Maseehiyah Slideshare(Pergas 2009)

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Maseehiyah Slideshare(Pergas 2009)

  1. 1. ““MASEEHIYAH”MASEEHIYAH” (Christianity)(Christianity) A brief introductory outline for Muslims in understanding Christianity from Islamic perspective. PERGAS – 10 April 2009 This lecture was previously delivered to Islamic students of Madrasah Aljuneid Al-Islamiyyah, and at Masjid Kg Wak Tanjung. By Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (PERGAS) 1 AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  2. 2. ““MASEEHIYAH”MASEEHIYAH” (Christianity)(Christianity) A brief introductory outline for Muslims in understanding Christianity from Islamic perspective. FOR MABUHAY CLUB DARUL ARQAM SINGAPORE (MUSLIM CONVERTS SSOCIATION) By Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 2 AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 TADZKIRAH : 9 May 2010 Sunday @ 3 – 5 pm
  3. 3. 3 AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  4. 4. 4 Strongest among men in enmity to the BelieversStrongest among men in enmity to the Believers wilt thou find the Jews and Pagans;wilt thou find the Jews and Pagans; and nearest among them in love to the Believersand nearest among them in love to the Believers wilt thou find those who say: "We arewilt thou find those who say: "We are NasaraNasara *:*: " because amongst these are men devoted" because amongst these are men devoted to learning and men who have renouncedto learning and men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant.the world, and they are not arrogant. ((Qur’an: al-Maa-idah: 5: 82Qur’an: al-Maa-idah: 5: 82)) NasaraNasara : commonly translated as “Christians”, but it should have been: commonly translated as “Christians”, but it should have been ““Nazareen” – similar to another term “Ansaar” (from Ansarullaah”)Nazareen” – similar to another term “Ansaar” (from Ansarullaah”) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  5. 5. 5 AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  6. 6. 6 And when they listen to the revelation receivedAnd when they listen to the revelation received by the Messenger, thou wilt see their eyesby the Messenger, thou wilt see their eyes overflowing with tears, for they recogniseoverflowing with tears, for they recognise the truth: they pray: "Our Lord! we believe;the truth: they pray: "Our Lord! we believe; write us down among the witnesses.write us down among the witnesses. ((Qur’an: Maa-idah: 5: 83Qur’an: Maa-idah: 5: 83)) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  7. 7. 7 AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 ((Surah an-Nahl: 16: 125Surah an-Nahl: 16: 125))
  8. 8. 8 AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 ““Call thou (all mankind) unto thy Sustainer’s path withCall thou (all mankind) unto thy Sustainer’s path with wisdom and goodly exhortation, and argue with themwisdom and goodly exhortation, and argue with them in the most kindly manner.”in the most kindly manner.” ((Surah an-Nahl: 16: 125Surah an-Nahl: 16: 125))
  9. 9. 9 AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 (Surah al-Baqarah: 2: 256)
  10. 10. 10 AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 ““There shall be no coercion (force) in matters of faith.There shall be no coercion (force) in matters of faith. Distinct has now become the right wayDistinct has now become the right way from (the way of ) error”from (the way of ) error” ((Surah al-Baqarah: 2: 256Surah al-Baqarah: 2: 256))
  11. 11. 11 AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 (Surah an-Nisa’: 4: 171)
  12. 12. 12 AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 ““ O People of the Book ! Do not overstep theO People of the Book ! Do not overstep the bounds [of truth] in your religious beliefs, andbounds [of truth] in your religious beliefs, and do not say of Allah anything but the truth..”do not say of Allah anything but the truth..” ((Surah an-Nisa’: 4: 171Surah an-Nisa’: 4: 171))
  13. 13. 13 AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 ((Surah an-Nisa’: 4: 171Surah an-Nisa’: 4: 171))
  14. 14. 14 AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 The Christ Jesus, son of Mary, was but Allah’sThe Christ Jesus, son of Mary, was but Allah’s messenger - [the fulfillment of] His promise which Hemessenger - [the fulfillment of] His promise which He had conveyed unto Mary - and a soul created by Him.had conveyed unto Mary - and a soul created by Him. Believe then, in Allah and His messengers, and do notBelieve then, in Allah and His messengers, and do not say, “[God is ] a trinity.” Desist [from this assertion]say, “[God is ] a trinity.” Desist [from this assertion] for your own goodfor your own good.... ((Surah an-Nisa’: 4: 171Surah an-Nisa’: 4: 171))
  15. 15. 15 AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 ((Surah an-Nisa’: 4: 171Surah an-Nisa’: 4: 171))
  16. 16. 16 AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 ““Allah is but One God; utterly remote is He, inAllah is but One God; utterly remote is He, in His glory, from having a son; unto Him belongsHis glory, from having a son; unto Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is onall that is in the heavens and all that is on earth; and none is as worthy of trust as Allah.”earth; and none is as worthy of trust as Allah.” ((Surah an-Nisa’: 4: 171Surah an-Nisa’: 4: 171))
  17. 17. 17 AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 Not merely the Islamic perspective but acknowledged too by other historians, theologians and objective scholars.
