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[Slideshare] fiqh-course(batch-5-january 2016) -introdn #2 -(3-february-2016)

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THE APPROACHES IN
LEARNING FIQH
SPECIFIC TO THE CONTEXT OF SINGAPORE

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[Slideshare] fiqh-course(batch-5-january 2016) -introdn #2 -(3-february-2016)

  1. 1. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE,MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL.MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016)) LESSON # 2 –LESSON # 2 – THE APPROACHES INTHE APPROACHES IN LEARNING FIQHLEARNING FIQH Using text & curriculum he has developed especially forUsing text & curriculum he has developed especially for Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims.Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims. ““To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)” UPDATED – 3UPDATED – 3 February 2016February 2016 BATCH # 5 INTAKE – [ January - May 2016 ] Intermediate Level course in English for AdultsIntermediate Level course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismailconducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail SPECIFIC TO THE CONTEXT OF SINGAPORESPECIFIC TO THE CONTEXT OF SINGAPORE And say: O Lord! Increase for me my knowledgeAnd say: O Lord! Increase for me my knowledge
  2. 2. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  3. 3. ““It is He (Allah) Who has sent amongst the Unlettered aIt is He (Allah) Who has sent amongst the Unlettered a messenger (Muhammad) from among themselves, tomessenger (Muhammad) from among themselves, to ((YAT-LU-AA-YA –TIHIMYAT-LU-AA-YA –TIHIM) rehearse to them His Signs , and) rehearse to them His Signs , and ((YU-ZAK-KEE-HIMYU-ZAK-KEE-HIM) to sanctify them (purify and make) to sanctify them (purify and make them grow), and to (them grow), and to (YU-’AL-LIMU-HUMYU-’AL-LIMU-HUM) instruct them in) instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom― although they had been, before,Scripture and Wisdom― although they had been, before, in manifest error― .“in manifest error― .“ ((Qur’an: Jumu’ah: 62: 2Qur’an: Jumu’ah: 62: 2)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  4. 4.  Allah SWT clearly informs us here the primary function Prophet Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ was sent for, and he ought to be remembered especially by Muslims - as the educator par excellence for us all.  In this verse, even the methodology in his education follows an ADAB ( the impact towards the state of the learner and preparedness) and then the emphasis in the learning from both the KITAAB (Al-Qur’an) and the HIKMAH (Wisdom – As-Sunnah). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  5. 5. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  6. 6. “Nor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion (YU-FAQQIH FID-DEEN) and admonish the people when they return to them― that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil). "? ((Qur’an: Taubah: 9: 122Qur’an: Taubah: 9: 122)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  7. 7. ““Who is better in speech than one who calls (men) to AllahWho is better in speech than one who calls (men) to Allah ((DA-’AA- ILALLAHDA-’AA- ILALLAH), works righteousness (‘), works righteousness (‘AMALANAMALAN SWOLIHASWOLIHA), and says "I am of those who bow in Islam"?), and says "I am of those who bow in Islam"? ((Qur’an: Fussilat: 41: 33Qur’an: Fussilat: 41: 33)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  8. 8. 8 ““O ye who believe! (Be conscious of Allah and) Fear AllahO ye who believe! (Be conscious of Allah and) Fear Allah ((TAQWATAQWA) and) and be with thosebe with those who are true (in words andwho are true (in words and deeds)-deeds)- AS-SWODIQEENAS-SWODIQEEN”” ((Qur’an: Taubah:9: 119Qur’an: Taubah:9: 119)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  9. 9. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  10. 10. ““And keep yourself patient [by being]And keep yourself patient [by being] with those whowith those who call upon their Lord in the morning and the eveningcall upon their Lord in the morning and the evening,, seeking His countenanceseeking His countenance. And let not your eyes pass. And let not your eyes pass beyond them, desiring adornments of the worldly life,beyond them, desiring adornments of the worldly life, and do not obey one whose heart We have madeand do not obey one whose heart We have made heedless of Our remembrance and who follows hisheedless of Our remembrance and who follows his desire and whose affair is ever [in] neglect.”desire and whose affair is ever [in] neglect.” ((Qur’an: Kahfi : 18: 28Qur’an: Kahfi : 18: 28)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  11. 11. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  12. 12. ““They consider it a favour to you that they haveThey consider it a favour to you that they have accepted Islam. Say, "Do not consider your Islam aaccepted Islam. Say, "Do not consider your Islam a favour to me. Rather, Allah has conferred favour uponfavour to me. Rather, Allah has conferred favour upon you that He has guided you to the faith, if you shouldyou that He has guided you to the faith, if you should be truthful."be truthful." ((Qur’an: Hujurat : 49: 7Qur’an: Hujurat : 49: 7)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  13. 13. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  14. 14. ““O you who have believed, respond to Allah andO you who have believed, respond to Allah and to the Messenger when he calls you to thatto the Messenger when he calls you to that which gives you life. And know that Allahwhich gives you life. And know that Allah intervenes between a man and his heart andintervenes between a man and his heart and that to Him you will be gathered.”that to Him you will be gathered.” ((Qur’an:Anfaal: 8: 24Qur’an:Anfaal: 8: 24)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  15. 15. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  16. 16. ““Certainly did Allah confer [great] favour upon the believersCertainly did Allah confer [great] favour upon the believers when He sent among them a Messengerwhen He sent among them a Messenger (Muhammad) from(Muhammad) from among themselves, to (among themselves, to (YAT-LU-’ALAI-HIMYAT-LU-’ALAI-HIM ) rehearse to them) rehearse to them His Signs (His Signs (AS-YAA-TI-HIAS-YAA-TI-HI) , and () , and (YU-ZAK-KEE-HIMYU-ZAK-KEE-HIM) to sanctify) to sanctify them (purify and make them grow), and to (them (purify and make them grow), and to (YU-’AL-LIMU-YU-’AL-LIMU- HUMHUM) instruct them in () instruct them in (AL-KITABAL-KITAB) Scripture and () Scripture and (AL-AL- HIKMAHHIKMAH) Wisdom― although they had been, before, in) Wisdom― although they had been, before, in manifest error― .“manifest error― .“ ((Qur’an:Aali ‘Imran: 3: 164Qur’an:Aali ‘Imran: 3: 164)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  17. 17. ““If anyone contends with the MessengerIf anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance has beeneven after guidance has been plainly conveyed to himplainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to, and follows a path other than that becoming to men to Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land himmen to Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell, what an evil refuge.”in Hell, what an evil refuge.” ((Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 115)Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 115) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  18. 18. We the prophets are commanded to place peopleWe the prophets are commanded to place people according to their station and to speak unto themaccording to their station and to speak unto them in accordance with their intellectual capacity.in accordance with their intellectual capacity. ((Hadith reported by Abu Dawud from A’isyah r.aHadith reported by Abu Dawud from A’isyah r.a.).) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  19. 19. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  20. 20. “Whomsoever that Allah wishes for him goodness, He will make him a FAQIH (learned) in matters of the religion(Deen); and for everything there is a pillar, and the pillar of this religion is AL-FIQH – (the profound understanding of the Deen); a learned scholar (of the Deen) is more difficult upon satan than a thousand worshippers.” ((Reported by Bukhary and MuslimReported by Bukhary and Muslim)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  21. 