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  • Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
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    1. 1. AHADITH It’s significance & development compiled & presented by : Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (PERGAS)
    2. 2. Qur’an : An-Nisa’ : 4 :59 <ul><li>يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِى ٱلۡأَمۡرِ مِنكُمۡ‌ۖ فَإِن تَنَـٰزَعۡتُمۡ فِى شَىۡءٍ۬ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَٱلرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمۡ تُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأَخِرِ‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ خَيۡرٌ۬ وَأَحۡسَنُ تَأۡوِيلاً </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    3. 3. Qur’an : An-Nisa’ : 4 :59 <ul><li>O You who believe ! Obey Allah , and obey the Messenger , and those charged with authority from among you. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it back to Allah and to His Messenger , if you do believe in Allah and the Last day : That is best and most suitable for final determination. </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    4. 4. Qur’an : Al-Ahzab : 33 : 21 <ul><li>لَّقَدۡ كَانَ لَكُمۡ فِى رَسُولِ ٱللَّهِ أُسۡوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ۬ لِّمَن كَانَ يَرۡجُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَٱلۡيَوۡمَ ٱلۡأَخِرَ وَذَكَرَ ٱللَّهَ كَثِيرً۬ا </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    5. 5. Qur’an : Al-Ahzab : 33 : 21 <ul><li>Verily, in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example for everyone who looks forward (with hope and awe) to Allah and the Last day, and who engages in the remembrance of Allah unceasingly. </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    6. 6. Qur’an : An-Najm : 53 : 3-4 <ul><li>وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ ٱلۡهَوَىٰٓ </li></ul><ul><li> إِنۡ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحۡىٌ۬ يُوحَىٰ </li></ul><ul><li> عَلَّمَهُ ۥ شَدِيدُ ٱلۡقُوَىٰ </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    7. 7. Qur’an : An-Najm : 53 : 3-4 <ul><li>…… and neither does he speak out of his own desire : that (which he conveys to you) is but (a divine) inspiration with which he is being inspired - something that a very mighty one has imparted to him……….. </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    8. 8. Qur’an : Al-Hashr : 59 : 7 <ul><li>وَمَآ ءَاتَٮٰكُمُ ٱلرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَہَٮٰكُمۡ عَنۡهُ فَٱنتَهُواْ‌ۚ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ‌ۖ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلۡعِقَابِ </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    9. 9. Qur’an : Al-Hashr : 59 : 7 <ul><li>Hence, accept (willingly) whatever the Messenger gives you (thereof), and refrain from (demanding) anything that he withholds from you ; and remain conscious of Allah : for verily, Allah is severe in retribution. </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    10. 10. Qur’an : An-Nisa : 4 : 64 <ul><li>وَمَآ أَرۡسَلۡنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا لِيُطَاعَ بِإِذۡنِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    11. 11. Qur’an : An-Nisa : 4 : 64 <ul><li>For We have never sent any Messenger except that he should be heeded (obeyed) by Allah’s leave” . </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    12. 12. Qur’an : An-Nisa : 4 : 65 <ul><li>فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيۡنَهُمۡ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُواْ فِىٓ أَنفُسِہِمۡ حَرَجً۬ا مِّمَّا قَضَيۡتَ وَيُسَلِّمُواْ تَسۡلِيمً۬ا </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    13. 13. Qur’an : An-Nisa : 4 : 65 <ul><li> But nay. By thy Sustainer! They do not [really] believe unless they make thee [O Prophet] the judge of all on which they disagree among themselves, and then find in their hearts no resistance against thy decision, but accept it in full submission .” </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    14. 14. Qur’an : Al-Jumu’ah : 62 :2 <ul><li>هُوَ ٱلَّذِى بَعَثَ فِى ٱلۡأُمِّيِّـۧنَ رَسُولاً۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ يَتۡلُواْ عَلَيۡہِمۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ وَيُزَكِّيہِمۡ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ وَٱلۡحِكۡمَةَ وَإِن كَانُواْ مِن قَبۡلُ لَفِى ضَلَـٰلٍ۬ مُّبِينٍ۬ </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    15. 15. Qur’an : Al-Jumu’ah : 62 :2 <ul><li>He (Allah) it is who has sent unto the unlettered people a Messenger from among themselves, to convey unto them His messages, and to cause them to grow in purity, and to impart unto them the divine Writ as well as Wisdom - whereas before that they were indeed, most obviously, lost in error -; and (to cause the message to spread) from them unto other people as soon as they come into contact with them : for He (Allah) alone is almighty, truly wise ! </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    16. 