  18. 18. 18 AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 WHEN AND HOW THE TERMWHEN AND HOW THE TERM “CHRISTIANITY” CAME“CHRISTIANITY” CAME ABOUT?ABOUT? Jesus a.s. was sent to the Israelite (Bani Israel).Jesus a.s. was sent to the Israelite (Bani Israel). ““ He (Jesus) answered: ‘I was sent only to the lostHe (Jesus) answered: ‘I was sent only to the lost sheep of the House of Israel’ ”sheep of the House of Israel’ ” ((Mathew:15:24Mathew:15:24))
  19. 19. 19 AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 WHEN AND HOW THE TERMWHEN AND HOW THE TERM “CHRISTIANITY” CAME“CHRISTIANITY” CAME ABOUT?ABOUT? Jesus a.s. was sent in continuation of prophethoodJesus a.s. was sent in continuation of prophethood amongst the Israelite (Bani Israel) and enjoined them toamongst the Israelite (Bani Israel) and enjoined them to follow the Law.follow the Law. ““Think not that I have come to abolishThink not that I have come to abolish the law and the prophets, I have comethe law and the prophets, I have come not to abolish but to fulfill. For truly, Inot to abolish but to fulfill. For truly, I say to you, till heaven and earth passsay to you, till heaven and earth pass away, not an iota, not a dot, will passaway, not an iota, not a dot, will pass from the law until all is accomplished.”from the law until all is accomplished.” ((Mathew:5:17Mathew:5:17))
  20. 20. WHEN AND HOW THE TERMWHEN AND HOW THE TERM “CHRISTIANITY” CAME“CHRISTIANITY” CAME ABOUT?ABOUT? Jesus a.s. spoke “Aramaic” (a Hebrew dialect) almost similar to Arabic. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  21. 21. WHEN AND HOW THE TERMWHEN AND HOW THE TERM “CHRISTIANITY” CAME“CHRISTIANITY” CAME ABOUT?ABOUT?  He was referred to with the title “Messiah” (Hebrew) which is the equivalent to “al-Maseeh” in Arabic - in both languages it means “the anointed one” from the root word ‘masaha’ – i.e. “to wipe, rub over with, anoint”. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  22. 22. WHEN AND HOW THE TERMWHEN AND HOW THE TERM “CHRISTIANITY” CAME“CHRISTIANITY” CAME ABOUT?ABOUT? The word “messiah” was later translated into Greek which is “Kristos” (which has the meaning of ‘the anointed’). And from this Greek word it was kept in use, even in English with the Latinized spelling “Christ”. From this we get the word “Christians”. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  23. 23. WHEN AND HOW THE TERMWHEN AND HOW THE TERM “CHRISTIANITY” CAME“CHRISTIANITY” CAME ABOUT?ABOUT? we are told that many years after Jesus time (circa 100 CE), at a place called Antioch, the remnant followers of Jesus, was ridiculed, persecuted and mocked by their enemies. These Greek people started to refer them (followers of the prophet Jesus a.s. at that time) as “these are Christians”, implying wrongly that they “worshipped Jesus” – whereas they were of the Judaic tradition that believed in monotheism (One God). AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  24. 24. WHEN AND HOW THE TERMWHEN AND HOW THE TERM “CHRISTIANITY” CAME“CHRISTIANITY” CAME ABOUT?ABOUT? “… the real founder of Christianity is actually Paul…” (Michael S Hart “The 10 Most influential personality in History”) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  25. 25. WHEN AND HOW THE TERMWHEN AND HOW THE TERM “CHRISTIANITY” CAME“CHRISTIANITY” CAME ABOUT?ABOUT? Jesus a.s. came for the Jews but Paul was interested to popularize this teaching amongst the Hellenized world (Romans and Greek). Scholars considered him to be a Hellenized Jew (i.e. a Jew strongly influenced by Greek culture and ways of life). He was not amongst the original disciples of Jesus. He was originally a persecutor but then later converted, claiming to have seen a ‘vision’. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  26. 26. WHEN AND HOW THE TERMWHEN AND HOW THE TERM “CHRISTIANITY” CAME“CHRISTIANITY” CAME ABOUT?ABOUT? After Paul’s ‘conversion’ to this religion, he offered interpretations of what the religion should be, which included changing the Jewish ways with that of Greek and Roman ideas to gain converts amongst the gentiles (non-Jews). AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  27. 27. WHEN AND HOW THE TERMWHEN AND HOW THE TERM “CHRISTIANITY” CAME“CHRISTIANITY” CAME ABOUT?ABOUT? The strictly monotheistic faith of the religion amongst the Bani Israel (Children of Israel) were compromised into adapting and adopting the Trinitarian belief and other practices of the pagan Mediterranean religions of the Greek, Roman, Persian and Egyptian. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  28. 28. WHEN AND HOW THE TERMWHEN AND HOW THE TERM “CHRISTIANITY” CAME“CHRISTIANITY” CAME ABOUT?ABOUT? Thus we saw a split amongst those who claimed to be the followers of Jesus teachings. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  29. 29. WHEN AND HOW THE TERMWHEN AND HOW THE TERM “CHRISTIANITY” CAME“CHRISTIANITY” CAME ABOUT?ABOUT? In 325 CE, the conflict between the Unitarian versus the *Pauline Trinitarian was ruthlessly ended by the decree of king Constantine at the Council of Nicea. * Pauline – from teachings of Paul AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  30. 