Fast Moving Subjects In this workshop, you will learn to use the shutter speed control (‘S’ or ‘T’) to capture images that involve movement. The following introductory tasks are designed to help generate ideas around the title: ‘Freedom of Movement’ . You will need to try out at least 2 of the different techniques and show evidence of your observations in your photo diary e.g. a contact sheet and a selection of 3-5 images. In addition, you will need to research two photographers relevant to your observations and complete a ‘Form, Process, Content’ structure.
Capturing people as if frozen in the air Introduction If a subject is moving fast, then you will need to use a shutter speed between 1/250 and 1/500 second to capture it clearly. The faster the subject, the faster the shutter speed. Settings Equipment: N/A ISO: 200-400 Speed: 1/250 - 1/500 sec Aperture: Refer to light meter reading Flash: On/Off Notes If there is little light available, you might need to use a flash, but this will create shadows in the background if close to a wall. Alternatively, use a faster, more sensitive film e.g. 800 ISO/ASA Example Using flash to ‘freeze’ scenes of motion Introduction By using flash, you are illuminating the scene with a burst of strong, controlled light. Your subject in the foreground will be lit up, but not necessarily in the background so you could get an interesting combination of sharp and blurred imagery. Settings Equipment: N/A ISO: 50-200 Speed: 1/60 sec (see notes) Aperture: Refer to light meter reading Flash: On Notes If using flash with an SLR film camera, your camera will usually require you to have the shutter speed setting on 1/60 sec when using flash and has a red mark by the setting. Even without using a fast shutter speed, the intensity of light enables a sharp, focused image to be achieved. Flash can be used in daylight and is known as ‘fill-in flash’ since it is usually used to reduce shadows and create a sharper image. Example
Capturing stillness within scenes of motion Introduction For this task you are trying to capture movement as a blur, but have a subject that remains static, which will emphasize the contrast between the two states. Settings Equipment: Tripod ISO: 50-200 Speed: 1/60 or 1/125 sec Aperture: Refer to light meter reading Flash: Off Notes If no tripod is available, use a stool/chair to rest your camera on. It is important that you do not shake the camera of the whole picture will be blurred. Use a camera release cable if available. Example Capturing movement against still backgrounds Introduction When dealing with a scene that has continuous movement, it can be effective to capture the movement over a long period of time by opening up the shutter for longer. Settings Equipment: Tripod & camera release cable ISO: 50-100 Speed: 1-5 sec (see notes) Aperture: f.22 Flash: Off Notes It is essential to use a tripod and camera release cable or camera timer as any slight movement will result in the entire picture being blurred. As you are opening the shutter for a long period of time, you need to close down your aperture to allow in as little light as possible e.g. f.22 and use a slow film (50-100 ISO). This involves trial and error - practice with a digital camera. Example
Capturing fast moving subjects close up using a macro lens/mode Introduction To capture images of drops of water hitting a surface, you will need to get close to an image and use a macro lens. This requires a great deal of light being available and fast shutter speed. Settings Equipment: Tripod, macro lens & additional lighting ISO: 50-100 Speed: 1/500 - 1/1000 sec Aperture: Refer to light meter reading Flash: Off Notes If no studio lights are available, you could use a strong torch or halogen table lamp to add extra light. The key to capturing a sharp, focused image is to have enough light to satisfy the quick shutter speed and slow film. This should help you achieve a finer image. If you want a shallow depth of field, then you will have to open up the aperture to f.2 Example Creating multiple exposures to create ghost-like effect Introduction Francesca Woodman is well known for her images of herself photographed in abandoned locations using long-exposures. She appears ghost-like and ethereal as she moves around the frame. Settings Equipment: Tripod, timer or cable release ISO: 50-400 Speed: 1/60 sec (see notes) Aperture: Refer to light meter reading Flash: On Notes Use the camera timer or shutter release to prevent camera shake. Make sure there is a contrast between the figure and the background, otherwise no image will appear and ask your subject to move quickly and pause. Try to do it in a dim location. For a grainer effect, use 800 or 1600 ISO/ASA film. You must do a series of experiments and record your settings in order to get the best effect. It is harder than it looks. Example
Capturing movement of light at night Introduction At night, you have much greater control over the time of exposure, which is good if you are photographing still objects, but difficult if your subject moves. However, by exploiting the movement of a light source, you can literally draw with light. Settings Equipment: Tripod and light source e.g. torch ISO: 50-200 Speed: 1-5 sec Aperture: Refer to light meter reading Flash: On/Off Notes Keep the camera still by using a tripod and only use a flash if you want to capture the subject as well as the streaks of light. Remember that the light source needs to move. For more interesting effects, try doing it against a background of neon light or against a fast-moving flow of traffic at night. Use different light sources such as Christmas lights. Example Capturing and distorting movement by panning and zooming Introduction By moving the camera, you can also create a sense of movement within the picture. If you have a long exposure, you can create multiple exposures. Settings Equipment: Tripod to pan ISO: 50-200 Speed: 1-5 sec Aperture: Refer to light meter reading Flash: On/Off Notes Use the camera to pan the camera in one direction. If a zoom is available, try zooming in rather than panning out to create streaks. Example
Freedom of Movement : Artists to research Eadweard Muybridge Francesca Woodman Henri Cartier-Bresson Laszlo Moholy-Nagy Sam Taylor-Wood Martin Munkacsi Gion Mili Philip-Lorca diCorcia
Freedom of Movement : Research material/artists Dar Robinson (AKA ‘Rocketman’ stunt artist) www.the-rocketman.com/Dar-R-gallery.html Frode Fjerdingstad Rene Burri Polly Braden