21. “A learned FAQIH (scholar & teacher) is truly FAQIH, one who does not cause others to feel despair from receiving the mercy of Allah (i.e. not overly strict and too ‘harsh’); and neither does he (give the impression by his behaviour, a guarantees as if ) anyone can avert or withhold the wrath (punishment) of Allah, nor allows opportunity (by giving dispensation) for anyone to disobey Allah (i.e. being inappropriately lax and too ‘nice’). (Hilyatul-Auliya: 1-73 – as quoted by M.Natsir in Fiqhud-Da’wah) WISE SAYING OF IMAM ‘ALI BIN ABI TOLIB R.A.WISE SAYING OF IMAM ‘ALI BIN ABI TOLIB R.A. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  22. 22. ””Verily this is knowledge (contains the rules) of theVerily this is knowledge (contains the rules) of the DEENDEEN (Religion), so look thoroughly into(Religion), so look thoroughly into the person from whom you acquirethe person from whom you acquire (the knowledge of) your(the knowledge of) your DEENDEEN (Religion).”(Religion).” Imam Muhammad ibnu Sirrin (rhm.a) advices and warns us Muslims:Imam Muhammad ibnu Sirrin (rhm.a) advices and warns us Muslims: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  23. 23. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  24. 24. ””The similitude of those who were charged with theThe similitude of those who were charged with the (obligations of the) Mosaic Law, but who subsequently(obligations of the) Mosaic Law, but who subsequently failed in those (obligations), is that of a donkey whichfailed in those (obligations), is that of a donkey which carries huge tomes (but understands them not). Evil iscarries huge tomes (but understands them not). Evil is the similitude of people who falsify the Signs of Allah:the similitude of people who falsify the Signs of Allah: and Allah guides not people who do wrong.”and Allah guides not people who do wrong.” ((Qur’an: Jumu’at: 62: 5Qur’an: Jumu’at: 62: 5)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  25. 25. CONTEXT OF SINGAPORECONTEXT OF SINGAPORE All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  26. 26. Ever since the colonial days, the education of Muslims has beenEver since the colonial days, the education of Muslims has been dualistic :-dualistic :- [1] In learning their religion & religious duty, traditionally it was[1] In learning their religion & religious duty, traditionally it was carried out by the community, as before the coming of the British.carried out by the community, as before the coming of the British. [2] Then came the state schooling system – for Malay/Muslims it[2] Then came the state schooling system – for Malay/Muslims it began with vernacular schools with Islamic knowledge.began with vernacular schools with Islamic knowledge. [3] Later even this were conflated into ‘Integrated schools’ and then[3] Later even this were conflated into ‘Integrated schools’ and then Malay/Tamil schools disappeared to become fully English mediumMalay/Tamil schools disappeared to become fully English medium schools, and for Muslims, option of learningschools, and for Muslims, option of learning IRKIRK (Islamic religious(Islamic religious knowledge) – but later even the teaching ofknowledge) – but later even the teaching of IRKIRK, was scrapped., was scrapped. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  27. 27. So, in ensuring that the learning and teaching of Islam is sustained, theSo, in ensuring that the learning and teaching of Islam is sustained, the matter rests entirely with the Muslim community and its infrastructure –matter rests entirely with the Muslim community and its infrastructure – ““Arabic schoolArabic school ” and later known as” and later known as MadrasahMadrasah.. The most crucial factor has all along been the Muslim scholars, teachersThe most crucial factor has all along been the Muslim scholars, teachers and philanthropists – they constitute pillars in preserving and sustainingand philanthropists – they constitute pillars in preserving and sustaining the traditionalthe traditional MadrasahMadrasah institution.institution. (Full-time) Students of these(Full-time) Students of these MadrasahMadrasah, indeed very important, their, indeed very important, their numbers (cohorts) usually were relatively few as most Muslim childrennumbers (cohorts) usually were relatively few as most Muslim children opted for the full-time state or national schooling.opted for the full-time state or national schooling. For these, lessons on Islam for them have to be provided, albeit part-timeFor these, lessons on Islam for them have to be provided, albeit part-time – at mosques, private home tuition or in Muslim organizations.– at mosques, private home tuition or in Muslim organizations. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  28. 28. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  29. 29. “Nor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion (YU-FAQQIH FID-DEEN) and admonish the people when they return to them― that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil). "? ((Qur’an: Taubah: 9: 122Qur’an: Taubah: 9: 122)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  30. 30. This verse is the basis upon which theThis verse is the basis upon which the MadrasahMadrasah begun. From home-begun. From home- basedbased HALAQAHHALAQAH to then moved to more established schools funded byto then moved to more established schools funded by WAQFWAQF (trust endowment) of Muslim philanthropists and from the(trust endowment) of Muslim philanthropists and from the community donations. Every Muslim must be made to realise thecommunity donations. Every Muslim must be made to realise the importance of our community’s dependence upon these traditionalimportance of our community’s dependence upon these traditional full-timefull-time MadrasahMadrasah to generate the crucial life-blood ofto generate the crucial life-blood of ‘Ulama‘Ulama (Islamic(Islamic scholars) andscholars) and AsaatizahAsaatizah for the present and future generation. Theyfor the present and future generation. They serve as the bastion and vanguard for Islam.serve as the bastion and vanguard for Islam. Their primary objective has all along been in ensuring, the generalTheir primary objective has all along been in ensuring, the general Muslims religious education inMuslims religious education in Fardhu ‘AinFardhu ‘Ain would continue throughwould continue through their graduates as conveyor (their graduates as conveyor (MUBALLIGHMUBALLIGH) for the community.) for the community. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  31. 31. Even without adequate support, compounded with their staff grosslyEven without adequate support, compounded with their staff grossly underpaid and relatively deprived of proper training, we Muslims stillunderpaid and relatively deprived of proper training, we Muslims still continue to benefit from thecontinue to benefit from the MadrasahMadrasah , its teachers and their students, its teachers and their students who preserve the light of Islam – as they pass them on.who preserve the light of Islam – as they pass them on. BeingBeing independent,independent, these full-timethese full-time MadrasahMadrasah has been threatened withhas been threatened with closure with the proposal of the state ‘Compulsory Education Act’closure with the proposal of the state ‘Compulsory Education Act’ (compulsory schooling, rather) that had excluded(compulsory schooling, rather) that had excluded MadrasahMadrasah as anas an educational institution.educational institution. PERGASPERGAS (Association of Islamic Scholars and(Association of Islamic Scholars and Religious Teachers) and the whole Muslim community objected to, whichReligious Teachers) and the whole Muslim community objected to, which the government accededthe government acceded but subjected it to ‘conditions’but subjected it to ‘conditions’ and cappingand capping limits for its cohort intake. Now only six (6) full-timelimits for its cohort intake. Now only six (6) full-time MadrasahMadrasah remain.remain. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  32. 32. Generally every Muslims here begins lesson on Islam with the basic –Generally every Muslims here begins lesson on Islam with the basic – PRIMERPRIMER. Traditionally in. Traditionally in NUSANTARANUSANTARA, it begins with a concise text like, it begins with a concise text like the genre – (the genre – (kitabkitab):): SAFINATUN-NAJAA - FEE-USUUL-AD-DEEN -WA-AL-FIQHSAFINATUN-NAJAA - FEE-USUUL-AD-DEEN -WA-AL-FIQH Meaning “The Ark which safeguard (one’s) Principle (Faith) and theMeaning “The Ark which safeguard (one’s) Principle (Faith) and the FIQHFIQH (understanding of the(understanding of the DEENDEEN)” . Term “)” . Term “FIQHFIQH ““ then became conflated tothen became conflated to mean the understanding merely of, the Islamic jurisprudence.mean the understanding merely of, the Islamic jurisprudence. The original meaning of “The original meaning of “AL-FIQHAL-FIQH ” generally to encompass the” generally to encompass the adequate understanding of the entireadequate understanding of the entire DEEN :DEEN : (( AQEEDAH – FIQH – AKHLAQAQEEDAH – FIQH – AKHLAQ ).). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  33. 33. By current convention, the general learning of “By current convention, the general learning of “FIQHFIQH” has” has unfortunately been reduced to mean learning the knowledge ofunfortunately been reduced to mean learning the knowledge of jurisprudence; i.e. the knowing of the legal rulings of acts ofjurisprudence; i.e. the knowing of the legal rulings of acts of commission or omission in a Muslim’s life, guided and in compliancecommission or omission in a Muslim’s life, guided and in compliance with thewith the SHARI’AHSHARI’AH ((Divine lawDivine law).). And the predominant school of jurisprudence (here for us) has beenAnd the predominant school of jurisprudence (here for us) has been thethe SHAFI-’IE MADZHABSHAFI-’IE MADZHAB.. Also, the medium of instruction (Also, the medium of instruction (lingua francalingua franca) regarding Islam in) regarding Islam in this regionthis region NUSANTARANUSANTARA is the Malay or Indonesian language.is the Malay or Indonesian language. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  34. 34. CONTEXT OF SINGAPORECONTEXT OF SINGAPORE All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  35. 35. The traditionalThe traditional MadrasahMadrasah (religious schools) are geared towards(religious schools) are geared towards producing Islamic scholars and teachers – who specialises in theproducing Islamic scholars and teachers – who specialises in the sciences of thesciences of the DEEN.DEEN. (‘Ulum ad-deen)(‘Ulum ad-deen) It was from these that our traditional Islamic religious teachersIt was from these that our traditional Islamic religious teachers and scholars attained their education and training.and scholars attained their education and training. Yet when they teach the general ‘lay’ Muslims, they had toYet when they teach the general ‘lay’ Muslims, they had to depend upon, or to develop, a modified curriculum for theirdepend upon, or to develop, a modified curriculum for their learninglearning FIQHFIQH – more towards guiding them in their practices.– more towards guiding them in their practices. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  36. 36. Thus we were fortunate for such capable Islamic scholars / teachersThus we were fortunate for such capable Islamic scholars / teachers (although only very few) in the past who(although only very few) in the past who were able to present, whatwere able to present, what was needed by general Muslims for their education on Islam, ratherwas needed by general Muslims for their education on Islam, rather than a wholesale regurgitationthan a wholesale regurgitation of the traditionalof the traditional MadrasahMadrasah curriculumcurriculum which they themselves had learnt.which they themselves had learnt. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  37. 37. Although this approach may have proven to be the most effectiveAlthough this approach may have proven to be the most effective and prevalent for the general masses in the past, yet we mustand prevalent for the general masses in the past, yet we must ensure that it be constantly revised and further developed inensure that it be constantly revised and further developed in accordance with the context of evolving societal conditions ofaccordance with the context of evolving societal conditions of Muslims.Muslims. As for those in the full-timeAs for those in the full-time MadrasahMadrasah, due to the specialised, due to the specialised nature of their education, it should be separately assessednature of their education, it should be separately assessed regarding their contextual needs.regarding their contextual needs. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  38. 38. Our suggestion here regarding curriculum (in this course module) isOur suggestion here regarding curriculum (in this course module) is for Muslims in general, who are learning Islam part-time outside thefor Muslims in general, who are learning Islam part-time outside the MadrasahMadrasah – which do not need to have its similar (identical)– which do not need to have its similar (identical) curriculum both in quantum, extensiveness and are less specialised.curriculum both in quantum, extensiveness and are less specialised. Notwithstanding this curriculum (different from Madrasah’s) for theNotwithstanding this curriculum (different from Madrasah’s) for the general Muslims, there has been a few exceptions amongst some, i.e.general Muslims, there has been a few exceptions amongst some, i.e. those more committed who wished for athose more committed who wished for a specialised traditionalspecialised traditional CurriculumCurriculum – usually comprising working adults engaged in a life-long– usually comprising working adults engaged in a life-long continual learning path similar to the full-timecontinual learning path similar to the full-time MadrasahMadrasah students.students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  39. 39. They were usually enrolled in a private ‘They were usually enrolled in a private ‘HALAQAHHALAQAH’ (study circle)’ (study circle) outside theoutside the MadrasahMadrasah, mostly conducted by very senior, mostly conducted by very senior SheikhSheikh , for, for only small selected group of very dedicated ‘lay’ Muslims withonly small selected group of very dedicated ‘lay’ Muslims with passion for such specialized knowledge, and with aspirations to followpassion for such specialized knowledge, and with aspirations to follow in the footsteps of their teachers to be scholars.in the footsteps of their teachers to be scholars. Many of these students (fromMany of these students (from MadrasahMadrasah or evenor even non-Madrasahnon-Madrasah)) received personal attention of certain Islamic scholars, and later werereceived personal attention of certain Islamic scholars, and later were granted permission to become Islamic teachers and scholarsgranted permission to become Islamic teachers and scholars themselves, after undergoing tutelage and mentoring over somethemselves, after undergoing tutelage and mentoring over some years. Much depend on the students’years. Much depend on the students’ ADABADAB and ‘and ‘preparednesspreparedness’.’. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  40. 40. CONTEXT OF SINGAPORECONTEXT OF SINGAPORE All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  41. 41. When we speak of learning and education in Islam, the role of theWhen we speak of learning and education in Islam, the role of the learned scholar –learned scholar – MU’ALLIMMU’ALLIM, the, the USTAZUSTAZ (teacher) whose capacity is also(teacher) whose capacity is also as aas a MU-ADDIBMU-ADDIB (Educator) who provides(Educator) who provides IRSHADAHIRSHADAH (spiritual guidance)(spiritual guidance) etc., cannot be overlooked.etc., cannot be overlooked. Remember, theRemember, the ‘ULAMA‘ULAMA is an ‘institution’ within the persons or theis an ‘institution’ within the persons or the personalities - and cannot be ‘hijacked’ by the corporate people aspersonalities - and cannot be ‘hijacked’ by the corporate people as though to refer to organizations, bodies, schools etc.though to refer to organizations, bodies, schools etc. TEACHER : AN IMPORTANT QUALIFICATIONTEACHER : AN IMPORTANT QUALIFICATION All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  42. 42. TheThe proper development of Islamic teachersproper development of Islamic teachers :: TEACHER : AN IMPORTANT QUALIFICATIONTEACHER : AN IMPORTANT QUALIFICATION All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016)) with the correct belief,with the correct belief, worldview, passion and committed toworldview, passion and committed to DA’WAHDA’WAH, who understand the, who understand the AMANAHAMANAH (Trust) which they are supposed to be shouldering, constantly(Trust) which they are supposed to be shouldering, constantly vigilant regarding the challenges to thevigilant regarding the challenges to the UMMAHUMMAH etc. - is the most vitaletc. - is the most vital consideration.consideration. Without this factor – the teachers, their training and their development -Without this factor – the teachers, their training and their development - it is rather useless to speak merely of any curriculum or school model orit is rather useless to speak merely of any curriculum or school model or even of university.even of university.