30. WHEN AND HOW THE TERMWHEN AND HOW THE TERM “CHRISTIANITY” CAME“CHRISTIANITY” CAME ABOUT?ABOUT? Through subsequent Synods and Councils organized by the Church, new creed and beliefs were adopted. Those who opposed the Church’s ruling were condemned as heretics and persecuted. Thus Pauline doctrines became dominant. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  31. 31. Jesus a.s. Hawaariyuun r.m. true followers accepted Prophet Muhammad’s s.a.w. coming as fulfilment of Jesus’ a.s. prophecy innovations by Paul leading to split between “Unitarian” and “Trinitarian” Paul’s (a Hellenized Jew - Saul) “conversion” (circa 100 A.D.) Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire Western Roman Empire (Decline of Byzantine Empire) (Orthodox Church) (Roman Catholic) Headed by: Patriach Headed by: Pope AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  32. 32. Christianity created by Paul leading to the triumph of the “Trinitarian” theology Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire Western Roman Empire (Decline of Byzantine Empire) (Orthodox Church) (Roman Catholic) Headed by: Patriarch Headed by: Pope Syrian, Coptics ,Greek, Maronite, etc. (Roman Catholic became dominant) Protestant movement - Roman Catholic - “started by a monk named Martin Luther.” - “Anglican - break away from Pope’s rule” - others viz. Methodist, Dutch Reform etc. - “The Born again movements: viz. Pentecostal, Assembly of God, etc - cult movements : Moonies, Jehovah Witness, Mormons etc AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  33. 33. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  34. 34. “Say: ‘O People of the Book! Come unto that tenet which we and you hold in common: that we shall worship none but Allah (the One and only God), and that we shall not ascribe divinity to any besides Him, and that we shall not take human beings for our lords besides Allah.” (Qur’an: Surah aa-li ‘Imraan: 3: 64) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  35. 35. Say: “He is the One God: God the Eternal, the Uncaused Cause of All Being, He begets not, neither is He begotten: and there is nothing that could be compared with Him.” (Qur’an: Surah al-Ikhlas: 112) “... O Jesus, son of Mary! Did you say unto mankind: Take me and my mother as gods besides Allah? {Jesus} answered:”… I speak unto them only that which You commanded me: worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord...” (Qur’an: al-Maa-idah: 5: 116) The Father is fully God. The Son is fully God. The Holy Spirit is fully God. They are not three gods but One. (extracted from Apostolic creed) Note: The Christians emphasized the above that “they (i.e. the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit) are distinct but not separate”.... whatever that means !?! (note how confused they are ! Even linguistically this assertion is preposterous) ISLAMISLAM CHRISTIANITYCHRISTIANITY AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  36. 36. CHRISTIANITYCHRISTIANITY The Father is fully God. The Son is fully God. The Holy Spirit is fully God. They are not three gods but One. (extracted from Apostolic creed) Note: The Christians emphasized the above that “they (i.e. the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit) are distinct but not separate”.... whatever that means !?! (note how confused they are ! Even linguistically this assertion is preposterous) REFUTATIONS FROM THEIR BIBLE AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 Distinct but not separate? then what about : “.... And Jesus was baptized, he went up immediately from the water and behold, the heavens were opened, and he saw the SPIRIT OF GOD descending like a dove, and alighting on him; and lo a voice from heaven saying: This is my beloved SON, with whom I am well pleased.” (Matthew 3: 13-17)
  37. 37. CHRISTIANITYCHRISTIANITY The Father is fully God. The Son is fully God. The Holy Spirit is fully God. They are not three gods but One. (extracted from Apostolic creed) Note: The Christians emphasized the above that “they (i.e. the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit) are distinct but not separate”.... whatever that means !?! (note how confused they are ! Even linguistically this assertion is preposterous) REFUTATIONS FROM THEIR BIBLE AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 It (Apostolic creed) was not Jesus’ teaching: • These doctrines (Apostolic creed) are not what Jesus teach but innovations and conjectures of the Church. If we refer to their Bible, there is no explicit (clear i.e. without need for interpretations) sayings of Jesus concerning Trinity or about himself claiming to be God. Whereas Jesus explicitly teaches Tauhiid, e.g. : “And one of the scribes come up and asked him, ‘Which commandment is the first of all?’ Jesus answered ‘Hear O Israel! The Lord our God, the Lord is One!” (Mark 12: 28-29)
