[Slideshare] fiqh-course (february 2013-batch) -introdn #1 -(13-february-2012)

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[Slideshare] fiqh-course (february 2013-batch) -introdn #1 -(13-february-2012)

  1. 1. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. “INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH ” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for AdultsFEBRUARY 2013 - INTAKE conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail LESSON # 1 b – INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH And say: O Lord! Increase for me my knowledge Using text & curriculum he has developed especially for Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims. “To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) UPDATED – 13 February-2013
  2. 2. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. PREVIOUS LESSONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  3. 3. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. “It is He (Allah) Who has sent amongst the Unlettered a messenger (Muhammad) from among themselves, to rehearse to them His Signs, to sanctify them, and to instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom― although they had been, before, in manifest error― .“ (Qur’an: Jumu’ah: 62: 2) PREVIOUS LESSONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  4. 4. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. “As well as (to confer all these benefits upon) others of them, who have not already joined them: and He is Exalted in Might, Wise.” (Qur’an: Jumu’ah: 62: 3) PREVIOUS LESSONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  5. 5. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. “Such is the Bounty of Allah, which He bestows on whom He will: and Allah is the Lord of the highest bounty.” (Qur’an: Jumu’ah: 62: 4) PREVIOUS LESSONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  6. 6. PREVIOUS LESSONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  7. 7. “Nor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion (LIYA-TAFAQQAHU -FID-DEEN) and admonish the people when they return to them― that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil).” (Qur’an: Taubah: 9:122) PREVIOUS LESSONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  8. 8. PREVIOUS LESSONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  9. 9. “Whomsoever that Allah wishes for him goodness, He will make him a FAQIH (learned) in matters of the religion(Deen); and for everything there is a pillar, and the pillar of this religion is AL-FIQH – (the profound understanding of the Deen); a learned scholar (of the Deen) is more difficult upon satan than a thousand worshippers.” (Reported by Bukhary and Muslim) PREVIOUS LESSONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  10. 10. “The best ones amongst you is the person who makes your remember Allah when you look upon him; and whenever he speaks it increases you your knowledge (of the Deen), and with his deeds it inspires (motivates) you to strive for your Hereafter.” PREVIOUS LESSON (Hadith reported by Hakim from Ibnu ‘Umar r.a.)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  11. 11. PREVIOUS LESSONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  12. 12. * Muhammad ibn al-Hassan Abu ’Abdallah al-Shaibany r.h.m. said: “Give yourself up to the study of jurisprudence (FIQH), for the knowledge of jurisprudence is the best guide to piety and the fear of God and it is the straightest path to the ultimate goal .” • REFLECTION: “Fiqh” – literally means “profound understanding (of the Deen)” – ref: al-Qur’an Surah Taubah : 9: 122, which later was used to refer to the studies of Islamic jurisprudence. PREVIOUS LESSONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  13. 13. PREVIOUS LESSONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  14. 14. NING WAR “Whoever seeks knowledge (intending) to argue with the learned (scholars), or to brag with the foolish; or with it to attract peoples’ attention to himself; Allah will make him to enter the Hell-fire.” (Hadith also reported by Tirmidzi and Ibn Majah) PREVIOUS LESSONAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  15. 15. TO CONTINUE …All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  16. 16. EPISTEMOLOGY Amongst the definitions: “....... Knowledge is the arrival (husul- )* of the meaning (ma’na- ) of a thing or object of knowledge in the soul of the subject; and simultaneously,..... Knowledge is the soul’s arrival (wusul- ) at the meaning of that thing or the object of knowledge.” By “meaning” (ma’na- ) is: “the recognition of the proper place of anything in a system ...” Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas * “attainment; acquirement” is a better translation.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  17. 17. Whatever is outside of person – Knowledge resides in the to be regarded as information person – and is also an ( ) – and not knowledge attribute (sifat) of himself. ( ). Knowledge has to do with Information may not necessarily “meanings” – which may convey any meanings, but can be include abstract concepts and subjected to process or construct beyond the material interpretation – by a human - to forms. arriving at meaning. Yet, there can be difference in Every one may have equal access levels and depths of knowledge to a given information. to a given information, depending upon who contemplates upon it. INFORMATION KNOWLEDGEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  18. 