  43. 43. Unfortunately today, certain people’s obsession with only producing texts,Unfortunately today, certain people’s obsession with only producing texts, experimenting with educational aids and latest in information technology , overawedexperimenting with educational aids and latest in information technology , overawed by other system of learning - that they inadvertently ignored the difference in theby other system of learning - that they inadvertently ignored the difference in the Islamic educational philosophy, the aims, approach and objective etc. until MuslimsIslamic educational philosophy, the aims, approach and objective etc. until Muslims are learning ‘are learning ‘IslamIslam’ merely as subjects, rather than subjecting themselves to ‘’ merely as subjects, rather than subjecting themselves to ‘IslamIslam’.’. The systemic problem as in conventional educational institute becoming just likeThe systemic problem as in conventional educational institute becoming just like other ‘industries’, manufacturing graduates who tend to be boring replicates, thusother ‘industries’, manufacturing graduates who tend to be boring replicates, thus their teaching style and approach tend to stagnate.their teaching style and approach tend to stagnate. TEACHER : AN IMPORTANT QUALIFICATIONTEACHER : AN IMPORTANT QUALIFICATION All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  44. 44. TEACHER : AN IMPORTANT QUALIFICATIONTEACHER : AN IMPORTANT QUALIFICATION Thus, we invariably inherited the tendency towards teachingThus, we invariably inherited the tendency towards teaching FIQHFIQH asas subjects to be taught according to whatever text / books popularlysubjects to be taught according to whatever text / books popularly chosen may be a predominant approach.chosen may be a predominant approach. And given that most of these books were written as reference manualAnd given that most of these books were written as reference manual onon FIQHFIQH, preferably the class nowadays (or future) should rather focus, preferably the class nowadays (or future) should rather focus on students needs for fulfilling their obligation; correcting and improvingon students needs for fulfilling their obligation; correcting and improving their understanding of thetheir understanding of the SHARI’AHSHARI’AH; inculcating the appreciation of; inculcating the appreciation of how relevant these rulings are to Muslims in life; instilling conviction andhow relevant these rulings are to Muslims in life; instilling conviction and commitment towards upholding Islam; etc.commitment towards upholding Islam; etc. Therefore this depends much upon who is teachingTherefore this depends much upon who is teaching FIQHFIQH.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  45. 45. IT MAY BE RELEVANT FOR SOME OF YOU TO ASK ME :IT MAY BE RELEVANT FOR SOME OF YOU TO ASK ME : ““WHAT ABOUT YOU ? CAN WE KNOW YOUR BACKGROUND ?”WHAT ABOUT YOU ? CAN WE KNOW YOUR BACKGROUND ?” A SLIGHT DIGRESSION …A SLIGHT DIGRESSION … All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013))
  46. 46. WHICHWHICH UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY DID YOUDID YOU GRADUATEGRADUATE FROM ?FROM ? WHAT’S YOUR BACKGROUND ?WHAT’S YOUR BACKGROUND ? DO YOU HAVEDO YOU HAVE LOCUS STANDI ?LOCUS STANDI ? ARE YOU FROMARE YOU FROM MADRASAHMADRASAH ?? Got ARS or not ? SURE YOU QUALIFIED TO TALK AH ? GOT PHD OR NOT? WHY SHOULD I LISTEN TO YOU ? DO I KNOW YOU? NEVER HEARD OF YOU BEFORE All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)) USUAL REMARKS ENCOUNTERED YOU SPEAK ARABIC? LAA-HAW-LA-WA-LAA-QUW-WA-TA-IL-LA-BIL-LAAH (Asatizah Recognition Scheme)
  47. 47. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013))
  48. 48. ““The best ones amongst you is the person who makesThe best ones amongst you is the person who makes you remember Allah when you look upon him;you remember Allah when you look upon him; and whenever he speaks it increases you yourand whenever he speaks it increases you your knowledge (of the Deen), and with his deeds it inspiresknowledge (of the Deen), and with his deeds it inspires (motivates) you to strive for your Hereafter.”(motivates) you to strive for your Hereafter.” ((Hadith reported by Hakim from Ibnu ‘Umar r.aHadith reported by Hakim from Ibnu ‘Umar r.a.).) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013))
  49. 49. BEGINNING OF TARBIYYAH Family belongs to practitioner of the “Ba-’Alawi ” ways, emphasizing much upon inculcation of Adab emulating the religious practices of the Saadat Ba’Alawi, in loving the Prophet ,his Ahil-Bayt and descendants, seeking beneficial knowledge, being in the company of ‘Ulama, prioritizing upon ‘Amal (deeds) and Akhlaq-al-Karimah (noble disposition). - Recitation of Surah Yaseen and Ratib Al-Haddad (weekly) has been inculcated in our family since very young, without fail (even when we went on holiday). From young had been inculcated with ‘Adab’ - through observance of many community traditional practices of the elders viz. Mawlid, ‘kenduri’, ‘tahlilan’, ‘Ratib’ , Diba’ie, ceramah, ziyarah, ‘Wiridan’ , etc. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013))
  50. 50. BEGINNING OF TARBIYYAH I owed immensely my Islamic upbringing to my to late mother and both my grandmothers to whom I was very closed to. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)) Most of early life was spent living as extended family within a large estate-home headed by my paternal grandmother as the family grand Matriarch (Hajjah Aishah binte Haji Omar).
