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““IINNTTRROODDUUCCTTIIOONN TTOO TTHHEE 
SSTTUUDDYY OOFF FFIIQQHH ”” 
IInntteerrmmeeddiiaattee LLeevveell IIssllaammiicc cc...
““O you who have attained to faith! Pay heed uunnttoo AAllllaahh,, aanndd ppaayy 
hheeeedd uunnttoo tthhee MMeesssseenngge...
““... ... Ask from those who possess tthhee MMeessssaaggee ((aazz--ZZiikkrr :: 
tthhee rreemmeemmbbrraannccee)) iinn mmaat...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
““WWiitthh aallll tthhiiss,, iitt iiss nnoott ddeessiirraabbllee tthhaatt aallll ooff tthhee bbeelliieevveerrss ttaakkee 
...
““Allah will raise up, to (suitable) ranks ((aanndd ddeeggrreeeess)),, tthhoossee 
ooff yyoouu wwhhoo bbeelliieevvee aannd...
““((HHoonnoouurr)) MMyy ssuucccceessssoorrss,, mmaayy AAllllaahh ss..ww..tt.. bbee MMeerrcciiffuull ttoowwaarrddss 
tthhee...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
““(‘(‘Ali ibn Abi Talib r.a. said) “I asked: ‘O Messenger ooff AAllllaahh!! ((WWhhaatt aarree 
wwee ttoo ddoo wwhheenn)) m...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
““AAnndd wwhhooeevveerr ((YYUU--SSHHAAAA--QQIIQQ)) ooppppoosseess tthhee MMeesssseennggeerr aafftteerr 
gguuiiddaannccee h...
““Thus have We made of you an UUmmmmaahh jjuussttllyy bbaallaanncceedd 
tthhaatt yyee mmiigghhtt bbee wwiittnneesssseess o...
““My ummah (community) wwiillll nneevveerr aaggrreeee 
uuppoonn mmaatttteerrss wwhhiicchh aarree eerrrroonneeoouuss”” 
((H...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
"Verily Allah does not remove knowledge ffrroomm tthhee ((hheeaarrttss ooff 
tthhee)) ppeeooppllee,, rraatthheerr hhee tta...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
““WWhheenn aa ttrruusstt ((AAMMAANNAAHH))iiss nneegglleecctteedd,, 
tthheenn wwaaiitt ffoorr tthhee ttiimmee ((ooff iittss...
““If ye differ in anything aammoonngg yyoouurrsseellvveess,, rreeffeerr iitt ttoo AAllllaahh aanndd 
HHiiss MMeesssseenngg...
IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT CCLLAARRIIFFIICCAATTIIOONN 
** TThhiiss ,, ((rreeffeerr iitt ttoo AAllllaahh aanndd HHiiss MMeesssseenn...
From “Qa-la-da” – to adorn with a necklace; 
to entrust authority to someone; to follow, imitate, etc. 
All Rights Reserve...
 In Islamic legal theory, tthhee sscchhoollaarrss ddeeffiinnee ““TTAAQQLLIIDD”” aass :: 
““AAcccceeppttiinngg tthhee vvii...
 Those who are not qualified sscchhoollaarrss ((tteerrmmeedd ‘‘FFAAQQIIHH’’ -- oonnee 
wwhhoo aarree ccoommppeetteenntt t...
From “Ja-ha-da” – to strive; effort; 
exertion, endeavour, labour, etc. 
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
 IInn IIssllaammiicc lleeggaall tthheeoorryy,, sscchhoollaassttiicc mmeetthhoodd rreeffeerrrreedd ttoo aass ““IIJJTTIIHHA...
 TThhee ppooiinntt hheerree iiss tthhaatt ““IIJJTTIIHHAADD iiss nnoott jjuusstt oonnee ooff sscchhoollaarrllyy 
eexxeerrt...
 IInn IIssllaammiicc lleeggaall tthheeoorryy,, ssuucchh aa sscchhoollaarr iiss ccaalllleedd ““MMUUJJTTAAHHIIDD”” 
–– aann...
 TThhee wweellll--kknnoowwnn MMAADDZZAAAAHHIIBB tthhaatt ssuurrvviivveedd aarree :: 
[[11]] JJAA’’FFAARRII –– IImmaamm JJ...
 IImmaamm aall--QQuurrttuubbii rrhhmm.. ssaayyss:: ““NNoo ddiiffffeerreennccee eexxiissttss aammoonngg tthhee 
sscchhooll...
 CCoonntteemmppoorraarryy sscchhoollaarr,, IImmaamm aall--SShhaannqqiittii rrhhmm..wwrroottee:: 
““TThhee pprreessccrriib...
“What are the requirement and necessary 
qualification for a Mujtahid ?” 
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
IIJJTTIIHHAADD 
– literally means “an effort or an exercise to arrive at 
one’s own judgement” – technically it is used in...
RREEQQUUIIRREEMMEENNTT 
 Knowledgeable about the religion of Islam, the Sunnah (Ways or 
traditions of the Prophet s.a.a....
RREEQQUUIIRREEMMEENNTT 
[B] He must be well versed in the study of the traditions of the 
Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w. That i...
RREEQQUUIIRREEMMEENNTT 
[C] He must know the principles of IJMA’ (scholarly consensus) 
very well; 
[D] He must know the i...
OOTTHHEERR IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT CCRRIITTEERRIIAA 
Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character 
apart...
OOTTHHEERR IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT CCRRIITTEERRIIAA 
Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character 
apart...
OOTTHHEERR IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT CCRRIITTEERRIIAA 
Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character 
apart...
OOTTHHEERR IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT CCRRIITTEERRIIAA 
Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character 
apart...
AALL--MMUUJJTTAAHHIIDD FFII -- AALL--SSHHAARRII--’’AAHH 
–– TThheessee wweerree tthhoossee wwhhoo ddiidd iijjttiihhaadd ii...
AALL--MMUUJJTTAAHHIIDD FFII -- AALL--MMAADDZZHHAABB 
–– tthheessee aarree tthhoossee wwhhoo ddiidd iijjttiihhaadd aaffttee...
AALL--MMUUJJTTAAHHIIDD FFII -- AALL--MMAASSAAAA--IILL 
–– tthheessee aarree tthhoossee wwhhoo ffoollllooww tthheemm ((mmuu...
AALL--QQUURR’’AANN The Revealed Book 
AASS--SSUUNNNNAAHH The Way of the Prophet 
IIJJMMAA’’ Consensus 
QQIIYYAASS Analogou...
IIssttiiddllaall aanndd IIssttiisshhaabb 
ddeedduuccttiioonn bbyy llooggiicc aanndd rreeaassoonniinngg;; aanndd rreellyyii...
IIssttiihhssaann 
preference 
MMaassllaahhaahh aall--mmuurrssaallaahh 
for public interest 
 Generally, these four are kn...
aall--‘‘UUrrff 
Customs or norms 
SSaadddd--uuzz--zzaarraa--’’ii 
“closing the door of mischief” 
 Generally, these four ...
‘‘AAmmaall aahhll--aall--mmaaddiinnaahh 
“practices of the people of Madinah” 
AAsshh--sshhaarr’’uu mmaannqqaabbllaannaa 
...
‘‘MMaaddzzhhaabb SSaahhaaaabbiiyy 
opinions of Companions of the Prophet 
 Generally, these four are known by many Muslim...
“The learned and wise among Muslims must use constant vigilance in 
detecting erroneous usage in language which impinges u...
SSoommee ppeeooppllee ccaarreelleessssllyy aarrgguueess:: 
 ““TTaaqqlliidd iiss hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” 
 ““...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1 
 TTaaqqlliidd iiss iinn ffaacctt ““wwaajjiibb”” ((oobbllii...
““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1 
 TTaaqqlliidd iiss iinn ffaacctt ““wwaajjiibb”” ((oobbllii...
““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1 
 TTaaqqlliidd iiss iinn ffaacctt ““wwaajjiibb”” ((oobbllii...
““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1 
 TTaaqqlliidd iiss iinn ffaacctt ““wwaajjiibb”” ((oobbllii...
““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1 
 TTaaqqlliidd iiss iinn ffaacctt ““wwaajjiibb”” ((oobbllii...