  38. 38. CHRISTIANITYCHRISTIANITY The Father is fully God. The Son is fully God. The Holy Spirit is fully God. They are not three gods but One. (extracted from Apostolic creed) Note: The Christians emphasized the above that “they (i.e. the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit) are distinct but not separate”.... whatever that means !?! (note how confused they are ! Even linguistically this assertion is preposterous) REFUTATIONS FROM THEIR BIBLE AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 It (Apostolic creed) was not Jesus’ teaching: • These doctrines (Apostolic creed) are not what Jesus teach but innovations and conjectures of the Church. If we refer to their Bible, there is no explicit (clear i.e. without need for interpretations) sayings of Jesus concerning Trinity or about himself claiming to be God. Whereas Jesus explicitly teaches Tauhiid, e.g. : “Jesus says: ‘Not everyone who says to me ‘Lord, Lord’ shall enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven” (Matthew 7: 21 )
  39. 39. CHRISTIANITYCHRISTIANITY The Father is fully God. The Son is fully God. The Holy Spirit is fully God. They are not three gods but One. (extracted from Apostolic creed) Note: The Christians emphasized the above that “they (i.e. the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit) are distinct but not separate”.... whatever that means !?! (note how confused they are ! Even linguistically this assertion is preposterous) REFUTATIONS FROM THEIR BIBLE Jesus affirms himself as messenger even though he can do miracles: AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 (Jesus said)”...I thank you Father that you listen to me. I know that you always listen to me, but I say this for the sake of the people here so that they will believe that You sent me.” (John 11: 41) (Jesus said) “I can do nothing on my own authority.” (John 8 : 28) (Jesus said) ”... the deeds I do by my father’s authority.” (John 10 : 25)
  40. 40. CHRISTIANITYCHRISTIANITY .... teaching Trinity ? REBUTTALSREBUTTALS Simple explanation of this Matthew:28:19 These words does not mean that Jesus teaches Trinity, rather the use of the phrase “..in the name of ” to signify authoritative basis for preaching.”. Example an ambassador acting on behalf of the government and country will sign “in the name of the head of state and the country, but writing his own name.” Thus Jesus is saying that his teaching of the religion is with the authority sanction by God, His angel and His Messenger. Just as it is wrong to say that the ambassador is also literally the country, thus it would be wrong to say that the Messenger is also God. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 Some Christian would quote this to justify.. “...Jesus said to them, go forth and make disciples of them and baptize them in the name of the Father, of the Son and of the Holy spirit...” (Gospel of Matthew 28: 19)
  41. 41. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  42. 42. “And never will the Jews or the Christians approve of you until you follow their religion. Say, "Indeed, the guidance of Allah is the [only] guidance." If you were to follow their desires after what has come to you of knowledge, you would have against Allah no protector or helper.” (Qur’an: al-Baqarah: 2: 120) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  43. 43. ISLAM “Tauhiid” (Absolute Oneness) “Trinity” (Three in One - one in three) CHRISTIANITY Concept of GodConcept of God AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  44. 44. ISLAM CHRISTIANITY Jesus a.s.Jesus a.s. “A righteous servant and messenger of Allah” “literally the son of God; a divine being and at the same time a man” AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  45. 45. ISLAM CHRISTIANITY ConceptConcept ofof “salvation”“salvation” ““JusticeJustice and theand the Mercy andMercy and forgivenesforgivenes s of Allah”s of Allah” “Original Sin which requires blood redemption by God” AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  46. 46. CHRISTIANITYISLAM “Adherence to Divine Law” (Shari’ah) iiman - ’amal - ihsan “generally does not emphasize on adherence to Divine law but harp on Love” Way of LifeWay of Life AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  47. 47. CHRISTIANITYISLAM PrimaryPrimary source of thesource of the teachingsteachings has remained faithfully preserved in its original recitations and language. doctrines formulated by the Church authority based on Paul’s letters and other writings after Jesus a.s. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 “only one Al-Qur’an” “ many versions of the Bible”