18. It is when cognition of man are Just as raw data input are applied to process these meant to be processed by the information, that he may be said computer; observations, news, to arrive at knowledge (i.e. when data and information etc. are it becomes meaningful). objects to be understood and possible meanings from it to be THUS the Qur’anic approach for comprehended by man. man’s education enjoins him to THUS the Qur’an categorize these (information) as: “Signs” “Read” ( ) these signs to – aayat ( ) arrive at the “meanings” – the REALITY.Al-Qur’an – aayat Qawliyyah Note: The Arabic word “universe” and “a scholar; one who knows or isUniverse – aayat Kauniyah knowledgeable” are both spelt as: ( ) INFORMATION KNOWLEDGEAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  19. 19. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  20. 20. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  21. 21. "Verily Allah does not remove knowledge from the (hearts of the) people, rather he takes away knowledge by taking away its people (the true scholars – ‘ULAMA), until there are no more scholars, the people then take leaders that are ignorant, and when they are asked, and give fatwas – religious rulings, (they give) without knowledge, so they misguide and are misguided.“ (Hadith reported by Ashaab as-Sunnan from Ibnu ‘Umar r.a .)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  22. 22. “O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority from among you (ULIL-’AMRI - MIN-KUM).” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  23. 23. “If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger * if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination.” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59) * i.e. by the ULIL ‘AMRI competent in this, not just any one.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  24. 24. “If anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men to Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell, what an evil refuge.” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 115)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  25. 25. “Say, "O Allah, Owner of Sovereignty, You give sovereignty to whom You will and You take sovereignty away from whom You will. You honour whom You will and You humble whom You will. In Your hand is [all] good. Indeed, You are over all things competent.” (Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 26)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  26. 26. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  27. 27. “O YOU who have attained to faith! Be ever (QAWWAM) steadfast in your devotion to Allah, bearing witness (SHUHADA) to the truth in all equity (QISTw) ; and never let hatred of anyone lead you into the sin of deviating from justice. (A’-DILU) Be just: this is closest to being God-conscious (AQRABU-LIT- TAQWA). And remain conscious of Allah (TAQWA): verily, Allah is aware of all that you do.” (Qur’an: Ma-idah: 5:8)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  28. 28. “O ye who believe! stand out firmly for justice ( QISTw), as witnesses to Allah, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin ...” (Qur’an: an-Nisa’: 4 : 135All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  29. 29. ( “’A-da-la ” ) – to act justly, equitable, treating everyone with indiscriminate justice, etc. it also imply ( “ ‘adl ” ) to straighten, to be straightforward, justice, rectify, put in order, balance etc.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  30. 30. ( “Qistw ” ) meaning: “justice, fairness, equity, fair-mindedness, etc.” as in allotment of share or portion, also in the appropriate instalments. Thus “( “muqsitw ”) – is “acting justly, or with fairness, correctness and appropriateness.”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  31. 31. Although both terms imply “justice”, yet there is a slight difference in their meanings : In a transaction between 2 parties (e.g. Buying and selling), to accord to both parties their due rights whence both are satisfied (win-win) – the Arabic term . (QISTw ) is used. This may require willingness on one or both party to show benevolence, goodwill and generosity to the other.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  32. 32. In an adjudication (judging ), where justice requires that one party gains and one party has to suffer loss, the Arabic term (‘ADL ) is used. This, perhaps is the minimal form of justice required. Even to those amongst your enemy whom you hate, you must not deprive them of the ‘ADL.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  33. 33. Thus, (QISTw ) would be a higher form of justice – a justice tempered with IHSAN and generosity. As Muslims, we are to strive for this higher standard, . (QISTw ), if not, then uphold the minimal . ( ‘ADL ). “ADAAB “ encompass both these understandings.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  34. 34. M RO BLE THEP Analysis of Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-AttasAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  35. 35. (A) Confusion and Error in Knowledge Figure 1 The loss of Adab in the community. Thus restoration of Adab has higher priority for Adab precedes even learning. 35 [1] [2] Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud’s “The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas” (ISTAC publication 1998) p 74All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  36. 36. (A) Confusion and Error in Knowledge Figure 1 “This state of perpetual confusion at all levels of societal leadership is ingeniously termed by al-Attas as the loss of ADAB. This can be describe as follows: 1) Confusion and error in knowledge; creating the condition for: [1] The loss of Adab in the community. Thus restoration of Adab has higher priority for Adab precedes even learning. [2] Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud’s “The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas” (ISTAC publication 1998) p 74All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 36