““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1 
 TTaaqqlliidd iiss iinn ffaacctt ““wwaajjiibb”” ((oobbllii...
““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1 
 Study iinn tthhee lliivveess ooff tthhee KKhhuullaaffaa’’...
““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1 
 Some scholars advocate “it-tiba’ “ i.e. “following ” by a...
““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1 
 His knowing of the basis is not compulsory, but only enco...
““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1 
 Some erroneously assumed that this reliance upon the auth...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
““IIss ffoolllloowwiinngg MMaaddzzhhaabb aa BBiidd’’aahh ((iinnnnoovvaattiioonn)) ?? ”” # 2 
 If by “Bid’ah “ we mean str...
““IIss ffoolllloowwiinngg MMaaddzzhhaabb aa BBiidd’’aahh ((iinnnnoovvaattiioonn)) ?? ”” # 2 
 Yet, amongst the Companions...
““IIss ffoolllloowwiinngg MMaaddzzhhaabb aa BBiidd’’aahh ((iinnnnoovvaattiioonn)) ?? ”” # 2 
 So, if some practices occur...
““IIss ffoolllloowwiinngg MMaaddzzhhaabb aa BBiidd’’aahh ((iinnnnoovvaattiioonn)) ?? ”” # 2 
 As to the concern of variet...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
““WWhhyy mmuusstt wwee ffoollllooww MMaaddzzhhaabb wwhheenn wwee ccaann ggoo 
ttoo tthhee QQuurr’’aann aanndd AAhhaaddiitt...
““WWhhyy mmuusstt wwee ffoollllooww MMaaddzzhhaabb wwhheenn wwee ccaann ggoo 
ttoo tthhee QQuurr’’aann aanndd AAhhaaddiitt...
““WWhhyy mmuusstt wwee ffoollllooww MMaaddzzhhaabb wwhheenn wwee ccaann ggoo 
ttoo tthhee QQuurr’’aann aanndd AAhhaaddiitt...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
““WWoouulldd nnoott ffoolllloowwiinngg MMaaddzzhhaabb aa ffoorrmm ooff sseeccttaarriiaanniissmm 
lliikkee tthhee ddeennoom...
““WWoouulldd nnoott ffoolllloowwiinngg MMaaddzzhhaabb aa ffoorrmm ooff sseeccttaarriiaanniissmm 
lliikkee tthhee ddeennoom...
““WWoouulldd nnoott ffoolllloowwiinngg MMaaddzzhhaabb aa ffoorrmm ooff sseeccttaarriiaanniissmm 
lliikkee tthhee ddeennoom...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
““MMuusstt wwee ffoollllooww oonnllyy oonnee MMaaddzzhhaabb?? CCaann wwee nnoott mmoovvee 
ttoo tthhee ooppiinniioonn ooff...
““MMuusstt wwee ffoollllooww oonnllyy oonnee MMaaddzzhhaabb?? CCaann wwee nnoott mmoovvee 
ttoo tthhee ooppiinniioonn ooff...
““MMuusstt wwee ffoollllooww oonnllyy oonnee MMaaddzzhhaabb?? CCaann wwee nnoott mmoovvee 
ttoo tthhee ooppiinniioonn ooff...
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
MAIN RIVER SOURCE 
DDIISSTTRRIIBBUUTTAARRIIEESS 
All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
 All distributaries emanate ffrroomm tthhee mmaaiinn rriivveerr ssoouurrccee.. 
 TThhee nneeaarreerr iitt iiss ttoo tthh...
 It may even merge into oonnee aannootthheerr.. OOrr ssoommee mmaayy 
ccoommpplleetteellyy ddiissaappppeeaarr ffrroomm tt...
 Thus, the concern is for users of each distributary to be 
cautious when drinking from it, lest they may consume 
someth...
 To deprive anyone from the available water that they 
already can access to, with the excuse that it has become 
pollute...
 Similarly foolish is to argue “my distributary is better 
than your distributary” when both actually possess 
life-susta...
 Those who have collected for themselves clean water may 
share them with others – but, it would be sheer arrogance 
to ‘...
 It is equally foolish, nay irresponsible, to confuse – or 
rather to “scare and confound”- the common people 
whose need...
REMEMBER TTHHIISS IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT CCOOMMMMAANNDD 
““OO yyee wwhhoo bbeelliieevvee!! iiff yyoouu aarree ccoonnsscciioouu...
IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT DDUU’’AA 
AALLLLAAAA--HHUUMM--MMAA –– AARRII--NNAALL--HHAAQQ--QQAA -- HHAAQQ--QQAANN 
WWAARR-- ZZUUQQ--...
AAllll wweellccoommee ttoo vviissiitt mmyy wweebb--bblloogg:: 
hhttttpp::////aann--nnaasseeeehhaahh..bbllooggssppoott..cco...
To love your Prophet s.a.a.w. 
To love the Household 
of the Prophet s.a.a.w. 
Teach them to recite Al-Qur’an.
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[Slideshare] fiqh-course (august 2014-batch) -adab-following-madzhab- #5 -(10-sept-2014)

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[Slideshare] fiqh-course (august 2014-batch) -adab-following-madzhab- #5 -(10-sept-2014)

  1. 1. ““IINNTTRROODDUUCCTTIIOONN TTOO TTHHEE SSTTUUDDYY OOFF FFIIQQHH ”” IInntteerrmmeeddiiaattee LLeevveell IIssllaammiicc ccoouurrssee iinn EEnngglliisshh ffoorr AAdduullttss ccoonndduucctteedd bbyy UUssttaazz ZZhhuullkkeefflleeee HHjj IIssmmaaiill IINN TTHHEE NNAAMMEE OOFF AALLLLAAHH,, MMOOSSTT CCOOMMPPAASSSSIIOONNAATTEE,, MMOOSSTT MMEERRCCIIFFUULL.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)) And say: O Lord! Increase for me my knowledge UUssiinngg tteexxtt && ccuurrrriiccuulluumm hhee hhaass ddeevveellooppeedd eessppeecciiaallllyy ffoorr MMuusslliimm ccoonnvveerrttss aanndd yyoouunngg AAdduulltt EEnngglliisshh--ssppeeaakkiinngg MMuusslliimmss.. ““TToo sseeeekk kknnoowwlleeddggee iiss oobblliiggaattoorryy uuppoonn eevveerryy MMuusslliimm ((mmaallee && ffeemmaallee))”” UUPPDDAATTEEDD –– 1100 SSeepptteemmbbeerr--22001144 AAUUGGUUSSTT 2001144 -- IINNTTAAKKEE LLEESSSSOONN ## 55 –– AADDAABB IINN FFOOLLLLOOWWIINNGG AA MMAADDZZHHAABB
  2. 2. ““O you who have attained to faith! Pay heed uunnttoo AAllllaahh,, aanndd ppaayy hheeeedd uunnttoo tthhee MMeesssseennggeerr aanndd uunnttoo tthhoossee ffrroomm aammoonngg yyoouu wwhhoo hhaavvee bbeeeenn eennttrruusstteedd wwiitthh aauutthhoorriittyy ((UULLIILL--AAMMRRII--MMIINN--KKUUMM));;””.. ((QQuurr’’aann:: AAnn--NNiissaa’’:: 44:: 5599)) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  3. 3. ““... ... Ask from those who possess tthhee MMeessssaaggee ((aazz--ZZiikkrr :: tthhee rreemmeemmbbrraannccee)) iinn mmaatttteerrss wwhhiicchh yyoouu ddoo nnoott kknnooww..““ ((QQuurr’’aann:: aall--NNaahhlluu:: 1166:: 4433)) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  4. 4. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  5. 5. ““WWiitthh aallll tthhiiss,, iitt iiss nnoott ddeessiirraabbllee tthhaatt aallll ooff tthhee bbeelliieevveerrss ttaakkee tthhee ffiieelldd [[iinn ttiimmee ooff wwaarr]].. FFrroomm wwiitthhiinn eevveerryy ggrroouupp iinn tthheeiirr mmiiddsstt,, ssoommee sshhaallll rreeffrraaiinn ffrroomm ggooiinngg ffoorrtthh ttoo wwaarr,, aanndd sshhaallll ddeevvoottee tthheemmsseellvveess [[iinnsstteeaadd]] ttoo aaccqquuiirriinngg aa ddeeeeppeerr kknnoowwlleeddggee ooff tthhee FFaaiitthh ((LLIIYYAA--TTAAFFAAQQ--QQAAHHUU--FFIIDD--DDEEEENN)).. aanndd [[tthhuuss bbee aabbllee ttoo]] tteeaacchh tthheeiirr hhoommee--ccoommiinngg bbrreetthhrreenn,, ssoo tthhaatt tthheessee [[ttoooo]] mmiigghhtt gguuaarrdd tthheemmsseellvveess aaggaaiinnsstt eevviill..”” ((QQuurr’’aann:: TTaauubbaahh:: 99:: 112222)) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  6. 