  51. 51. BEGINNING OF TARBIYYAH Many well-known Islamic religious scholars frequently were invited for the whole family to gain audience from, as well Asaatizah were employed to conduct regular Islamic classes (DARS) for all of us the children after our schooling hours. Even the adults (especially my mother and grandmother even) have their own HALAQAH (private small study session) albeit more advance, usually using traditional (Jawi) text. In this they had taught us children by example, the culture of life-long learning of Islam. I was privileged to be included in this later on. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)) In this household, we strictly follow many traditions regarding Islamic learning, ways and customs, instituted by a legacy of my late grandfather ( Haji Yousoff bin Haji Mohammad Noor ).
  52. 52. BEGINNING OF TARBIYYAH Also, living in the earliest Muslim Quarter of Kampong Glam very close to Masjid Sultan, and having strong family ties with other families with similar Islamic tradition, had undoubtedly affected my religious consciousness. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013))
  53. 53. KUTTAB KAK IJUM (NEK HAJI) - @ MINTO ROAD, JALAN SULTAN SHEIKH ABU BAKAR BAHASWAN (QUR’AN) ADAB - FARDHU ‘AIN – RATIB AL-HADDAD – AKHLAQ (FAMILY-BASED) ADULT – FARDHU ‘AIN (PERDAUS) @ MADRASAH ALSAGOFF USTAZ OSMAN JANTAN USTAZ HAFI HAKIM FIQH AS-SUNNAH – (USTAZ WAN SALLEH – YA’COOB ELIAS) TAUHEED – (USTAZ MAKTOOM – BUYA MALIK AHMAD) DA’WAH-SIYAASAH – (USTAZ ISMAIL BAHRUM – DR. BURHANUDDIN AL-HELMY) HALAQAH (MOSQUE) USTAZ MUHAMMAD B. ABDULLAH B. SALIM BIN DIAB (FIQH) KIYAI HAJI SHUKUR (TASAWWUF) HABIB MUHAMMAD BIN SALIM AL-ATTAS (MASJID BA-’ALAWIE) MENTORED (HOME) USTAZ SA’ID BIN MUHAMMAD BIN SA’ID USTAZ GHAFUR USTAZ MUHAMMAD BIN SA’ID SEMARANG (SON OF FOUNDER of MADRASAH AS-SIBYAN) USTAZ HAJI DAWOOD BIN HAJI NASIR USRAH AL-MANAR (AFGHANI –ABDUH – RASHID REDHA) IKHWANUL MUSLIMUN (HASSAN AL-BANNA – SAYYID SABIQ – ALGHAZZALI) PERSATUAN ISLAM – MUHAMMADIYYAH – AL-IRSHAD – NAHDATUL ‘ULAMA TABLIGH – PERIPENSIS - HIMPUNAN BELIA ISLAM – JAM’IYYAH – DARUL ARQAM MOREMORE All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013))
  54. 54. *Guillemard English School (Primary – PSLE)Guillemard English School (Primary – PSLE) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)) * St. Patrick’s School (Secondary – Cambridge Cert.)St. Patrick’s School (Secondary – Cambridge Cert.) City School of Commerce ( Cambridge Higher School Cert.)City School of Commerce ( Cambridge Higher School Cert.) A turning point in taking very seriously my learning of Islam was when I chose to study in a Catholic-Mission secondary School. I continued taking extra-lessons on Islam in Madrasah, mosques and joined Halaqah etc. With the advantage of Islamic home-schooling and nurturing, all of us the siblings were sent to English schools. Combination of both systems were gained – proficient in English and yet we could read and write also in ‘Jawi ‘ script. This early foundation was indeed important.
  55. 55. * While learning about Islam and after my HSC result, because I was not called for full-time National service, I had to apply for jobs. Working with HDB, pursued and obtained theWorking with HDB, pursued and obtained the Technological Certificate in Builders’ QuantitiesTechnological Certificate in Builders’ Quantities from the City & Guilds of London Institute.from the City & Guilds of London Institute. FIRST FULL-TIME JOB WITH HOUSING DEVELOPMENT BOARD (1973) SERVED AS TECHNICAL OFFICER IN CONTRACTS MANAGEMENT (QUANTITY SURVEYING) While continually learning Islam and sharing Islam on a Part-time basis after Working hours and on week-ends IN TANDEM All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013))
  56. 56. (1982) when the main resource teacher (Ustaz) for Muslim converts in Singapore then, Allahyarham Cikgu Hj Zaini Hj Ahmad became indisposed due to ill-health, I was interviewed by the then Singapore second Mufti Syed Esa bin Semait and Allahyarham Ustaz Syed ‘Abdillah bin Ahmad al-Jufri, was granted permission and appointed by them to be the Ustaz to replace his role. I was also appointed as one of the Registrar for conversion of new Muslims. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013))
  57. 57. Working with HDB, pursued and obtained theWorking with HDB, pursued and obtained the Technological Certificate in Builders’ QuantitiesTechnological Certificate in Builders’ Quantities from the City & Guilds of London Institute.from the City & Guilds of London Institute. FIRST FULL-TIME JOB WITH HOUSING DEVELOPMENT BOARD (1973) SERVED AS TECHNICAL OFFICER IN CONTRACTS MANAGEMENT (QUANTITY SURVEYING) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)) While continually learning Islam and sharing Islam on a Part-time basis after Working hours and on week-ends IN TANDEM
  58. 58. Working with HDB, pursued and obtained theWorking with HDB, pursued and obtained the Technological Certificate in Builders’ QuantitiesTechnological Certificate in Builders’ Quantities from the City & Guilds of London Institute.from the City & Guilds of London Institute. FIRST FULL-TIME JOB WITH HOUSING DEVELOPMENT BOARD (1973) SERVED AS TECHNICAL OFFICER IN CONTRACTS MANAGEMENT (QUANTITY SURVEYING) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)) While continually learning Islam and sharing Islam on a Part-time basis after Working hours and on week-ends(1991) after working for 17 years, opted to leave my full-time job with HDB to devote fully in serving the Ummah (Da’wah & education) IN TANDEM
  59. 59. WHILE SERVING IN DARUL ARQAM (1991-1997) MOULAVI BABU SAHIB SHEIKH AHMAD DEEDAT DR. JAMAL BADAWI DR.GARY MILLER AHMED VON DENFER MOULANA IMRAN HOESEIIN DR. BILAL PHILLIPS DR. MAURICE BUCCAILLE DR. AHMAD SAKR HJ. A. KARIM GERALD D’CRUZ KIYAI DRS. MUCHTAR ADAM USTAZ HUSSEIN SHAHAB ... AND MANY OTHER VISITING SCHOLARS. WHILE SERVING IN PERGAS (1997-2004) USTAZ HJ. ABU BAKAR HASHIM USTAZ SYED ‘ABDILLAH AL-JUFRI USTAZ AHMAD SONHADJI MUHAMMAD USTAZ SALLIM JASMAN USTAZ SYED HASSAN AL-BAHAR ... AND MANY OTHER ASAATIZAH. ISTAC-PERGAS SEMINAR (2000) PROF. SYED MUHAMMAD NAQUIB AL-ATTAS PROF. WAN MOHD NOR WAN DAUD PROF. ALA-EDDIN KHAROUFA PROF. MALIK BADRI PROF. ABDUL RAHIM MUDDATHIR PROF. AMIR ROUBA-’IE PROF. FERID MUHIC PROF. AHMAD MUSAVI KAZEMI PROF. CEMIL AKDOĞAN PROF. HASSAN EL-NAGAR DR. MUHAMMAD ZAINIY UTHMAN DR. BURHANUDDIN AHMAD DR. WAN AZHAR DR. UGI SUHARTO DR. ADI SETIA DR. FARID SAHRAN OTHERS UNABLE TO LIST MANY MORE ISLAMIC SCHOLARS, TEACHERS, ACADEMICIANS, ELDERS, ETC. WHICH I HAD PERSONALLY MET, LEARNT AND BENEFITTED FROM THEIR WISDOM AND ADVICES All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013))
  60. 60.  ””All praise be to Allah Who has guided us onAll praise be to Allah Who has guided us on to this. Had it not been for Allah Who grantedto this. Had it not been for Allah Who granted us guidance, we would not be on the Rightus guidance, we would not be on the Right Path.”Path.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013))