  37. 37. External Loss of ADAB (B) Internal (A) Confusion and Error in Knowledge Figure 1 “This state of perpetual confusion at all levels of societal leadership is ingeniously termed by al-Attas as the loss of ADAB. This can be describe as follows: 1) Confusion and error in knowledge; creating the condition for: 2) The loss of ADAB within the Community. The condition arising out of (A) and (B) is: [1] The loss of Adab in the community. Thus restoration of Adab has higher priority for Adab precedes even learning. Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud’s “The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas” (ISTAC publication 1998) p 74 37 [2]All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  38. 38. (C) Rise / election of False leaders External Loss of ADAB (B) Internal (A) Confusion and Error in Knowledge Figure 1 “This state of perpetual confusion at all levels of societal leadership is ingeniously termed by al-Attas as the loss of ADAB. This can be describe as follows: 1) Confusion and error in knowledge; creating the condition for: 2) The loss of ADAB within the Community. The condition arising out of (A) and (B) is: Rise of False leaders [1] The loss of Adab in the community. Thus restoration of Adab has higher priority for Adab precedes even learning. [2] Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud’s “The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas” (ISTAC publication 1998) p 74All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) ) 38
  39. 39. (C) Rise / election of False leaders External Loss of ADAB (B) Internal (A) Confusion and Error in Knowledge Figure 1 “This state of perpetual confusion at all levels of societal leadership is ingeniously termed by al-Attas as the loss of ADAB. This can be describe as follows:1) Confusion and error in knowledge; creating the condition for:2) The loss of ADAB within the Community. The condition arising out of (A) and (B) is: “The rise of leaders who are not qualified for valid leadership of the Muslim Community, who do not possess the high moral, intellectual and spiritual standards required for Islamic leadership, who perpetuate the condition in (1) [1] above and ensure the continued control of the affairs of the Community by leaders like them who dominate in all fields.” [2][1] The loss of Adab in the community. Thus restoration of Adab has higher priority for Adab precedes even learning. 39[2] Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud’s “The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas” (ISTAC publication 1998) p 74
  40. 40. In the legal profession, can just anybody, even they who may be well-read in law, be given the right to interfere with legal rulings of High court judges? To even consider advice or comment upon legal questions, one should refer to those qualified such as lawyers or jurists; or recognised academician of jurisprudence, etc.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  41. 41. In engineering, merely having the knowledge or training in engineering is insufficient for the person ‘unless he has been certified’ by credible practitioners of whichever field of engineering profession. And in the field of medicine, can those who are not trained and certified as qualified physician be allowed to meddle and prescribe medical advices to the masses, styling himself or herself as a medical doctor?All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  42. 42. Merely having read manuals on medicine, or even having worked with a doctor but not as yet assessed by authoritative body of this profession, or even a student not as yet given permission to practice – are not enough to qualify one to that role. Such ‘malpractices’ can harm human life in this temporary world. Yet, when it is in matters of the DEEN (religion) that pertains to well-being of our soul or spirit (RUH) in the eternal Hereafter, why are Muslims so careless?All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  43. 43. In our community, the term “Ustaz” may have been loosely used (abused) to refer to just any one who teaches something connected to Islam, irrespective of their standing amongst the Islamic scholars (‘ULAMA) and genuine students of knowledge (TOLIB AL-’ILM) of Islam in our community. Other terms in our concern includes viz. – ‘ALEEM (‘ULAMA), SHEIKH, KIYAI, IMAM, MURSHID, KHALIFAH, AMEER, etc.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  44. 44. Another term perhaps ‘abused’ is ULIL-AMRI – being applied to whomsoever assume leadership of the Muslim community, without even considering whether such ‘leaders’ fulfill the criteria spoken of as the ULIL -AMRI - MINKUM in the Qur’an and elaborated in As-Sunnah. Originally, the WALIYUL ‘AMRI was the leader who was both an ‘ALEEM (recognized as learned Islamic scholar) as well as being the AMEER (political leader of the community) – modeled after the Prophet s.a.a.w. Even if he was not the best Islamic scholars of the time, he is expected to seek the advice of the best learned scholars ( ‘ULAMA) in the community.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  45. 45. ‘ALEEM and AMEER THE PROPHET S.A.W. Powers both spiritual and temporal, yet commanded to consult (SHURA) KHULAFA’ RASHIDUUN ‘ALEEM and AMEER Both spiritual and temporal, Yet consultation with the senior and other learned Companions ‘ULAMA and SHUYUKH of the Ummah. Ummah BEGINNING OF SEPARATION ‘ULAMA UMMAYYAD DYNASTY Spiritual – religious As AMEER only. leadership. Some patronize Held temporal power, ABBASID DYNASTY the ruler or served as but sought legitimacy judges and administrators, from endorsement …. and so on etc. yet many remain of the ‘ULAMA . Independent from these rulers but serve the Ummah.