6. ““Allah will raise up, to (suitable) ranks ((aanndd ddeeggrreeeess)),, tthhoossee ooff yyoouu wwhhoo bbeelliieevvee aanndd wwhhoo hhaavvee bbeeeenn ggrraanntteedd KKnnoowwlleeddggee :: aanndd AAllllaahh iiss wweellll--aaccqquuaaiinntteedd wwiitthh aallll tthhaatt yyee ddoo..““ ((QQuurr’’aann:: MMuujjaaddiillaahh:: 5588:: 1111)) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  7. 7. ““((HHoonnoouurr)) MMyy ssuucccceessssoorrss,, mmaayy AAllllaahh ss..ww..tt.. bbee MMeerrcciiffuull ttoowwaarrddss tthheemm!!..”” HHee wwaass aasskkeedd:: ““WWhhoo aarree yyoouurr ssuucccceessssoorrss OO MMeesssseennggeerr ooff AAllllaahh??”” AAnndd hhee ssaaiidd:: ““TThheeyy aarree tthhoossee wwhhoo rreevviivvee mmyy SSuunnnnaahh aanndd tteeaacchh tthheemm ttoo tthhee sseerrvvaannttss ooff AAllllaahh..”” ((HHaaddiitthh ooff tthhee PPrroopphheett ss..aa..ww..)) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  8. 8. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  9. 9. ““(‘(‘Ali ibn Abi Talib r.a. said) “I asked: ‘O Messenger ooff AAllllaahh!! ((WWhhaatt aarree wwee ttoo ddoo wwhheenn)) mmaatttteerrss ccoommee bbeeffoorree uuss wwhheerreewwiitthh tthheerree iiss nnoo ((eexxpplliicciitt)) iinnddiiccaattiioonn rreeggaarrddiinngg tthheemm iinn tthhee QQuurr’’aann nnoorr iinn tthhee SSuunnnnaahh ffrroomm yyoouu rreeggaarrddiinngg tthheemm ((rreeggaarrddiinngg iittss rruulliinngg))??’’ ((TThhee PPrroopphheett ss..aa..ww..)) hhee ssaaiidd:: ““YYoouu aarree ttoo ggaatthheerr ttooggeetthheerr tthhee lleeaarrnneedd ((‘‘uullaammaa)) aammoonnggsstt tthheemm”” –– oorr hhee mmaayy hhaavvee ssaaiidd ““TThhee wwoorrsshhiippppeerrss ((‘‘aabbiiddeeeenn )) ffrroomm aammoonnggsstt tthhee BBeelliieevveerrss”” –– ““CCoonnvveennee wwiitthh tthheemm sshhuurraa ((mmuuttuuaall ccoonnssuullttaattiioonnss ttoo ddeerriivvee aa ccoolllleeccttiivvee ddeecciissiioonn)) iinn rreeggaarrdd ttoo rreelliiggiioouuss rruulliinnggss.. DDoo nnoott ddeecciiddee bbaasseedd uuppoonn ((iiddeeaa oorr kknnoowwlleeddggee ooff)) oonnllyy oonnee ((ssiinngguullaarr)) ppeerrssoonn’’ss tthhoouugghhtt..”” ((HHaaddiitthh rreeppoorrtteedd bbyy IIbbnnuu AAbbddiill BBaarrrr)) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  10. 10. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  11. 11. ““AAnndd wwhhooeevveerr ((YYUU--SSHHAAAA--QQIIQQ)) ooppppoosseess tthhee MMeesssseennggeerr aafftteerr gguuiiddaannccee hhaass bbeeccoommee cclleeaarr ttoo hhiimm aanndd ffoolllloowwss ootthheerr tthhaann tthhee wwaayy ooff tthhee bbeelliieevveerrss -- WWee wwiillll ggiivvee hhiimm wwhhaatt hhee hhaass ttaakkeenn aanndd ddrriivvee hhiimm iinnttoo HHeellll,, aanndd eevviill iitt iiss aass aa ddeessttiinnaattiioonn..”” ((QQuurr’’aann:: AAnn--NNiissaa’’:: 44:: 111155)) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  12. 12. ““Thus have We made of you an UUmmmmaahh jjuussttllyy bbaallaanncceedd tthhaatt yyee mmiigghhtt bbee wwiittnneesssseess oovveerr tthhee nnaattiioonnss aanndd tthhee MMeesssseennggeerr aa wwiittnneessss oovveerr yyoouurrsseellvveess..”” ((QQuurr’’aann:: BBaaqqaarraahh:: 22:: 114433)) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  13. 13. ““My ummah (community) wwiillll nneevveerr aaggrreeee uuppoonn mmaatttteerrss wwhhiicchh aarree eerrrroonneeoouuss”” ((HHaaddiitthh rreeppoorrtteedd bbyy TTiirrmmiiddzzii,, AAbbuu DDaawwuudd,, IIbbnn MMaajjaahh && DDaarruuqquuttnnii)) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  14. 14. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  15. 15. "Verily Allah does not remove knowledge ffrroomm tthhee ((hheeaarrttss ooff tthhee)) ppeeooppllee,, rraatthheerr hhee ttaakkeess aawwaayy kknnoowwlleeddggee bbyy ttaakkiinngg aawwaayy iittss ppeeooppllee ((tthhee ttrruuee sscchhoollaarrss –– ‘‘UULLAAMMAA)),, uunnttiill tthheerree aarree nnoo mmoorree sscchhoollaarrss,, tthhee ppeeooppllee tthheenn ttaakkee lleeaaddeerrss tthhaatt aarree iiggnnoorraanntt,, aanndd wwhheenn tthheeyy aarree aasskkeedd,, aanndd ggiivvee ffaattwwaass –– rreelliiggiioouuss rruulliinnggss,, ((tthheeyy ggiivvee)) wwiitthhoouutt kknnoowwlleeddggee,, ssoo tthheeyy mmiissgguuiiddee aanndd aarree mmiissgguuiiddeedd..““ ((HHaaddiitthh rreeppoorrtteedd bbyy AAsshhaaaabb aass--SSuunnnnaann ffrroomm IIbbnnuu ‘‘UUmmaarr rr..aa..)) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  16. 16. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  17. 17. ““WWhheenn aa ttrruusstt ((AAMMAANNAAHH))iiss nneegglleecctteedd,, tthheenn wwaaiitt ffoorr tthhee ttiimmee ((ooff iittss ddeessttrruuccttiioonn))..”” SSoommeebbooddyy aasskk:: ‘‘HHooww sshhaallll tthhiiss bbee nneegglleecctteedd OO MMeesssseennggeerr ooff AAllllaahh??’’ HHee tthhee rreepplliieedd:: ““WWhheenn aa mmaatttteerr ((aaffffaaiirr)) iiss ggiivveenn oovveerr,, nnoott ttoo iittss rriigghhttffuull ((lleeggiittiimmaattee)) ppeerrssoonn ((AAHHLLIIHHAA)),, tthheenn wwaaiitt ffoorr iittss ttiimmee ((ooff ddeessttrruuccttiioonn))..”” ((HHaaddiitthh rreeppoorrtteedd bbyy BBuukkhhaarryy)) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  18. 18. ““If ye differ in anything aammoonngg yyoouurrsseellvveess,, rreeffeerr iitt ttoo AAllllaahh aanndd HHiiss MMeesssseennggeerr ** iiff yyee ddoo bbeelliieevvee iinn AAllllaahh aanndd tthhee LLaasstt DDaayy:: tthhaatt iiss bbeesstt,, aanndd mmoosstt ssuuiittaabbllee ffoorr ffiinnaall ddeetteerrmmiinnaattiioonn..”” ((QQuurr’’aann:: AAnn--NNiissaa’’:: 44:: 5599)) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  19. 19. IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT CCLLAARRIIFFIICCAATTIIOONN ** TThhiiss ,, ((rreeffeerr iitt ttoo AAllllaahh aanndd HHiiss MMeesssseennggeerr **)) iiss aaccttuuaallllyy aaddddrreesssseedd ssppeecciiffiiccaallllyy ttoo tthhee IIssllaammiicc sscchhoollaarrss aanndd jjuurriissttss ((mmuujjttaahhiidd)),, wwhhoo aarree ccoommppeetteenntt ttoo rreeffeerr bbaacckk ttoo tthheessee ttwwoo pprriimmaarryy ssoouurrcceess –– nnoott jjuusstt aannyy oonnee aass wwhhaatt cceerrttaaiinn ggrroouupp mmaayy sseeeemm ttoo tthhiinnkk..  TThhee ggeenneerraall MMuusslliimmss mmuusstt rreellyy uuppoonn tthhoossee jjuurriissttss aanndd sscchhoollaarrss ((mmuujjttaahhiidd ooff aa mmaaddzzhhaabb)) ddeecciissiioonnss bbyy TTaaqqlliidd..  DDiiffffeerreenncceess ooff ooppiinniioonnss aammoonnggsstt mmaaddzzaaaahhiibb tteerrmmeedd ““kkhhiillaaffiiyyyyaahh ”” aarree ttoo bbee rreessppeecctteedd wwiitthh AAddaabb wwhhiicchh iiss eexxppeecctteedd ooff MMuusslliimm ssttuuddeennttss ttoowwaarrddss aallll oouurr IIssllaammiicc tteeaacchheerrss aanndd sscchhoollaarrss ((uullaammaa’’..)) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  20. 20. From “Qa-la-da” – to adorn with a necklace; to entrust authority to someone; to follow, imitate, etc. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  21. 21.  In Islamic legal theory, tthhee sscchhoollaarrss ddeeffiinnee ““TTAAQQLLIIDD”” aass :: ““AAcccceeppttiinngg tthhee vviieeww ooff ssoommeeoonnee ((wwhhoo iiss aa qquuaalliiffiieedd jjuurriisstt –– tteerrmmeedd :: FFAAQQIIHH // MMUUJJTTAAHHIIDD)) wwiitthhoouutt aa pprrooooff”” ((qqaabbuuuu--lluu qqaaww--lliill--gghhaayyrr mmiinn gghhaayy--rrii --HHuujjjjaahh))..””11 1 – Imam al-Ghazalie r.h.m. Al-Mustasfå min ‘Ilm al-Usul (Cairo: Maktabah al-Tijariyyah, 1356), 2:387. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  22. 22.  Those who are not qualified sscchhoollaarrss ((tteerrmmeedd ‘‘FFAAQQIIHH’’ -- oonnee wwhhoo aarree ccoommppeetteenntt ttoo ddoo ““IIJJTTIIHHAADD ““ aallssoo ccaalllleedd ““MMUUJJTTAAHHIIDD””)) ,, aarree tthhee oorrddiinnaarryy MMuusslliimm ((ssttiillll tteecchhnniiccaallllyy rreeggaarrddeedd aass aa ““MMUUQQOOLLLLIIDD”” )) ,, iitt iiss oobblliiggaattoorryy ttoo ““TTAAQQLLIIDD”” ttoo ooppiinniioonnss ooff aa MMUUJJTTAAHHIIDD.. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  23. 23. From “Ja-ha-da” – to strive; effort; exertion, endeavour, labour, etc. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  24. 24.  IInn IIssllaammiicc lleeggaall tthheeoorryy,, sscchhoollaassttiicc mmeetthhoodd rreeffeerrrreedd ttoo aass ““IIJJTTIIHHAADD”” mmeeaannss ssiimmppllyy,, ‘‘eexxeerrttiioonn’’,,  RReelliiggiioouussllyy ssppeeaakkiinngg,, iitt rreeffeerrss ttoo aa ccoommppeetteenntt jjuurriisstt ((FFAAQQIIHH)) ““eexxppeennddiinngg eevveerryy ppoossssiibbllee eeffffoorrtt ttoo eexxaammiinnee”” tthhee tteexxttuuaall eevviiddeenncceess,, ssoo aass ttoo aarrrriivvee aatt aa rruulliinngg ooff tthhee SSaaccrreedd LLaaww.. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  25. 25.  TThhee ppooiinntt hheerree iiss tthhaatt ““IIJJTTIIHHAADD iiss nnoott jjuusstt oonnee ooff sscchhoollaarrllyy eexxeerrttiioonn,, bbuutt ooff eexxhhaauussttiioonn..”” FFaatthhoommiinngg tthhee iinntteenntt ooff tthhee LLaawwggiivveerr,, aanndd iinnffeerrrriinngg nneeww rruulliinnggss ffrroomm tthhee pprriimmaarryy ssoouurrcceess eexxtteennssiivveellyy -- ssoo aass ttoo rreeaacchh aa ssoouunndd lleeggaall ccoonncclluussiioonn -- iiss iinnddeeeedd aa mmoosstt aarrdduuoouuss aanndd ddeemmaannddiinngg ttaasskk nnoott ffoorr jjuusstt aannyy oorr eevveerryyoonnee.. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  26. 26.  IInn IIssllaammiicc lleeggaall tthheeoorryy,, ssuucchh aa sscchhoollaarr iiss ccaalllleedd ““MMUUJJTTAAHHIIDD”” –– aanndd hhaass mmaannyy lleevveellss,, tthhoossee ooff tthhee hhiigghheesstt ccaatteeggoorryy,, wwhhoossee jjuurriissttiicc mmeetthhooddss aanndd ddeecciissiioonnss aarree wwiiddeellyy ffoolllloowweedd tteerrmmeedd –– ““MMUUJJTTAAHHIIDD MMUUTTLLAAQQ ”” –– bbeeccaammee aass aa sscchhooooll ooff jjuurriisspprruuddeennccee ccaalllleedd ““MMAADDZZHHAABB”” oorr ““MMAADDZZAAAAHHIIBB””((pplluurraall)).. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  27. 27.  TThhee wweellll--kknnoowwnn MMAADDZZAAAAHHIIBB tthhaatt ssuurrvviivveedd aarree :: [[11]] JJAA’’FFAARRII –– IImmaamm JJaa’’ffaarr iibbnn MMuuhhaammmmaadd aass--SSooddiiqq [[22]] HHAANNAAFFII –– IImmaamm AAbbuu HHaanniiffaahh NNuu’’mmaann iibbnn TTssaabbiitt [[33]] MMAALLIIKKII –– IImmaamm MMaalliikk bbiinn AAnnaass [[44]] SSHHAAFFII--’’IIEE –– IImmaamm MMuuhhaammmmaadd IIddrriiss aass--SShhaaffii--’’iiee [[55]] HHAANNBBAALLII –– IImmaamm AAhhmmaadd bbiinn HHaannbbaall All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  28. 28.  IImmaamm aall--QQuurrttuubbii rrhhmm.. ssaayyss:: ““NNoo ddiiffffeerreennccee eexxiissttss aammoonngg tthhee sscchhoollaarrss tthhaatt,, tthhee llaayymmeenn aarree ttoo ppeerrffoorrmm ttaaqqlliidd ooff tthheeiirr sscchhoollaarrss ((MMUUJJJJTTAAHHIIDD))..”” **  IIbbnn QQuuddaammaahh eexxpplliicciittllyy ssttaatteess:: ““AAss ffaarr aass ttaaqqlliidd iinn tthhee ddeettaaiillss ooff tthhee SSaaccrreedd LLaaww ((FFUURRUU‘‘)) iiss ccoonncceerrnneedd,, iitt iiss aalllloowweedd bbyy ccoonnsseennssuuss ((IIJJMMAA’’))..””++ * Al-Jami‘ li Ahkam al-Qur’an (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah), + Al-Rawdatu’l-Nazir wa Jannat al-Manazir (Riyadh: Maktabah al-Rushd), All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  29. 29.  CCoonntteemmppoorraarryy sscchhoollaarr,, IImmaamm aall--SShhaannqqiittii rrhhmm..wwrroottee:: ““TThhee pprreessccrriibbeedd ttaaqqlliidd,, wwhhiicchh nnoonnee ooff tthhee MMuusslliimmss ccoonntteesstt,, iiss tthhee llaayymmaann’’ss ppeerrffoorrmmiinngg ttaaqqlliidd ooff aa sscchhoollaarr qquuaalliiffiieedd ttoo iissssuuee ffaattwwaa oonn vvaarriioouuss mmaatttteerrss.. TThhiiss ttyyppee ooff ttaaqqlliidd wwaass iinn vvoogguuee dduurriinngg tthhee ttiimmee ooff tthhee PPrroopphheett,, ppeeaaccee bbee uuppoonn hhiimm,, aanndd tthheerree wwaass nnoo ccoonntteennttiioonn aabboouutt iitt.. TThhee llaayymmaann aasskkeedd wwhhoossooeevveerr hhee wwiisshheedd ffrroomm tthhee CCoommppaanniioonnss ooff tthhee PPrroopphheett,, mmaayy AAllllaahh bbee pplleeaasseedd wwiitthh tthheemm,, aabboouutt tthhee rruulliinngg ffoorr aa ggiivveenn ccaassee.. WWhheenneevveerr aa ffaattwwaa wwaass ggiivveenn,, hhee ssiimmppllyy ccoommpplliieedd wwiitthh iitt..”” ** * Adwa’ al-Bayån, 7:318 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  30. 30. “What are the requirement and necessary qualification for a Mujtahid ?” All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  31. 31. IIJJTTIIHHAADD – literally means “an effort or an exercise to arrive at one’s own judgement” – technically it is used in regards to “the exertion by a (MUJTAHID) qualified Islamic scholar in (ISTINBAT) extracting legal rulings from the primary sources.” All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  32. 32. RREEQQUUIIRREEMMEENNTT  Knowledgeable about the religion of Islam, the Sunnah (Ways or traditions of the Prophet s.a.a.w.), Fiqh (Jurisprudence) and Usul-al- Fiqh (Principles of Jurisprudence) especially: [A] He must be so very well versed in the study of Qur’an, that he must know its sciences, the reason why and when the verses and chapters of the Qur’an were revealed (ASBAA-BUN-NUZUL), the eloquence, the commentaries etc.; All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  33. 33. RREEQQUUIIRREEMMEENNTT [B] He must be well versed in the study of the traditions of the Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w. That is, he must know the distinction between authentic Hadith from the spurious and the various other technical categories of Ahadith – viz. Mutawwatir, Shahih, Hasan, Dho’if, Maudhu’ etc.; All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  34. 