  61. 61. CHALLENGES AND DEVELOPMENTCHALLENGES AND DEVELOPMENT It must be noted that today, with the availability of easy access toIt must be noted that today, with the availability of easy access to books and information on the internet; with greater reliance to self-books and information on the internet; with greater reliance to self- study rather than undergoing right tutelage under the guidance ofstudy rather than undergoing right tutelage under the guidance of competent teachers; with the proliferations of ideologies of groupscompetent teachers; with the proliferations of ideologies of groups promoting unknown agendas in the name of Islam; - Muslims beingpromoting unknown agendas in the name of Islam; - Muslims being deprived of a competent teacher’s guidance indeprived of a competent teacher’s guidance in FIQHFIQH should be a veryshould be a very grave concern - indeed.grave concern - indeed. OK ! TO CONTINUE … All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  62. 62. CHALLENGES AND DEVELOPMENTCHALLENGES AND DEVELOPMENT Indeed it is alarming, with people entering discourses and meddlingIndeed it is alarming, with people entering discourses and meddling in Islam beyond their competency (by Muslims and even non-in Islam beyond their competency (by Muslims and even non- Muslims), and compounded by the relative ignorance of the generalMuslims), and compounded by the relative ignorance of the general Muslims themselves regarding their own basic knowledge of theirMuslims themselves regarding their own basic knowledge of their DEENDEEN.. Especially worrying is when this involves specialized fields andEspecially worrying is when this involves specialized fields and subjects regarding oursubjects regarding our DEENDEEN, for which they do not have any, for which they do not have any authority to be giving their opinion to the public.authority to be giving their opinion to the public. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  63. 63. CHALLENGES AND DEVELOPMENTCHALLENGES AND DEVELOPMENT Can any one claim the right to be involved in giving or engaging inCan any one claim the right to be involved in giving or engaging in serious discourse in other specialised fields like medicine orserious discourse in other specialised fields like medicine or engineering without adequate knowledge?engineering without adequate knowledge? Or even if one knows something about draughtsmanship or haveOr even if one knows something about draughtsmanship or have read medical journals, without the proper training and approval ofread medical journals, without the proper training and approval of the true practitioners in their respective fields, messing in thesethe true practitioners in their respective fields, messing in these would be deemed a crime – wouldn’t it?would be deemed a crime – wouldn’t it? All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  64. 64. CHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCACHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCA ““We sent not a messenger except (to teach) in the languageWe sent not a messenger except (to teach) in the language of his (own) people, in order to make (things) clear to them.”of his (own) people, in order to make (things) clear to them.” ((Qur’an: Ibrahim: 14: 4Qur’an: Ibrahim: 14: 4)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  65. 65. When theWhen the lingua francalingua franca for Islamic discourse is predominantly infor Islamic discourse is predominantly in Malay language, and the continual presence of so many of ourMalay language, and the continual presence of so many of our traditionally trainedtraditionally trained ASAATIZAHASAATIZAH in our midst (Bahasa Melayu/in our midst (Bahasa Melayu/ Bahasa Indonesia speakers), it has ensured adequate supervisionBahasa Indonesia speakers), it has ensured adequate supervision towards overseeing, and if need be, of correcting whatevertowards overseeing, and if need be, of correcting whatever misconceptions that may arise amongst the general Muslims.misconceptions that may arise amongst the general Muslims. But the trend now is thatBut the trend now is that discourses in English has become morediscourses in English has become more predominantpredominant and may replace the Malay, asand may replace the Malay, as lingua francalingua franca especially in the Singapore context.especially in the Singapore context. CHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCACHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCA All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  66. 66. CHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCACHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCA Teaching Islam in EnglishTeaching Islam in English now is increasingly in demand andnow is increasingly in demand and many classes or courses are eagerly started, but who aremany classes or courses are eagerly started, but who are teaching these course or classes .. ?teaching these course or classes .. ? Yet, from my experience in this field, the approach in teachingYet, from my experience in this field, the approach in teaching and the curriculum to be used, cannot merely be by translatingand the curriculum to be used, cannot merely be by translating or converting whatever has been done in Malay into English (asor converting whatever has been done in Malay into English (as some may have simplistically presumed).some may have simplistically presumed). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  67. 67. CHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCACHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCA Or even by transplanting these from other (Western) country,Or even by transplanting these from other (Western) country, there are issues or concerns – especially with regard tothere are issues or concerns – especially with regard to ADABADAB andand respect for what has already been nurtured by our pastrespect for what has already been nurtured by our past ‘ULAMA‘ULAMA.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  68. 68. Also theAlso the MAD’UMAD’U (the audience for(the audience for DA’WAHDA’WAH and students) theirand students) their exposure and background, may require special responses – viz. beexposure and background, may require special responses – viz. be they converts from other religion, youth, adults, or agnostics,they converts from other religion, youth, adults, or agnostics, secularist, sceptics, atheists, etc.secularist, sceptics, atheists, etc. Do we have the relevant curriculum and teachers for these?Do we have the relevant curriculum and teachers for these? A concern too, is the proficiency (or rather the lack of it) of manyA concern too, is the proficiency (or rather the lack of it) of many ASAATIZAHASAATIZAH in use of English, sincein use of English, since the teaching of Faith requiresthe teaching of Faith requires convincing and very engaging , communication skillsconvincing and very engaging , communication skills.. CHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCACHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCA All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  69. 69. Qualified graduates from Islamic learning centres, even thoseQualified graduates from Islamic learning centres, even those proficient in English, are advised to refer to or (if they have anyproficient in English, are advised to refer to or (if they have any humility) to spend some time to learn from those with muchhumility) to spend some time to learn from those with much experience, especially those who have already been involved forexperience, especially those who have already been involved for years in this fieldyears in this field locallylocally - rather than trying to ‘- rather than trying to ‘re-invent the wheelre-invent the wheel ’.’. Especially useful is to know the kind of ‘Especially useful is to know the kind of ‘questions, arguments andquestions, arguments and concernsconcerns ’ which contemporary audience frequently posed, and how’ which contemporary audience frequently posed, and how to effectively address them.to effectively address them. CHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCACHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCA All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  70. 70. Importing and the ratherImporting and the rather indiscriminateindiscriminate use of foreign ‘talents’ withoutuse of foreign ‘talents’ without seeking advice from local Islamic scholars and teachers (seeking advice from local Islamic scholars and teachers (in the field, thein the field, the actual practitioners – not academicsactual practitioners – not academics) is sign of our lacking in) is sign of our lacking in ADABADAB.. ‘‘Education’ should be regarded like nurturing of seeds and plants, andEducation’ should be regarded like nurturing of seeds and plants, and the teachers or educators like the “gardeners” : whose knowledge,the teachers or educators like the “gardeners” : whose knowledge, experience, wisdom, sincerity, and their love, affection, commitment,experience, wisdom, sincerity, and their love, affection, commitment, passionate dedication to their growing plant, cannot be easily replaced.passionate dedication to their growing plant, cannot be easily replaced. CHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCACHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCA All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  71. 71. ““ApprenticeshipApprenticeship” (or mentoring) of those intending to take-over their” (or mentoring) of those intending to take-over their role must be done – especially teaching Islam in English. Have this beenrole must be done – especially teaching Islam in English. Have this been seriously and adequately done? And if yes, by whom?seriously and adequately done? And if yes, by whom? Although today many may have completed courses on Islam withAlthough today many may have completed courses on Islam with diplomas and degrees (PHD’s even), academic achievements alone doesdiplomas and degrees (PHD’s even), academic achievements alone does not necessarily equate practical competency in teaching to the masses. Ifnot necessarily equate practical competency in teaching to the masses. If in law, medicine, schools - their graduates have to undergo pupilage orin law, medicine, schools - their graduates have to undergo pupilage or houseman ship or post-graduate stint in NIE and practicum, why arehouseman ship or post-graduate stint in NIE and practicum, why are religious teachers of Islam not provide with such?religious teachers of Islam not provide with such? CHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCACHANGE IN LINGUA FRANCA All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  72. 72. CONTEXT OF SINGAPORECONTEXT OF SINGAPORE All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  73. 73. DEPENDING UPON NEEDS – AIM OF LEARNING FIQHDEPENDING UPON NEEDS – AIM OF LEARNING FIQH The traditional approach for teaching and learningThe traditional approach for teaching and learning FIQHFIQH is towardsis towards becoming a religious scholars or teachers.becoming a religious scholars or teachers. For these, their curriculum onFor these, their curriculum on FIQHFIQH is similar or equivalent to that inis similar or equivalent to that in full-timefull-time MadrasahMadrasah and may prepare such students with one of theand may prepare such students with one of the qualification for pursuing further studies in higher centres of learningqualification for pursuing further studies in higher centres of learning – specializing in Islamic studies.– specializing in Islamic studies. This may not be suitable for most of the Muslims (generally).This may not be suitable for most of the Muslims (generally). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  74. 74. DEPENDING UPON NEEDS – AIM OF LEARNING FIQHDEPENDING UPON NEEDS – AIM OF LEARNING FIQH NOTENOTE : Those aiming to be scholars must not regard that with this: Those aiming to be scholars must not regard that with this component/subjectcomponent/subject FIQHFIQH alone, as being adequate for it mustalone, as being adequate for it must include also other related field of specialised studies viz.include also other related field of specialised studies viz. Arabic,Arabic, Qur’an, ‘Ulum-al-Qur’an, Tafsir, Ahadith, ‘Ulum al-Hadith, Seerah,Qur’an, ‘Ulum-al-Qur’an, Tafsir, Ahadith, ‘Ulum al-Hadith, Seerah, Tarikh, Usul-Fiqh, Aqeedah, AkhlaqTarikh, Usul-Fiqh, Aqeedah, Akhlaq,, Da’wahDa’wah etc. because Islamicetc. because Islamic scholars cannot go into specialization without adequate learning inscholars cannot go into specialization without adequate learning in (eclectic) sciences of the(eclectic) sciences of the DEENDEEN.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  75. 75. THE CURRICULUM – (GENERAL)THE CURRICULUM – (GENERAL) Here, I am sharing what I’ve envisaged (and which I amHere, I am sharing what I’ve envisaged (and which I am continuously implementing) as the curriculum in learningcontinuously implementing) as the curriculum in learning FIQHFIQH forfor new Muslims (in English) – or for those who may only be able tonew Muslims (in English) – or for those who may only be able to attend classes for a short duration (perhaps once a week).attend classes for a short duration (perhaps once a week). Their needs inTheir needs in FIQHFIQH are somewhat different from those intendingare somewhat different from those intending to be specialist in the knowledge of theto be specialist in the knowledge of the DEENDEEN.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  76. 76. THE CURRICULUM – (GENERAL)THE CURRICULUM – (GENERAL) Also of late, many confusion did arose when matters ofAlso of late, many confusion did arose when matters of ““KHILAAFIYAHKHILAAFIYAH” (Difference of opinion amongst the” (Difference of opinion amongst the MADZAAHIBMADZAAHIB) were) were callously introduced by certain groups.callously introduced by certain groups. Perhaps in seeking followers, some may resort with utterPerhaps in seeking followers, some may resort with utter inconsiderateness (even stooping to instigation) with their ‘critique’inconsiderateness (even stooping to instigation) with their ‘critique’ or by hastily belittling certain opinions of predominant schoolor by hastily belittling certain opinions of predominant school MADZHABMADZHAB which most Muslims here have already been earlierwhich most Muslims here have already been earlier taught.taught. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  77. 