  48. 48. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  49. 49. “And they claim, “None shall ever enter paradise unless he be ‘a Jew’ or ‘a Christian’. Such are their wishful beliefs! Say: Produce an evidence for what you are claiming, if what you say is true!” (Qur’an Surah al-Baqarah: 2 :111) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  50. 50. The Christians and the Jews mayThe Christians and the Jews may offer the Bible as their evidence ofoffer the Bible as their evidence of their revealed Books from God.their revealed Books from God. •What is the Bible?What is the Bible? •Can Muslim accept theCan Muslim accept the Bible to be the revealedBible to be the revealed Books of God?Books of God? THEREFORE IT IS PERTINENT FOR MUSLIMS TO SEEK ANSWER TO THESE QUESTIONS: AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  51. 51. The Bible ...… some facts.The Bible ...… some facts. • It is a collection of writings. • Generally it contains recordings of the history of the Jewish people. Written and re-written by scribes (especially when the Jews lost these during their enslavement by Persians and Romans or because the recordings tended to fade). AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  52. 52. The Bible ...… some facts.The Bible ...… some facts. • The name “Bible” is not found in the Bible. • This term “Bible” comes from the Greek work “Biblion” which means “collection of writings or book”. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  53. 53. The Bible ...… some facts.The Bible ...… some facts. • The total number of books that make up the Bible differ between the Catholic’s (they have 73 books) and Protestant Christian’s (only accept 66 books). AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  54. 54. The Bible ...… some facts.The Bible ...… some facts. • It can be divided into 2 parts: Old testament – Jewish writings written originally in Hebrew, compiled over a period of 2,000 years; many of its authors are unknown. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  55. 55. The Bible ...… some facts.The Bible ...… some facts. • It can be divided into 2 parts: New Testament – the oldest manuscripts written in Koine Greek (not Aramaic which was the language that Jesus spoke), comprise of the 4 Gospels and letters written by Paul and others. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  56. 56. The Bible ...… some facts.The Bible ...… some facts. • The most popular Bible e.g. the King James (the Authorized version) and the Latin Vulgate in used was based on an ancient text. Since then, they have discovered more ancient texts, and Christian biblical scholars have to revise their Bible to ensure accuracy. And they admit that there has been interpolations done to the Bible. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  57. 57. The Bible ...… some facts.The Bible ...… some facts. • Their own admission: ““Yet the King James version has serious defects.Yet the King James version has serious defects. ….. And discovery of many biblical manuscripts….. And discovery of many biblical manuscripts more ancient than those on which the King Jamesmore ancient than those on which the King James version was based made it apparent that theseversion was based made it apparent that these defects were so many as to call for a revision.”defects were so many as to call for a revision.” (Forward in the New Revised Standard version of the Bible) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  58. 58. Summary : what is the Bible?  It may contain words of prophets; some eye-witness or even hearsay accounts of what had happened; it may contain quotations of perhaps revelations from God; it may contain interpretations and interpolations of people regarding the religion; etc. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  59. 59. Summary : what is the Bible?  Biblical scholars admit that many were written by anonymous (unknown) person or persons; sometimes conveniently attributed to certain prophets. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  60. 60. Summary : what is the Bible?  The Gospels (according to Mark, Mathew, Luke and John) are not the same as what we Muslims refer to as the “Injeel” of Prophet Jesus a.s. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  61. 61. Summary : what is the Bible? The Pentateuch (first 5 Books said toThe Pentateuch (first 5 Books said to be the book of Moses : the Torah) isbe the book of Moses : the Torah) is notnot the same as what we Muslimsthe same as what we Muslims refer to as therefer to as the ““Taurat” of ProphetTaurat” of Prophet Moses a.sMoses a.s.. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  62. 62. Summary : what is the Bible?  The Psalm (of David) isThe Psalm (of David) is notnot the samethe same as what we Muslims refer to as theas what we Muslims refer to as the ““Zabur” of Prophet David a.sZabur” of Prophet David a.s.. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  63. 63. Summary : what is the Bible?  As the collections called the Bible have been tampered with and interpolations made by people, we cannot be certain of its total reliability and authenticity. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  64. 64. Summary : what is the Bible?  For Muslims, the Qur’an is the “Furqaan” (Criterion to determine what for us, is the Truth and what is not). AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  65. 65. Summary : what is the Bible?  