34. RREEQQUUIIRREEMMEENNTT [C] He must know the principles of IJMA’ (scholarly consensus) very well; [D] He must know the injunctions of QIYAS (jurisdistic analogy). All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  35. 35. OOTTHHEERR IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT CCRRIITTEERRIIAA Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the moral qualities are:  (a) He must be a good Muslim. That he must not be a nominal Muslim; rather, must be a practising one. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  36. 36. OOTTHHEERR IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT CCRRIITTEERRIIAA Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the moral qualities are:  (b) He must be very pious and law-abiding to all the injunctions of the Holy Qur’an. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  37. 37. OOTTHHEERR IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT CCRRIITTEERRIIAA Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the moral qualities are:  (c) He must not be influenced by any heretical influences. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  38. 38. OOTTHHEERR IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT CCRRIITTEERRIIAA Apart from his qualification, he must posses good Islamic character apart from academic excellence. Among the moral qualities are:  (d) He must be just, reliable, trustworthy and pure from iniquitous practices. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  39. 39. AALL--MMUUJJTTAAHHIIDD FFII -- AALL--SSHHAARRII--’’AAHH –– TThheessee wweerree tthhoossee wwhhoo ddiidd iijjttiihhaadd iinn tthhee mmaatttteerr ooff SShhaarrii’’aahh aammoonnggsstt tthhee ccoommppaanniioonnss ooff tthhee PPrroopphheett ttiillll tthhee tthhiirrdd cceennttuurryy ooff IIssllaamm.. (reference from “Shariah: The Islamic Law” by Abdur Rahman I. Doi) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  40. 40. AALL--MMUUJJTTAAHHIIDD FFII -- AALL--MMAADDZZHHAABB –– tthheessee aarree tthhoossee wwhhoo ddiidd iijjttiihhaadd aafftteerr tthhee ccoommppaanniioonn ((SSaahhaabbii)) eerraa aanndd llaatteerr ffoouunndd sscchhoooollss ooff jjuurriisspprruuddeennccee.. TThheerree aarree ttooddaayy 55 mmaaiinn ssuurrvviivviinngg sscchhoooollss ooff JJuurriisspprruuddeennccee,, vviizz.. JJaa’’ffaarrii,, MMaalliikkii,, HHaannaaffii,, SShhaaffii’’iiee aanndd HHaannbbaallii (reference from “Shariah: The Islamic Law” by Abdur Rahman I. Doi) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  41. 41. AALL--MMUUJJTTAAHHIIDD FFII -- AALL--MMAASSAAAA--IILL –– tthheessee aarree tthhoossee wwhhoo ffoollllooww tthheemm ((mmuujjttaahhiidd ffii--aall--MMaaddzzhhaabb ) ii..ee.. tthhee pprreesseenntt ddaayy mmuujjttaahhiidduunn wwhhoo ggiivvee FFaattwwaa ((oorr JJuurriissttiicc ooppiinniioonnss) oonn rreelliiggiioouuss mmaatttteerrss wwhheenn rreeqquuiirreedd.. (reference from “Shariah: The Islamic Law” by Abdur Rahman I. Doi) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  42. 42. AALL--QQUURR’’AANN The Revealed Book AASS--SSUUNNNNAAHH The Way of the Prophet IIJJMMAA’’ Consensus QQIIYYAASS Analogous deduction  Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi”.  What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ijtihad” that has many approaches, of priority is “ijma” and “Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more .... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  43. 43. IIssttiiddllaall aanndd IIssttiisshhaabb ddeedduuccttiioonn bbyy llooggiicc aanndd rreeaassoonniinngg;; aanndd rreellyyiinngg oonn pprreessuummppttiioonn;; ccoonnttiinnuuaattiioonn ooff aa rruullee ffoorr aa cceerrttaaiinn ssiittuuaattiioonn iinn aa cciirrccuummssttaannccee wwhheerree iitt iiss nnoott kknnoowwnn wwhheetthheerr oorr nnoott tthhee oorriiggiinnaall ssiittuuaattiioonn ssttiillll eexxiissttss  Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi”.  What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ijtihad” that has many approaches, of priority is “ijma” and “Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more .... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  44. 44. IIssttiihhssaann preference MMaassllaahhaahh aall--mmuurrssaallaahh for public interest  Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi”.  What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ijtihad” that has many approaches, of priority is “ijma” and “Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more .... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  45. 45. aall--‘‘UUrrff Customs or norms SSaadddd--uuzz--zzaarraa--’’ii “closing the door of mischief”  Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi”.  What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ijtihad” that has many approaches, of priority is “ijma” and “Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more .... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  46. 46. ‘‘AAmmaall aahhll--aall--mmaaddiinnaahh “practices of the people of Madinah” AAsshh--sshhaarr’’uu mmaannqqaabbllaannaa the path traversed by those before us – i.e. the jurists (mujtahidun)  Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi”.  What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ijtihad” that has many approaches, of priority is “ijma” and “Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more .... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  47. 47. ‘‘MMaaddzzhhaabb SSaahhaaaabbiiyy opinions of Companions of the Prophet  Generally, these four are known by many Muslims as the sources by which Islamic rulings are derived. The primary sources being “Kitabullah wa Sunnati Rosuulihi”.  What follows are (secondary) generally falls under the method termed “ijtihad” that has many approaches, of priority is “ijma” and “Qiyas ”. Yet, there are more .... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  48. 48. “The learned and wise among Muslims must use constant vigilance in detecting erroneous usage in language which impinges upon semantic change in major key elements and creates general confusion and error in the understanding of Islam and of its worldview.” Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  49. 49. SSoommee ppeeooppllee ccaarreelleessssllyy aarrgguueess::  ““TTaaqqlliidd iiss hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))””  ““FFoolllloowwiinngg MMaaddzzhhaabb iiss BBiidd’’aahh ((iinnnnoovvaattiioonn)) !! ””  ““II wwaanntt ttoo ffoollllooww oonnllyy tthhee MMaaddzzhhaabb ooff tthhee PPrroopphheett ss..aa..ww.. !! ””  ““DDoonn’’tt ffoollllooww MMaaddzzhhaabb,, wwee mmuusstt aallll ffoollllooww oonnllyy tthhee QQuurr’’aann aanndd SSuunnnnaahh !! ””  ““TThheerree iiss nnoo pprriieesstthhoooodd iinn IIssllaamm,, ssoo wwhhyy mmuusstt wwee oobbeeyy tthhee ‘‘uullaammaa’’.. AAfftteerr aallll eeaacchh oonnee ooff uuss ccaann nnooww eeaassiillyy aacccceessss tthhee QQuurr’’aann aanndd AAhhaaddiitthh !! ”” eettcc.. AAllllooww mmee ttoo rreessppoonndd aanndd ccllaarriiffyy.... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  50. 50. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  51. 51. ““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1  TTaaqqlliidd iiss iinn ffaacctt ““wwaajjiibb”” ((oobblliiggaattoorryy)) ffoorr eevveerryy MMuusslliimm wwhhoo aarree nnoonn-- MMuujjttaahhiidd..  TThhiiss hhaass bbeeeenn tthhee ccoonnsseennssuuss ((iijjmmaa’’ )) ooff IIssllaammiicc sscchhoollaarrss ssiinnccee tthhee PPrroopphheett’’ss ttiimmee –– ttoo ffoollllooww tthhoossee wwhhoo aarree tthhee lleeaarrnneedd,, aanndd tthhee QQuurr’’aanniicc bbaassiiss aarree mmaannyy vviizz:: All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  52. 52. ““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1  TTaaqqlliidd iiss iinn ffaacctt ““wwaajjiibb”” ((oobblliiggaattoorryy)) ffoorr eevveerryy MMuusslliimm wwhhoo aarree nnoonn-- MMuujjttaahhiidd..  TThhiiss hhaass bbeeeenn tthhee ccoonnsseennssuuss ((iijjmmaa’’ )) ooff IIssllaammiicc sscchhoollaarrss ssiinnccee tthhee PPrroopphheett’’ss ttiimmee –– ttoo ffoollllooww tthhoossee wwhhoo aarree tthhee lleeaarrnneedd,, aanndd tthhee QQuurr’’aanniicc bbaassiiss aarree mmaannyy vviizz:: ““aasskk ooff tthhoossee wwhhoo ppoosssseessss tthhee MMeessssaaggee,, iinn mmaatttteerrss wwhhiicchh yyoouu ddoo nnoott kknnooww..”” ((QQuurr’’aann:: AAnn--NNaahhlluu:: 116::4433)) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  53. 53. ““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1  TTaaqqlliidd iiss iinn ffaacctt ““wwaajjiibb”” ((oobblliiggaattoorryy)) ffoorr eevveerryy MMuusslliimm wwhhoo aarree nnoonn-- MMuujjttaahhiidd..  TThhiiss hhaass bbeeeenn tthhee ccoonnsseennssuuss ((iijjmmaa’’ )) ooff IIssllaammiicc sscchhoollaarrss ssiinnccee tthhee PPrroopphheett’’ss ttiimmee –– ttoo ffoollllooww tthhoossee wwhhoo aarree tthhee lleeaarrnneedd,, aanndd tthhee QQuurr’’aanniicc bbaassiiss aarree mmaannyy vviizz:: All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  54. 54. ““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1  TTaaqqlliidd iiss iinn ffaacctt ““wwaajjiibb”” ((oobblliiggaattoorryy)) ffoorr eevveerryy MMuusslliimm wwhhoo aarree nnoonn-- MMuujjttaahhiidd..  TThhiiss hhaass bbeeeenn tthhee ccoonnsseennssuuss ((iijjmmaa’’ )) ooff IIssllaammiicc sscchhoollaarrss ssiinnccee tthhee PPrroopphheett’’ss ttiimmee –– ttoo ffoollllooww tthhoossee wwhhoo aarree tthhee lleeaarrnneedd,, aanndd tthhee QQuurr’’aanniicc bbaassiiss aarree mmaannyy vviizz:: ““AAllllaahh wwiillll rraaiissee uupp,, ttoo ((ssuuiittaabbllee)) rraannkkss ((aanndd ddeeggrreeeess)),, tthhoossee ooff yyoouu wwhhoo bbeelliieevvee aanndd wwhhoo hhaavvee bbeeeenn ggrraanntteedd KKnnoowwlleeddggee”” ((QQuurr’’aann:: MMuujjaaddiillaahh:: 5588:: 1111)) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  55. 55. ““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1  TTaaqqlliidd iiss iinn ffaacctt ““wwaajjiibb”” ((oobblliiggaattoorryy)) ffoorr eevveerryy MMuusslliimm wwhhoo aarree nnoonn-- MMuujjttaahhiidd..  TThhiiss hhaass bbeeeenn tthhee ccoonnsseennssuuss ((iijjmmaa’’ )) ooff IIssllaammiicc sscchhoollaarrss ssiinnccee tthhee PPrroopphheett’’ss ttiimmee –– ttoo ffoollllooww tthhoossee wwhhoo aarree tthhee lleeaarrnneedd,, aanndd tthhee QQuurr’’aanniicc bbaassiiss aarree mmaannyy vviizz:: All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  56. 56. ““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1  TTaaqqlliidd iiss iinn ffaacctt ““wwaajjiibb”” ((oobblliiggaattoorryy)) ffoorr eevveerryy MMuusslliimm wwhhoo aarree nnoonn-- MMuujjttaahhiidd..  TThhiiss hhaass bbeeeenn tthhee ccoonnsseennssuuss ((iijjmmaa’’ )) ooff IIssllaammiicc sscchhoollaarrss ssiinnccee tthhee PPrroopphheett’’ss ttiimmee –– ttoo ffoollllooww tthhoossee wwhhoo aarree tthhee lleeaarrnneedd,, aanndd tthhee QQuurr’’aanniicc bbaassiiss aarree mmaannyy vviizz:: ““OO yyee wwhhoo bbeelliieevvee!! OObbeeyy AAllllaahh aanndd oobbeeyy tthhee MMeesssseennggeerr aanndd tthhoossee cchhaarrggeedd wwiitthh aauutthhoorriittyy aammoonngg yyoouu”” ((QQuurr’’aann:: AAnn--NNiissaa’’:: 44:: 5599)) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  57. 57. ““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1  Study iinn tthhee lliivveess ooff tthhee KKhhuullaaffaa’’ RRaasshhiidduunn,, IIbbnn MMaass’’uudd,, MMuu’’aaddzz,, IIbbnn ‘‘AAbbbbaass,, IIbbnn ‘‘UUmmaarr,, AA’’iisshhaahh,, UUmmmm SSaallaammaahh,, eettcc.. sshhooww tthhaatt tthheeyy nnoott oonnllyy ccoonnvveeyy AAhhaaddiitthh,, bbuutt aallssoo ggiivvee ““iiffttaahh”” rreelliiggiioouuss rruulliinnggss oonn cceerrttaaiinn mmaatttteerrss..  TThhiiss iiss wwhheerree MMaaddzzhhaabb hhaass iittss bbeeggiinnnniinnggss –– ii..ee.. dduurriinngg tthhee PPrroopphheett’’ss ttiimmee –– ““MMaaddzzhhaabb SSaahhaabbyy”” ((jjuurriissttiicc ooppiinniioonnss ooff tthhee CCoommppaanniioonnss)).. AAnndd tthhee PPrroopphheett ss..aa..ww.. kknneeww aanndd eevveenn ssaannccttiioonneedd tthhiiss pprraaccttiiccee.. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  58. 58. ““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1  Some scholars advocate “it-tiba’ “ i.e. “following ” by also understanding the basis (dalil) for a decision. This is to prevent laziness and cult-like blind adherence (ta’assub) merely to personalities and charisma.  Howbeit, this “it-tiba’ “ is still regarded as “Taqlid ” because the person (muttabi’) still has to rely upon whatever the scholars have presented, for he (who obviously is not mujtahid) has no competency to adequately assess the basis from its sources independently. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  59. 59. ““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1  His knowing of the basis is not compulsory, but only encouraged as a learning process i.e. as encouragement to aspire to upgrade himself towards becoming knowledgeable of the Deen; as well as for him to appreciate and learn the methodology.  It is only in matters of AQEEDAH (Belief) or in matters that outwardly opposes known principles and teachings of Islam, that “Taqlid “ (in the sense of following blindly) is Haram (forbidden) i.e. for those who can think and can verify. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  60. 60. ““IIss TTaaqqlliidd hhaarraamm ((ffoorrbbiiddddeenn))”” ?? #1  Some erroneously assumed that this reliance upon the authority whose competency can be generally ascertained to be forbidden, while they conveniently forget that this itself is in fact complying to Allah’s commandment: ““...... AAsskk ffrroomm tthhoossee wwhhoo ppoosssseessss tthhee MMeessssaaggee ((aazz--ZZiikkrr :: tthhee rreemmeemmbbrraannccee)) iinn mmaatttteerrss wwhhiicchh yyoouu ddoo nnoott kknnooww..