77. THE CURRICULUM – (GENERAL)THE CURRICULUM – (GENERAL) Also, many may have gone on to studyAlso, many may have gone on to study FIQHFIQH without beingwithout being adequately introduced to this field of study - how it is placedadequately introduced to this field of study - how it is placed within the overall educational need of a Muslim – the biggerwithin the overall educational need of a Muslim – the bigger schema; aim and purpose of the study; relevant history of itsschema; aim and purpose of the study; relevant history of its development; how to learn; etc.development; how to learn; etc. This knowledge is crucial.This knowledge is crucial. In accordance withIn accordance with ADABADAB, all these should be provided in what we, all these should be provided in what we termed “Introductory Module” -termed “Introductory Module” - MUQADDIMAHMUQADDIMAH .. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  78. 78. THE CURRICULUM – (GENERAL)THE CURRICULUM – (GENERAL) We fear for the possible loss ofWe fear for the possible loss of ADABADAB amongst these students andamongst these students and the danger of ‘anarchy’ as some in their ignorance, even arethe danger of ‘anarchy’ as some in their ignorance, even are advocating the doing away of the need to followadvocating the doing away of the need to follow MADZHABMADZHAB itself.itself. We are not against their learning comparative schools of IslamicWe are not against their learning comparative schools of Islamic jurisprudence :jurisprudence : MADZAAHIBMADZAAHIB (as an advanced study module) but(as an advanced study module) but this is reserved only for those who are already competent in thethis is reserved only for those who are already competent in the initialinitial MADZHABMADZHAB they were on, and who knows and have thethey were on, and who knows and have the ADABADAB in matters ofin matters of KHILAAFIYAHKHILAAFIYAH.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  79. 79. REVISITING THE “TAUREVISITING THE “TAUHHEEDIC PARADIGM”EEDIC PARADIGM” CHART - IN A MUSLIM’S EDUCATIONCHART - IN A MUSLIM’S EDUCATION * From Fardhu ‘Ain class slides & “Beginners Manual on Islam” - Addendum All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  80. 80. ‘ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   Purpose / Objective Development of Correct Practices; Submission & Obedience to Will of Allah (Islam) What is involved? Knowing the law, rules as Guidance to every aspect of life Capability to implementing them in life What is the Effect? To develop a community of people, Inviting to what is good Enjoining what is right, and forbidding evil, Advocating the fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent), Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in The servitude of One God. TauTauhheedic paradigmeedic paradigm All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  81. 81. ‘ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   Purpose / Objective Development of Correct Practices; Submission & Obedience to Will of Allah (Islam) What is involved? Knowing the law, rules as Guidance to every aspect of life Capability to implementing them in life What is the Effect? To develop a community of people, Inviting to what is good Enjoining what is right, and forbidding evil, Advocating the fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent), Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in The servitude of One God. TauTauhheedic paradigmeedic paradigm BROAD EXTENT OF TOPICS COVERED IN FIQHBROAD EXTENT OF TOPICS COVERED IN FIQH ‘‘ibadahibadah (personal devotion / worship)(personal devotion / worship) MuamalahMuamalah (social transaction)(social transaction) MunakahahMunakahah (Marriage & family)(Marriage & family) Irth / fara’idIrth / fara’id (Distribution of wealth)(Distribution of wealth) JinayahJinayah (crimes & punishment)(crimes & punishment) Qodha’iyahQodha’iyah (judiciary)(judiciary) jihad / Da’wahjihad / Da’wah (struggle in war & peace)(struggle in war & peace) imarahimarah (Leadership/government)(Leadership/government) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  82. 82. ‘ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   Purpose / Objective Development of Correct Practices; Submission & Obedience to Will of Allah (Islam) What is involved? Knowing the law, rules as Guidance to every aspect of life Capability to implementing them in life What is the Effect? To develop a community of people, Inviting to what is good Enjoining what is right, and forbidding evil, Advocating the fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent), Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in The servitude of One God. TauTauhheedic paradigmeedic paradigm RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARYRELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE:KNOWLEDGE: All applied sciences, technologyAll applied sciences, technology and skills, knowledge of economics, politics,and skills, knowledge of economics, politics, social & administrativesocial & administrative sciences etc. that can assist in thesciences etc. that can assist in the fulfilment of establishing justice, order, peace,fulfilment of establishing justice, order, peace, harmony, prosperity, physicalharmony, prosperity, physical with moral progress, and the well-beingwith moral progress, and the well-being of Man & society, etc.of Man & society, etc. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  83. 83.  However in Singapore, where Muslims generally attend part-timeHowever in Singapore, where Muslims generally attend part-time classes on Islam (usually only once a week), it would not be possible toclasses on Islam (usually only once a week), it would not be possible to follow this curriculum / quantum (unless for the exceptional few whofollow this curriculum / quantum (unless for the exceptional few who can give more of their time and be fully committed to engage in regularcan give more of their time and be fully committed to engage in regular HalaqahHalaqah, as stipulated by mentor / Sheikh)., as stipulated by mentor / Sheikh).  Therefore, the following (curriculumTherefore, the following (curriculum** I’ve implemented here) is meantI’ve implemented here) is meant for the general Muslims or new Muslims (convert or novice), asfor the general Muslims or new Muslims (convert or novice), as introduction to learningintroduction to learning FIQHFIQH (part-time).(part-time). ** MUQADDIMAH: THE SEQUENCE OF TOPIC – SPECIFIC OBJECTIVEMUQADDIMAH: THE SEQUENCE OF TOPIC – SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  84. 84. ** MUQADDIMAH: THE SEQUENCE OF TOPIC – SPECIFIC OBJECTIVEMUQADDIMAH: THE SEQUENCE OF TOPIC – SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE Below are the major suggested topics, I have incorporated:Below are the major suggested topics, I have incorporated: ADABADAB IN LEARNINGIN LEARNING WHAT ISWHAT IS SHAR’IAHSHAR’IAH?? OVERVIEW AND INTRODUCTION TOOVERVIEW AND INTRODUCTION TO MADZHABMADZHAB KNOWING RELEVANT HISTORY AND CONTEXT (KNOWING RELEVANT HISTORY AND CONTEXT (WAQI’IYWAQI’IY)) PRIORITY OF THE SUBJECT TO LEARN (PRIORITY OF THE SUBJECT TO LEARN (AWLAAWIYYAAWLAAWIYYA)) LEARNING KNOWLEDGE (LEARNING KNOWLEDGE (FIQHFIQH) FOR) FOR APPLICATIONAPPLICATION IN LIFE.IN LIFE. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  85. 85. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  86. 86. TO BE CONTINUEDTO BE CONTINUED All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  87. 87. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
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