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  46. 46. Later these two roles (function) of an Islamic leadership became separated, one is the UMARA’ (Administrative – political leadership) and the other ‘ULAMA (Religious leadership - authority). It is the ‘ULAMA , (specifically the FUQAHA’ – the jurists-scholars), who must remain true (trustworthy) to the legacy of the Prophet s.a.a.w. and be courageous to speak-up independently, advise and, even if need be, to exhort or warn those who are ruling over the community. Their accountability ultimately is to Allah SWT and His Messenger s.a.a.w., and not to these rulers nor to whatever written constitution formulated by human beings which are opposed to the principle teachings of Ad-Deen Al-Islam.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  47. 47. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  48. 48. “(Honour) My successors (KHULAFA’), may Allah s.w.t. be Merciful towards them!.” He was asked: “Who are your successors (KHULAFA’) O Messenger of Allah?” And he said: “They are those who revive my Sunnah (Way or traditions) and teaches them to the servants of Allah.” (Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w.)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  49. 49. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  50. 50. “When a trust (AMANAH)is neglected, then wait for the time (of its destruction).” Somebody ask: ‘How shall this be neglected O Messenger of Allah?’ He the replied: “When a matter (affair) is given over, not to its rightful (legitimate) person (AHLIHA), then wait for its time (of destruction).” (Hadith reported by Bukhary)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  51. 51. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  52. 52. “The FUQAHA (Muslim jurists-scholars) are the trustees (UMANAA-U) of the Messenger, as long as they do not insert worldly interest into it (their religious guidance and teachings).” He was then asked: “What is ‘to insert worldly interest into it’ ?” (The Prophet s.a.a.w.) said: “(It is when they) follow the Sultan (i.e. those wielding political power)! So when they do that (follow the dictates of these leaders), be cautious towards them (i.e. these Muslim jurist-scholars) in regard to your Deen (religion).” (Hadith reported by Tirmidzi)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  53. 53. “The pursuit of knowledge is not carried on without six things which I shall inform you through words that are clear: [1] Ingenious acumen, [2] fervent desire, [3] patience, [4] sufficient sustenance, [5] guidance of a teacher, and [6] length of time.”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  54. 54. A SCHOLARS’ ADVICE FROM KITAB “TA’LIM MUTA’LLIM” “He who does not exert abstinence (WARA’) while learning, God (Allah) the Almighty chastise [him] in one of three ways: [1] either deprives him of life in his youth, or [2] exiles him into [far-off] regions, or [3] punishes him [by forcing him to enter] the service of the Sultan.”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  55. 55. “An immoral man of learning is a great evil, yet a greater evil is an ignoramus leading a ‘godly’ life. Both are a great trial everywhere, to whomever depends to them both, in holding on to his religion”REFLECTION: We would indeed be afflicted with this Fitnah (trial). Only with appropriateknowledge and irshaadah, and more importantly Taufiq wal-Hidaa-ya fromAllah SWT. would we be saved from its evil.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  56. 56. TO BE CONTINUEDAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  57. 57. TO BE CONTINUEDAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  58. 58. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  59. 59. “O Allah! Make us see the Truth to be true and grant us the ability to follow it. And make us see Falsehood to be false and grant us the ability to reject it.”All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  60. 60. O Allah! Make us to be people who guide (others) and who are (always) Guided (by Your Guidance) .All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  61. 61. Not of those who are astray and who lead people astray.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  62. 62. O Allah! Guide us all with Your Guidance.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  63. 63. And make us people who hasten towards what pleases You.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  64. 64. And do not let us be protected (by others) except only with Your Protection (as our Guardian).All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  65. 65. And do not make us to be of those who differ from Your command and who are disobedient towards You.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  66. 66. And sufficient is Allah for us, for He is the Best ProtectorAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  67. 67. And there is no power nor strength except with Allah The Most High, the Most Esteem.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  68. 68. And salutations of Allah and Peace be upon our Leader Muhammad, and upon His household and Companions .All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  69. 69. And all the Praises belongs to Allah, Lord Sustainer of all the worldAll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )
  70. 70. All welcome to visit my web-blog: http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) )

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