““ WWaaAAllllaaaahhuu aa’’llaamm ((QQuurr’’aann:: aall--NNaahhlluu:: 116:: 4433)) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  61. 61. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  62. 62. ““IIss ffoolllloowwiinngg MMaaddzzhhaabb aa BBiidd’’aahh ((iinnnnoovvaattiioonn)) ?? ”” # 2  If by “Bid’ah “ we mean strictly to refer to any “ innovation” i.e. “something which has not been done by the Prophet s.a.a.w. himself ” - then yes, of course it is “Bid’ah “.  This was because there was no necessity for the Prophet s.a.a.w. to be following any one else’s opinion on religious matter. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  63. 63. ““IIss ffoolllloowwiinngg MMaaddzzhhaabb aa BBiidd’’aahh ((iinnnnoovvaattiioonn)) ?? ”” # 2  Yet, amongst the Companions of the Prophet, there are those whom he specifically pointed out to be referred by others, because these were acknowledged by him as competent scholars and teachers in the Prophet’s absence.  So if by “madzhab “ we mean “school of thoughts in matters of juristic, Qur’anic interpretations”, then this is clearly already advocated by the Prophet s.a.w. himself during his life-time. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  64. 64. ““IIss ffoolllloowwiinngg MMaaddzzhhaabb aa BBiidd’’aahh ((iinnnnoovvaattiioonn)) ?? ”” # 2  So, if some practices occur which is known to the Prophet s.a.w. and he consented (by not forbidding it) then, technically it is to be regarded as a Sunnah (Taqririyya).  So, here in fact is the argument supports that following “madzhab ” is not a “Bid’ah ” but rather is actually a “Sunnah ” . It baffles us that this point has be avoided or ignored by the so-called ‘advocates’ calling for the returning to the “Qur’an and As-Sunnah” who callously ruled that “following a Madzhab is “Bid’ah”?! All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  65. 65. ““IIss ffoolllloowwiinngg MMaaddzzhhaabb aa BBiidd’’aahh ((iinnnnoovvaattiioonn)) ?? ”” # 2  As to the concern of varieties of views amongst the Madzaahib, yes, there were already “ikhtilaaf ” (differences) in the opinions even among the companions themselves, although few, but it was wisely tolerated by the Prophet s.a.w. himself. We should take the lesson that, the Prophet’s toleration was in fact to teach us how we are supposed to regard differences of opinions with Adab, amongst the learned.  These differences are even regarded as a mercy. WaAllaahu a’lam. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  66. 66. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  67. 67. ““WWhhyy mmuusstt wwee ffoollllooww MMaaddzzhhaabb wwhheenn wwee ccaann ggoo ttoo tthhee QQuurr’’aann aanndd AAhhaaddiitthh oouurrsseellvveess ?? ””  Although the slogan “Let’s go back to Al-Qur’an and As-Sunnah” may be correct and in vogue, yet it is a general statement which must be read with a caveat – i.e. “only for those knowledgeable and who truly are competent to do so” – which therefore is not a licence for just everyone.  The general Muslims are required to refer to Islamic jurists and scholars whose opinions, explicitly or implicitly as a rule, must be founded upon the Qur’an and As-Sunnah. # 3 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  68. 68. ““WWhhyy mmuusstt wwee ffoollllooww MMaaddzzhhaabb wwhheenn wwee ccaann ggoo ttoo tthhee QQuurr’’aann aanndd AAhhaaddiitthh oouurrsseellvveess ?? ””  So the obvious response to the above is crucially with a question – “Are you a ‘Mujtahid’? “  The claim of one’s ability to “going back to Al-Qur’an and Ahadith” must first be ascertained and verified . Without which one still has to rely upon those who can.  And all “Madzaahib” are in fact a body or collegiate of competent Islamic scholars whose task are to refer matters to the Qur’an and As- Sunnah. # 3 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  69. 69. ““WWhhyy mmuusstt wwee ffoollllooww MMaaddzzhhaabb wwhheenn wwee ccaann ggoo ttoo tthhee QQuurr’’aann aanndd AAhhaaddiitthh oouurrsseellvveess ?? ””  Today those whose advocacy is : “We do not follow any Madzhab” are spewing a contradiction because they are in fact setting up a new “Madzhab” i.e. technically it is still “a madzhab of those who reject traditional Madzhab”, except that they may not even be learned themselves.  Thus, it is a misguidance of the misguided. May Allah safeguard us all from every kinds of misguidance. WaAllaahu a’lam. # 3 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  70. 70. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  71. 71. ““WWoouulldd nnoott ffoolllloowwiinngg MMaaddzzhhaabb aa ffoorrmm ooff sseeccttaarriiaanniissmm lliikkee tthhee ddeennoommiinnaattiioonnss ooff tthhee CChhrriissttiiaann cchhuurrcchheess ?? ””  No! Madzaahib in Islam is not the same as ‘denomination’ or ‘sects’ as in Christianity because: [1] Muslim scholars of every Madzhab adhere to similar principles – Al-Qur’an, As-Sunnah, Ijma’, Qiyas, etc. – they differ only in some few secondary matters of interpretations, but are generally in agreement in most fundamental issues. # 4 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  72. 72. ““WWoouulldd nnoott ffoolllloowwiinngg MMaaddzzhhaabb aa ffoorrmm ooff sseeccttaarriiaanniissmm lliikkee tthhee ddeennoommiinnaattiioonnss ooff tthhee CChhrriissttiiaann cchhuurrcchheess ?? ””  No! Madzaahib in Islam is not the same as ‘denomination’ or ‘sects’ as in Christianity because: [2] Whereas in Christianity, ‘denominations’ amongst them differ in regard to fundamentals and primary sources viz. the Bible, their dogmas, their rites , etc. # 4 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  73. 73. ““WWoouulldd nnoott ffoolllloowwiinngg MMaaddzzhhaabb aa ffoorrmm ooff sseeccttaarriiaanniissmm lliikkee tthhee ddeennoommiinnaattiioonnss ooff tthhee CChhrriissttiiaann cchhuurrcchheess ?? ””  No! Madzaahib in Islam is not the same as ‘denomination’ or ‘sects’ as in Christianity because: [3] All Muslims are to aspire to become ‘Ulama (scholars) to some # 4 degree, and they can re-check whatever opinions with other scholars - whereas in Christianity, most of their Church cleric has almost an exclusive authority, and are unquestionably followed by the ordinary congregation. WWaaAAllllaaaahhuu aa’’llaamm All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  74. 74. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  75. 75. ““MMuusstt wwee ffoollllooww oonnllyy oonnee MMaaddzzhhaabb?? CCaann wwee nnoott mmoovvee ttoo tthhee ooppiinniioonn ooff ootthheerr MMaaddzzaaaahhiibb ??””  Everyone should begin following only one Madzhab first. It is not only following the final juristic decision, but also to learn the principles, methods and approaches to its juristic interpretation. # 5 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  76. 76. ““MMuusstt wwee ffoollllooww oonnllyy oonnee MMaaddzzhhaabb?? CCaann wwee nnoott mmoovvee ttoo tthhee ooppiinniioonn ooff ootthheerr MMaaddzzaaaahhiibb ??””  Because, there are differences in the methodological preferences used between Madzaahib – viz. what is stressed strictly (‘azeemah); what can be given dispensation (rukhshah); etc. therefore, changing or mixing opinions of Madzaahib before knowing each of the basis, is forbidden as it can lead to confusion for novice.  This is to prevent ‘hybrid’ opinion which strictly speaking is neither of this madzhab nor of that – termed ‘talfiq’. # 5 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  77. 77. ““MMuusstt wwee ffoollllooww oonnllyy oonnee MMaaddzzhhaabb?? CCaann wwee nnoott mmoovvee ttoo tthhee ooppiinniioonn ooff ootthheerr MMaaddzzaaaahhiibb ??””  However, for those advanced in following a Madzhab, are known to adopt views or juristic opinions from other Madzaahib after comparing the basis used, as well as to consider which opinions can offer the best solution to an issue at hand (but avoiding the error of ‘talfiq’) .  Yet even so, they do not have to declare, nor is it necessary to regard themselves to have changed Madzhab. WaAllaahu a’lam # 5 All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  78. 78. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  79. 79. MAIN RIVER SOURCE DDIISSTTRRIIBBUUTTAARRIIEESS All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  80. 80.  All distributaries emanate ffrroomm tthhee mmaaiinn rriivveerr ssoouurrccee..  TThhee nneeaarreerr iitt iiss ttoo tthhee ssoouurrccee,, tthhee ppuurreerr wwiillll bbee tthhee wwaatteerr..  NNoonnee ooff tthhee ddiissttrriibbuuttaarriieess aalloonnee ccaann ccllaaiimm ttoo rreepprreesseenntt tthhee eennttiirree mmaaiinn rriivveerr,, yyeett aass lloonngg aass tthheeyy aarree ccoonnnneecctteedd ttoo tthhee mmaaiinn ssoouurrccee,, tthheeyy aarree aallll ppaarrtt ooff tthhee rriivveerr ssyysstteemm ((nnoo ddoouubbtt)).. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  81. 81.  It may even merge into oonnee aannootthheerr.. OOrr ssoommee mmaayy ccoommpplleetteellyy ddiissaappppeeaarr ffrroomm tthhee eeaarrtthh’’ss ssuurrffaaccee.. OOrr ppuurree wwaatteerr ffrroomm tthhee sskkyy mmaayy bbee aaddddeedd ttoo iitt..  EEaacchh ooff tthheessee ddiissttrriibbuuttaarriieess ccoouulldd aallssoo bbee aaffffeecctteedd bbyy tthhee ssooiill uuppoonn wwhhiicchh iitt fflloowwss tthhrroouugghh,, oorr iimmppuurriittiieess mmaayy hhaavvee bbeeeenn tthhrroowwnn iinnttoo tthheemm,, oorr ootthheerr ppoolllluuttaannttss iinnaaddvveerrtteennttllyy iinnttrroodduucceedd aass wwhheenn iirrrriiggaattiioonn oorr ddaamm hhaavvee ttoo bbee ccoonnssttrruucctteedd eettcc.... All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  82. 82.  Thus, the concern is for users of each distributary to be cautious when drinking from it, lest they may consume something harmful - although yet one has to still drink from it - or else die from thirst. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  83. 83.  To deprive anyone from the available water that they already can access to, with the excuse that it has become polluted, is foolish; just as long as the stream they are drinking from still contain the water which is from the main source. Our concern is only that they should be mindful , not to totally forbid them of their distributary they are upon. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  84. 84.  Similarly foolish is to argue “my distributary is better than your distributary” when both actually possess life-sustaining water (H₂O). All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  85. 85.  Those who have collected for themselves clean water may share them with others – but, it would be sheer arrogance to ‘incite’ common people who have always relied upon these distributaries for their sustenance, to abandon benefitting from the abundant flow of these streams, for the sake of ‘small insignificant cisterns and tanks’ being offered. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  86. 86.  It is equally foolish, nay irresponsible, to confuse – or rather to “scare and confound”- the common people whose need for water does not necessarily require him to be expert chemists themselves – only for them to heed whatever advice of the medical experts amongst them as well as from the “water authority”. WWaaAAllllaaaahhuu aa’’llaamm.. All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  87. 87. REMEMBER TTHHIISS IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT CCOOMMMMAANNDD ““OO yyee wwhhoo bbeelliieevvee!! iiff yyoouu aarree ccoonnsscciioouuss ooff aanndd ffeeaarr AAllllaahh ((TTAAQQWWAA)),, HHee wwiillll ggrraanntt yyoouu aa ccrriitteerriioonn ((FFUURRQQAANN--ttoo jjuuddggee bbeettwweeeenn rriigghhtt aanndd wwrroonngg)),, rreemmoovvee ffrroomm yyoouu ((aallll)) eevviill ((tthhaatt mmaayy aafffflliicctt)) yyoouu,, aanndd ffoorrggiivvee yyoouu:: ffoorr AAllllaahh iiss tthhee LLoorrdd ooff ggrraaccee uunnbboouunnddeedd..”” ((QQuurr’’aann:: AAnnffaaaall:: 88:: 2299)) All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  88. 88. IIMMPPOORRTTAANNTT DDUU’’AA AALLLLAAAA--HHUUMM--MMAA –– AARRII--NNAALL--HHAAQQ--QQAA -- HHAAQQ--QQAANN WWAARR-- ZZUUQQ--NNAATT -- TTII--BBAAAA-- ’’AA WWAA--AARRII--NNAALL –– BBAAAA--TTWWIILLAA –– BBAAAA--TTWWII--LLAAAANN WWAARR--ZZUUQQ--NNAAJJ –– TTII ––NNAAAA -- BBAAHH ““OO AAllllaahh!! MMaakkee uuss sseeee tthhee TTrruutthh ttoo bbee ttrruuee aanndd ggrraanntt uuss aabbiilliittyy ttoo ffoollllooww iitt.. AAnndd mmaakkee uuss sseeee FFaallsseehhoooodd ttoo bbee ffaallssee aanndd ggrraanntt uuss tthhee aabbiilliittyy ttoo rreejjeecctt iitt..”” All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  89. 89. AAllll wweellccoommee ttoo vviissiitt mmyy wweebb--bblloogg:: hhttttpp::////aann--nnaasseeeehhaahh..bbllooggssppoott..ccoomm// hhttttpp::////iinnttrroodduuccttiioonnttoottaauuhhiidd..bbllooggssppoott..ccoomm// hhttttpp::////ooyyoouubbeelliieevveerrss..bbllooggssppoott..ccoomm// hhttttpp::////aall--aammtthhaaaall..bbllooggssppoott..ccoomm// hhttttpp::////zzhhuullkkeefflleeee--aarrcchhiivvee..bbllooggssppoott..ccoomm// hhttttpp::////ccrriitteerriiaaffoorraahhoollyybbooookk--qquurraann..bbllooggssppoott..ccoomm// hhttttpp::////wwiitthh--tthhee--ttrruutthhffuull..bbllooggssppoott..ccoomm// hhttttpp ::////mmuuqqaaddddaamm--nnuurruull..bbllooggssppoott..ccoomm// All Rights Reserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)
  90. 90. To love your Prophet s.a.a.w. To love the Household of the Prophet s.a.a.w. Teach them to recite Al-Qur’an.

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