Invema later


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Invema later

  1. 1. (1724–1804) Immanuel Kant
  2. 2. History <ul><li>German Philosopher in 18 th century (Enlightenment) </li></ul><ul><li>Central figure in philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesized modern rationalism and empiricism </li></ul><ul><li>Significant influence today in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, and other fields </li></ul><ul><li>Critique of Pure Reason (1781, 1787), the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), and the Critique of the Power of Judgment (1790) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Philosophy Overview <ul><li>Human understanding is the source of the general laws of nature that structure all our experience; </li></ul><ul><li>And that human reason gives itself the moral law, which is our basis for belief in God, freedom, and immortality. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, scientific knowledge, morality, and religious belief are mutually consistent and secure because they all rest on the same foundation of human autonomy, which is also the final end of nature according to the teleological worldview of reflecting judgment that Kant introduces to unify the theoretical and practical parts of his philosophical system. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Critique of Pure Reason (1781, 1787) <ul><li>Possibility of metaphysics, understood in a specific way. </li></ul><ul><li>Kant defines metaphysics in terms of “the cognitions after which reason might strive independently of all experience,” </li></ul><ul><li>His goal in the book is to reach a “decision about the possibility or impossibility of a metaphysics in general, and the determination of its sources, as well as its extent and boundaries, all, however, from principles” </li></ul><ul><li>Thus metaphysics for Kant concerns a priori knowledge, or knowledge whose justification does not depend on experience; and he associates a priori knowledge with reason. </li></ul><ul><li>The project of the Critique is to examine whether, how, and to what extent human reason is capable of a priori knowledge. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Critique of Practical Reason (1788) <ul><li>First Critique suggested that God, freedom, and immortality are unknowable, the second Critique will mitigate this claim. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom is indeed knowable because it is revealed by God. God and immortality are also knowable, but practical reason now requires belief in these postulates of reason . </li></ul><ul><li>Kant once again invites his dissatisfied critics to actually provide a proof of God's existence and shows that this is impossible because the various arguments (ontological, cosmological and teleological) for God's existence all depend essentially on the idea that existence is a predicate inherent to the concepts to which it is applied. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Critique of Practical Reason (1788) <ul><li>Morality applies to all rational beings, and a moral action is defined as one that is determined by reason, not by our sensual impulses. </li></ul><ul><li>Because an action is moral on account of its being reasoned, the moral worth of an action is determined by its motive, or the reason behind the action, not by its consequences. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Critique of Practical Reason (1788) <ul><li>We can determine the worth of the motive behind any given moral action by asking whether we could turn that motive into a universally applicable maxim. </li></ul><ul><li>Reason is the same at all times and for all people, so morality too should be universal. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, an action is moral only if it embodies a maxim that we could will to be a universal law. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Critique of Practical Reason (1788) <ul><li>Kant calls it a “categorical imperative” that we must act in such a way that we could will the maxim according to which we act to be a universal law. </li></ul><ul><li>He contrasts this with the “hypothetical imperative,” which would demand that we act to achieve certain ends. The maxim of a hypothetical imperative would assert, “do such-and-such if you want to achieve such-and-such result.” </li></ul><ul><li>There are no ifs in moral action </li></ul><ul><li>Morality works according to a categorical imperative because we must act in a given way simply because the motive is admirable, not because we have calculated that we can achieve certain ends as a result. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Critique of Practical Reason (1788) <ul><li>Once we recognize the universality of moral law, we must also recognize that it applies equally to all people. </li></ul><ul><li>Acting morally, then, requires that we recognize other people as moral agents and always treat them as ends in themselves, not as means by which we can achieve our own ends. </li></ul><ul><li>We must also ensure that our actions do not prevent other people from acting in accordance with moral law. Kant envisions an ideal society as a “kingdom of ends,” in which people are at once both the authors and the subjects of the laws they obey. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Critique of Practical Reason (1788) <ul><li>Morality is based in the concept of freedom, or autonomy. Someone with a free, or autonomous, will does not simply act but is able to reflect and decide whether to act in a given way. This act of deliberation distinguishes an autonomous will from a heteronomous will. </li></ul><ul><li>In deliberating, we act according to a law we ourselves dictate, not according to the dictates of passion or impulse. </li></ul><ul><li>We can claim to have an autonomous will even if we act always according to universal moral laws or maxims because we submit to these laws upon rational reflection. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Critique of the Power of Judgment (1790) <ul><li>Kant sets about examining our faculty of judgment, which leads him down a number of divergent paths. </li></ul><ul><li>While the Critique of Judgment deals with matters related to science and teleology, it is most remembered for what Kant has to say about aesthetics. </li></ul><ul><li>Kant calls aesthetic judgments “judgments of taste” and remarks that, though they are based in an individual’s subjective feelings, they also claim universal validity. </li></ul><ul><li>Our feelings about beauty differ from our feelings about pleasure and moral goodness in that they are disinterested. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Critique of the Power of Judgment (1790) <ul><li>We seek to possess pleasurable objects, and we seek to promote moral goodness, but we simply appreciate beauty without feeling driven to find some use for it. </li></ul><ul><li>Judgments of taste are universal because they are disinterested: our individual wants and needs do not come into play when appreciating beauty, so our aesthetic response applies universally. </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic pleasure comes from the free play between the imagination and understanding when perceiving an object. </li></ul>
  13. 13. (JULY 31, 1912 – NOVEMBER 16, 2006) Milton Friedman
  14. 14. History <ul><li>American economist, statistician, professor and author </li></ul><ul><li>Recipient of Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Price theory, monetarism, floating exchange rates, volunteer military, permanent income hypothesis, Friedman test </li></ul>
  15. 15. Overview <ul><li>Central banks are responsible for inflation and deflation. </li></ul><ul><li>Markets work efficiently to allocate resources and to maintain macroeconomic equilibrium. </li></ul>
  16. 16. floating exchange rate <ul><li>A floating exchange rate or fluctuating exchange rate is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate according to the foreign exchange market. A currency that uses a floating exchange rate is known as a floating currency. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Monetarism <ul><li>Monetarism is a tendency in economic thought that emphasizes the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation. It is the view within monetary economics that variation in the money supply has major influences on national output in the short run and the price level over longer periods and that objectives of monetary policy are best met by targeting the growth rate of the money supply. </li></ul>
  18. 18. permanent income hypothesis <ul><li>The permanent income hypothesis (PIH) is a In its simplest form, the hypothesis states that the choices made by consumers regarding their consumption patterns are determined not by current income but by their longer-term income expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>The key conclusion of this theory is that transitory, short-term changes in income have little effect on consumer spending behavior. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The Friedman test is a non-parametric statistical test </li></ul><ul><li>it is used to detect differences in treatments across multiple test attempts. The procedure involves ranking each row (or block ) together, then considering the values of ranks by columns. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Price theory <ul><li>Supply and Demand </li></ul>