Revisions have been made to the Bible when a much older manuscripts were found. Still these manuscripts are not those dated to the time of Jesus a.s. (because these were written in Greek, whereas Jesus a.s. never spoke Greek but Aramaic). AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  66. 66. Summary : what is the Bible? So when we Muslims say we Believe in the Taurat, Zabur and Injeel, we do not mean we believe in the Bible! Only the Qur’an has remained the onlyOnly the Qur’an has remained the only authentic Book of revelations from Allah, stillauthentic Book of revelations from Allah, still preserved exactly as it was “ recited”, in thepreserved exactly as it was “ recited”, in the original language as when it was revealed.original language as when it was revealed. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  67. 67. [1] Mankind living standard is evolving towards a higher form of civilization – a global and more cosmopolitan era, thus their laws need to be gradually updated – while its principle and fundamental teachings remaining the same ; Why a subsequent book of revelation is required is because: AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  68. 68. [2] the recordings of earlier Books did not survive fully intact but were proven to have been tampered with and corrupted; Why a subsequent book of revelation is required is because: AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  69. 69. [3] Literacy amongst the people, and the appropriate technology of writing & printing on a mass-scale etc. was not available until much later. Thus, subsequent revelations would ensure the pristine teachings are adhered to because corruptions to the previous recordings had occurred; Why a subsequent book of revelation is required is because: AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  70. 70. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  71. 71. “Are you actually following the religion of Jesus?” “What was the religion that Jesus preached?” “And if he were to come back today, who will he recognize as people belonging to his flock?” – “Christians or Muslims?” AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  72. 72. Jesus a.s. followed the law. Even in dietary rules for example he abstained from eating and touching of the flesh of swine. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 “These are the living things which you shall not eat …. And the swine … of their flesh you shall not eat, and their carcasses you shall not touch; they are unclean to you.” (Leviticus:11:8)
  73. 73. Jesus a.s. followed the law. Even in dietary rules for example he abstained from eating and touching of the flesh of swine. “These are the living things which you shall not eat …. And the swine … of their flesh you shall not eat, and their carcasses you shall not touch; they are unclean to you.” (Leviticus:11:8) W ho still observes this? Christians or M uslim s? AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  74. 74.  Jesus a.s. follow the law. One of the important commandment (a covenant) for all male Jews was to be circumcised. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 "This is My covenant, which you shall keep, between Me and you and your descendants after you: every male among you shall be circumcised. … (Genesis: 17: 11)
  75. 75.  Jesus a.s. follow the law. One of the important commandment (a covenant) for all male Jews was to be circumcised. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005 "And you shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin, and it shall be the sign of the covenant between Me and you.".… (Genesis: 17: 12)
  76. 76.  Jesus a.s. follow the law. One of the important commandment (a covenant) for all male Jews was to be circumcised. “And at the end of eight days, when he was circumcised, he was called Jesus, the name given by the angel before he was conceived in the womb.” (Luke:2:21) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  77. 77.  Jesus a.s. follow the law. One of the important commandment (a covenant) for all male Jews was to be circumcised. “And at the end of eight days, when he was circumcised, he was called Jesus, the name given by the angel before he was conceived in the womb.” (Luke:2:21) W ho still observes this? Christians or M uslim s? AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  78. 78. Jesus a.s. is recorded to have prayed. And the manner of his praying was described: “Then Jesus went with them to a place called Gethsemane, and he said to his disciples, ‘Sit here while I go yonder to pray….. And going a little farther he fell on his face and prayed, ‘My Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me; nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt’ ” (Mathew:26:36-40) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  79. 79. Just like the prophets of old their manner of praying was also described: “Then Abram (Abraham) fell on his face …” (Genesis : 17 : 3) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  80. 80. Just like the prophets of old their manner of praying was also described: “Then Moses and Aaron went from the presence of the assembly to the door of the tent of meeting, and fell on their faces …” (Numbers 20: 6) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  81. 81. Just like the prophets of old their manner of praying was also described: “Then Moses and Aaron went from the presence of the assembly to the door of the tent of meeting, and fell on their faces …” (Numbers 20: 6) W ho still observes this? Christians or M uslim s? AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  82. 82. It was the practice of Jesus a.s. and his disciples to greet one another with a standard greeting of peace “Shalomalekum”: “On the evening of that day, the first day of the week, the doors being shut where the disciples were, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood among them and said to them “Peace be with you”..” (John:20:19) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  83. 83. It was the practice of Jesus a.s. and his disciples to greet one another with a standard greeting of peace “Shalomalekum”: “On the evening of that day, the first day of the week, the doors being shut where the disciples were, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood among them and said to them “Peace be with you”..” (John:20:19) W ho still observes this? Christians or M uslim s? AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  84. 84. Jesus a.s. never teaches “Trinity” but rather he affirmed the continuous message of all prophets from God i.e. “Tauhiid”: “And one of the scribes come up and asked him, ‘Which commandment is the first of all?’ Jesus answered ‘Hear O Israel! The Lord our God, the Lord is One!” (Mark 12: 28-29) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  85. 85. Jesus a.s. never teaches “Trinity” but rather he affirmed the continuous message of all prophets from God i.e. “Tauhiid”: “And one of the scribes come up and asked him, ‘Which commandment is the first of all?’ Jesus answered ‘Hear O Israel! The Lord our God, the Lord is One!” (Mark 12: 28-29) W ho still observes this? Christians or M uslim s? AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  86. 86. ISLAM’S RESPONSE TO CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF THE ORIGINAL SIN AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  87. 87. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  88. 88. “ “ Say: ‘Say: ‘O my servants who have transgressed O my servants who have transgressed against their against their  own souls! own souls! Despair not of the Mercy of Allah: for Allah Despair not of the Mercy of Allah: for Allah  forgives all sinsforgives all sins: for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. : for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.  Turn ye to your Lord (in repentance) and bow to His [Will], Turn ye to your Lord (in repentance) and bow to His [Will],  before the Penalty comes on youbefore the Penalty comes on you: After that ye shall not be : After that ye shall not be  helped.”helped.”    ((Qur’an: Surah az-Zumar: 39: 53-54Qur’an: Surah az-Zumar: 39: 53-54)) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  89. 89. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  90. 90. ““Whoever is guided is only guided for [the benefit of] his Whoever is guided is only guided for [the benefit of] his  soul. And whoever errs only errs against it. soul. And whoever errs only errs against it. And no bearer And no bearer  of burdens will bear the burden of anotherof burdens will bear the burden of another. And never . And never  would We punish until We sent a messenger.”would We punish until We sent a messenger.” ((Qur’an: al-Isra’: 17: 15Qur’an: al-Isra’: 17: 15)) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  91. 91. “ The soul that sinneth it shall die. The son shall not bear the iniquity (sins) of the father, neither shall the father bear the iniquity (sins) of the son, the righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him… ” (Ezekiel 18: 20) AS FOUND IN THE OLD TESTAMENTAS FOUND IN THE OLD TESTAMENT AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  92. 92. “… But the wicked will turn from all his sins that he hath committed, and keep all my statutes and do that which is lawful and right, he shall surely live, he shall not die.” (Ezekiel 18 : 21) (Note similarity with the Islamic concept of ‘TAUBAH’ here :  consistent with Islam. Unfortunately later Christian Church  leaders have replaced this with their concept of the ‘original sin’ ,  ‘blood redemption’ and ‘vicarious atonement’.) AS FOUND IN THE OLD TESTAMENTAS FOUND IN THE OLD TESTAMENT AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  93. 93. Man was placed on earth   in the hole - condemned THEIR CONCEPT OF SALVATION AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  94. 94. Man was placed on earth   in the hole - condemned THEIR CONCEPT OF SALVATION Thus for them, it requires a Saviour to redeem  him out of the ‘Sin’ – (by vicarious atonement)  alleging: “Jesus dying for the Sins of mankind” AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  95. 95. Man was placed on earth   in the hole - condemned Man was placed on earth   innocent – not condemned ISLAM’S MESSAGEISLAM’S MESSAGE THEIR CONCEPT OF SALVATION Thus for them, it requires a Saviour to redeem  him out of the ‘Sin’ – (by vicarious atonement)  alleging: “Jesus dying for the Sins of mankind” AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  96. 96. Man was placed on earth   in the hole - condemned Man was placed on earth   innocent – not condemned Yet in life, he may fall into sin Thus he requires GUIDANCE ISLAM’S MESSAGEISLAM’S MESSAGE THEIR CONCEPT OF SALVATION Thus for them, it requires a Saviour to redeem  him out of the ‘Sin’ – (by vicarious atonement)  alleging: “Jesus dying for the Sins of mankind” AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  97. 97. Man was placed on earth   in the hole - condemned Man was placed on earth   innocent – not condemned Yet in life he may fall into sin Thus he requires GUIDANCE Even if he falls, there is hope of  Allah’s Mercy and Forgiveness ISLAM’S MESSAGEISLAM’S MESSAGE Forgiveness through  repentance and  reparation, while in  this world THEIR CONCEPT OF SALVATION MERCYMERCY Thus for them, it requires a Saviour to redeem  him out of the ‘Sin’ – (by vicarious atonement)  alleging: “Jesus dying for the Sins of mankind” AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  98. 98. There is no such thing as the Original Sin… Because to us God (Allah) Has already forgiven Adam and Hawa AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  99. 99. There is no such thing as the Original Sin… “They (Adam and Hawa) said, "Our Lord, we have  wronged ourselves, and if You do not forgive us and have  mercy upon us, we will surely be among the losers.” (Qur’an: A’raf: 7: 23) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  100. 100. There is no such thing as the Original Sin… ““Then Adam received from his Lord [some] words, Then Adam received from his Lord [some] words,  and He accepted his repentance. Indeed, it is He who and He accepted his repentance. Indeed, it is He who  is the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful.”is the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful.” ((Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 37Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 37)) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  101. 101. “Jesus says : ‘Not everyone who says to me ‘Lord, Lord’ shall enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven” * (Matthew 7 : 21 ) ( * Islam : means “submission of God’s will”   ) HOW SHALL MAN BE SAVED IN HEREAFTER ?HOW SHALL MAN BE SAVED IN HEREAFTER ? AS FOUND IN THE GOSPEL - NEW TESTAMENT RECORD:AS FOUND IN THE GOSPEL - NEW TESTAMENT RECORD: AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  102. 102. Behold, this is indeed the truth of the matter, and there is no  deity whatever save Allah; and, verily, Allah - He alone - is  almighty, truly wise. And if they turn away [from this truth] -  behold, Allah has full knowledge of the spreaders of corruption.” (Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 62-63) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  103. 103. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  104. 104. ““Indeed, the religion in the sight of Allah is Islam. Indeed, the religion in the sight of Allah is Islam.  And those who were given the Scripture did not And those who were given the Scripture did not  differ except after knowledge had come to them - differ except after knowledge had come to them -  out of jealous animosity between themselves. And out of jealous animosity between themselves. And  whoever disbelieves in the verses of Allah, then whoever disbelieves in the verses of Allah, then  indeed, Allah is swift in [taking] account..”indeed, Allah is swift in [taking] account..” ((Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 19Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 19)) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  105. 105. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  106. 106. ““So if they argue with you, say, "I have submitted So if they argue with you, say, "I have submitted  myself to Allah [in Islam], and [so have] those who myself to Allah [in Islam], and [so have] those who  follow me." And say to those who were given the follow me." And say to those who were given the  Scripture and [to] the unlearned, "Have you submitted Scripture and [to] the unlearned, "Have you submitted  yourselves?" And if they submit [in Islam], they are yourselves?" And if they submit [in Islam], they are  rightly guided; but if they turn away - then upon you is rightly guided; but if they turn away - then upon you is  only the [duty of] notification. And Allah is Seeing of only the [duty of] notification. And Allah is Seeing of  [His] servants.[His] servants. ((Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 20Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 20)) AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005
  107. 107. AllRightsReserved©Zhulkeflee2005

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