16. Qur’an : Al-Ahzab : 33 :36 <ul><li>وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤۡمِنٍ۬ وَلَا مُؤۡمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى ٱللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ۥۤ أَمۡرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ ٱلۡخِيَرَةُ مِنۡ أَمۡرِهِمۡۗ وَمَن يَعۡصِ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۥ فَقَدۡ ضَلَّ ضَلَـٰلاً۬ مُّبِينً۬ا </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    17. 17. Qur’an : Al-Ahzab : 33 :36 <ul><li>“ Now whenever Allah and His Messenger have decided a matter , it is not for a believing man or a believing woman to claim freedom of choice insofar as they themselves are concerned; for he who (thus) rebels against Allah and His Messenger has already, most obviously, gone astray.” </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    18. 18. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said : <ul><li>“ … ...I leave behind me two things, whomsoever hold fast to these two, they will never be led astray : (these are) the Book of Allah and the Sunnah (Way) of His Messenger ….” </li></ul><ul><li>(Hadith reported by Malik) </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    19. 19. The “Sunnah” explains or elaborates the “Qur’an” <ul><li>وَأَنزَلۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ ٱلذِّڪۡرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيۡہِمۡ وَلَعَلَّهُمۡ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    20. 20. The “Sunnah” explains or elaborates the “Qur’an” <ul><li>“ And upon thee (too) have We bestowed from on high this reminder , so that thou might make clear unto mankind all that has ever been thus bestowed upon them , and that they might take thought. </li></ul><ul><li>(Qur’an : An-Nahl : 44) </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    21. 21. The “Sunnah” explains or elaborates the “Qur’an” <ul><li>“ .....and be constant in ‘as-Solah’ (that is the fixed obligatory daily prayer)…” </li></ul><ul><li>( Qur’an : al-Baqarah : 2 : 43 ) </li></ul><ul><li>But the Qur’an does not provide the detail, thus the Prophet (pbuh) said : </li></ul><ul><li>“ Establish ‘as-Solah’ as you see me do” </li></ul><ul><li>(Hadith reported by Bukhary) </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    22. 22. What is “Sunnah” ? <ul><li>… (it means) : </li></ul><ul><li>“ the way ... or ... the law “ </li></ul><ul><li>It is usually used to indicate the practice or the teachings of our Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and are divided into : </li></ul><ul><li>Qau-liyyah (sayings) Taqririyyah (consent) </li></ul><ul><li>Fi’liyyah (actions) Hammiyyah (resolve) </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    23. 23. Historical Background Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    24. 24. Teaching of “Sunnah” during the Prophet’s time. <ul><li>Prophet (pbuh) taught by : </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Verbal teaching </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Written medium </li></ul><ul><li>(dictation to scribes) </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Practical demonstration </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    25. 25. What is “Hadith” ? <ul><li>… (Plural is “Ahadith” - it means) : </li></ul><ul><li>“ the news , the report ..or .. narration “ </li></ul><ul><li>It is usually used to refer to the report or sayings, transmitted through a chain of people, and originated from or upto the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). </li></ul><ul><li>Thus a “Hadith” contains the “Sunnah” </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    26. 26. Was “Hadith” ever written down during the Prophet’s time ? <ul><li>“ An Ansarite complained to the Prophet (pbuh) that he had weak memory and that he easily forgot the Prophet’s instructive discourses. The Prophet (pbuh) replied “Take the aid of thy right hand (i.e. write it down).” </li></ul><ul><li>( Hadith reported by at-Tirmidzi ) </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    27. 27. Was “Hadith” ever written down during the Prophet’s time ? <ul><li>Abdallah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-’As, a young Meccan had a habit of writings down all that the Prophet used to say. Abdallah went to the Prophet and asked him if one could note all that he said. He replied :”Yes”. Abdallah persisted :”Even when thou art happy and satisfied, even when thou art annoyed ?” The Prophet said : “Of course, by Allah ! Nothing that comes out of this mouth is ever a lie.” ( Hadith reported by at-Tirmidzi ) </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    28. 28. “ Tahamul al-’Ilmul-al-Hadith ” ( Learning of Ahadith ) <ul><li>Methods of learning Ahadith : </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Sama’ - reading by teacher </li></ul><ul><li>(2) ‘Ardl - reading to teacher </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Ijazah - confer permission </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Munawalah - conferring the materials </li></ul><ul><li>(5) Mukatabah - writing </li></ul><ul><li>(6) I’lam - conferring authority </li></ul><ul><li>(7) Wasiyah - bequeathing books </li></ul><ul><li>(8) Wijadah - writings which are found </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    29. 29. Period of Compilation of Ahadith Corpus Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    30. 