discontinuity in the chain. Due to incidental reasons.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 74
  75. 75. Continuity of the chain Integrity of the transmitter (narrator) Soundness of narrator’s memory Conformity to stronger sources Absence of hidden defectsAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 75
  76. 76. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  77. 77. Not contrary to Qur’an & authentic Ahadith Not illogical, against common law Not out of proportion Not containing too much detail on prophecy Not contrary to the position of the Prophet (pbuh) Personal praise or condemnation of any Companions, tribes or places is suspect.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 77
  78. 78. THESE WERE COMPILED AFTER IMAM ASH-SHAFI’IE PERIOD As- S a h i h - Imam Bukhary Al-Musnad as- S a h i h - Imam Muslim Sunan - Imam Abu Dawud Sunan al-Mujtaba - Imam An-Nasa’i Sunan - Imam At-Tirmidzi Sunan - Imam Ibnu Majah 78All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  79. 79. AND ALLAH KNOWS BESTAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  80. 80. TO BE CONTINUED –All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  81. 81. All welcome to visit my web-blog: http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 81

×