30. What is “Hadith” ? <ul><li>It contains two parts : </li></ul><ul><li>ISNAD - ( chain of narrators of the report) </li></ul><ul><li>MATN - (the content of the teaching from the Prophet [pbuh]) </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    31. 31. What is “Hadith” ? <ul><li>Example of Hadith Imam Bukhary -reported </li></ul><ul><li>from Musa </li></ul><ul><li>from Abu ‘Awanah </li></ul><ul><li>from Abu Hussain </li></ul><ul><li>from Abu Hurayrah - who heard </li></ul><ul><li>Prophet Muhammad [pbuh] said : </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whosoever fabricates falsehood intentionally against me, let him seek his abode in hell-fire.” </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    32. 32. Categorization of “Hadith” <ul><li>According to the number of “ Isnad ” </li></ul><ul><li> MUTAWWATIR AHAD </li></ul><ul><li>a “Sunnah” reported a “Sunnah” reported </li></ul><ul><li>by 4 or more chains by 3 or less chains </li></ul><ul><li>of narrators (ISNAD) of narrators (ISNAD) </li></ul><ul><li>VERY RELIABLE RELIABILITY DEPENDS ON STRENGTH OF CHAIN </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    33. 33. Al-Bukhary Musa Abu ‘Awanah Abu Hussain Abu Hurairah Muslim Ali al-Hidir Ali b Mushir Muhammad b Qais Ali b Rabi’ah Al-Mughirah Ad-Darimi Muhammad b Esa Haitsam Abu Zubair Jabir Abu Dawud ‘ Amr b ‘Aun Musaddad Wabrah ‘ Amir Abdullah b Zubair Az-Zubair Ibn Majah Muhamad b Ramh Al-Laits Abnu Shihab Anas At-Tirmidzi Abu Hisham Abu Bakr b Ayyasy ‘ Ashim Zirr Ibnu Mas’ud Ath-Thayalisi Abdur Rahman Abis-Zinad Amr b Sa’ied Uthman Abu Hanifah ‘ Athiyah Abi Sa’ied al-Khudri Ath-Thabrani Abu Ishaq Ibrahim Nubaith b Syarieth Al-Hakim Abul-Fadl b Al-Husain Muhamad b A Wahab Ja’afar b ‘Aun Abu Hayyan Jazid b Hayyan Zaid b Arqam “ Whosoever fabricates falsehood intentionally against me, let him seek his abode in hell-fire.” Sample of Mutawwatir Hadith Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    34. 34. Categorization of “Hadith” <ul><li>Further categorization of “Ahad” hadith on the basis of number of Chains . </li></ul><ul><li>Mash-hur Aziz Gharib </li></ul><ul><li>(well-known) (strong) (rare) </li></ul><ul><li>narrated by way narrated by narrated by </li></ul><ul><li>of 3 chains 2 chains a single chain </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    35. 35. Science of Hadith Criticism Al-‘ilm al-Jarh wa al-Ta’dil (The knowledge of invalidating and declaring reliable in Hadith) Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    36. 36. Science of Hadith Criticism <ul><li>Checking upon the “Isnad” (chain of narrators) </li></ul><ul><li>Checking upon the “Matn” (the text) </li></ul><ul><li>Checking the integrity of the “Rawi” (the narrators) </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    37. 37. Reasons for rejection of a “Hadith” <ul><li>Due to defects of the narrator. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to discontinuity in the chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to incidental reasons. </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    38. 38. Five criteria for the acceptance a “Hadith” <ul><li>Continuity of the chain </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity of the transmitter (narrator) </li></ul><ul><li>Soundness of narrator’s memory </li></ul><ul><li>Conformity to stronger sources </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of hidden defects </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    39. 39. “ Rijal al-Hadith” (the narrators of Ahadith) <ul><li>Detailed account of every narrators. </li></ul><ul><li>Their strength and weakness subjected to scrutiny </li></ul><ul><li>Grading them according grades of reliability (‘Adl, Tsiqa, Saduq, Saduq yahim, Maqbul, Layyin) </li></ul><ul><li>Even those unreliable were identified (Majhul, Muttaham bil-kadzib, Kadzaab) </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    40. 40. Principles for criticism of the “Matn’ (text)” of a Hadith <ul><li>Not contrary to Qur’an & authentic Ahadith </li></ul><ul><li>Not illogical, against common law </li></ul><ul><li>Not out of proportion </li></ul><ul><li>Not containing too much detail on prophecy </li></ul><ul><li>Not contrary to the position of the Prophet (pbuh) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal praise or condemnation of any Companions, tribes or places is suspect. </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    41. 41. Categorization of “Hadith” <ul><li>Ahadith which are “Mash-hur” or “Aziz “ </li></ul><ul><li>Maqbul Mardud </li></ul><ul><li>(Accepted) ( Rejected ) </li></ul><ul><li>Shahih Hassan Dho’if Maudhu’ </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic Good Weak Fabrication </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
    42. 42. Six famous Authentic books of Ahadith (Shihahus-sittah) <ul><li>Ash-Shahih - Imam Bukhary </li></ul><ul><li>Al-Musnad ash-Shahih - Imam Muslim </li></ul><ul><li>Sunan - Imam Abu Dawud </li></ul><ul><li>Sunan al-Mujtaba - Imam An-Nasa’i </li></ul><ul><li>Sunan - Imam At-Tirmidzi </li></ul><ul><li>Sunan - Imam Ibnu Majah </li></ul>Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail