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Dying Inside

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A presentation covering Firefighter LODDs that occur inside structures and the lessons to be learned.

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Dying Inside

  1. 1. What we need to know…… What we need to change……..
  2. 2. Capt. Zach Hickman Iowa City Fire Department
  3. 3. What we need to know…… What we need to change……..
  4. 4.      A detailed look at death and injury rates Case Studies Changes in gear NIOSH findings Putting it all together with a brief “Strategy and Tactics” Review
  5. 5.  Three groups     Inside Outside Cardiac Related Inside deaths Rapid Fire Growth  Collapse  Ran out of AIR 
  6. 6. What does this mean to us……….  Late 1970’s 1.8 deaths /1000 structure fires, occurred inside  Late 1990’s 3.0 deaths /1000 structure fires, occurred inside  2000 through 2009, 138 firefighters died while operating inside at structure fires  2010 through 2013, 55 firefighter died while operating inside at structure fire
  7. 7. Breaking down the 138 deaths from 2000-2009  78 asphyxiation, 25 burns, 20 sudden cardiac event, 15 crushing or trauma.  Of the 78 that died of asphyxiation  27 died in structural collapse  24 died in rapid fire progression  18 died getting lost and running out of air  5 died when they fell through holes burned in the floor  4 others died through misc. reasons
  8. 8.      Colerain Township, Ohio 160 career firefighters 5 Stations EMS Transport service 8,700 calls for service in 2007
  9. 9. Captain Robin M. Broxterman April 16, 1970 – April 4, 2008 Firefighter Brian W. Schira October 15, 1978 – April 4, 2008
  10. 10.       Friday, April 4th, 2008 0611 hrs received 911 call 0612 hrs FD was dispatched 0613 hrs Homeowner reported the fire was in the basement 0623 hrs first unit arrived on scene Capt. Broxterman has face-to-face with homeowner
  11. 11. Area of Fire Origin Side Alpha
  12. 12. Approximate area of floor system collapse.
  13. 13. Basement Level Location of Both Deceased Firefighters Side Alpha
  14. 14. January 19, 2011 NIOSH 2011-02
  15. 15.    Lutherville Volunteer Fire Company Baltimore County Fire Department This combination department consists of 1,050 career members and approximately 2,000 volunteers.
  16. 16. 1855 hrs
  17. 17.  Incident Management System  Personnel Accountability System  Rapid Intervention Crews  Conducting a search without a means of egress protected by a hoseline   Tactical consideration for coordinating advancing hoselines from opposite directions Building safety features, e.g., no sprinkler systems, modifications limiting automatic door closing  Occupant behavior-leaving sliding glass door open  Ineffective ventilation.
  18. 18.    Cincinnati, OH Around 800 members 26 Stations / 26 Engine Companies
  19. 19. Firefighter Oscar Armstrong III
  20. 20.     Homewood, IL 17 full time, 15 part-time firefighters Serves 20,000 residences 2500 calls for service in 2011
  21. 21. Firefighter Brian Carey
  22. 22.         12 Stations 237 Uniform Members 83,000 Residents 15,000 Call a year 11 Engines 4 Trucks 1 Rescue 1 Tender NIOSH #2011-18
  23. 23.      Hard time getting water on the fire > 48 minutes Lots of radio transmissions. Multiple Stairwells and FDC Mayday called 52 minutes into call. Fireground personnel instructed to change radio channel
  24. 24. 5th Floor
  25. 25. • Ensure that the existing standard operating procedures for high-rise firefighting operations are reviewed, implemented, and enforced. • Ensure that a deployment strategy for low-frequency/high-risk incidents is developed and implemented. • Ensure that the incident commander develops an incident action plan, which is communicated to all fire fighters on scene, and includes effective strategy and tactics for high-rise operations, a timely coordinated fire attack, and a coordinated search plan. • Ensure that the incident commander utilizes division/group supervisors.
  26. 26. • Ensure that fire fighters are properly trained in air management and SCBA emergency operations. • Ensure that the incident commander is provided a chief's aide. • Ensure that the incident commander establishes a stationary command post. •Ensure that fire fighters are properly trained in Mayday standard operating procedures and survival techniques.
  27. 27. - NIOSH Top 5 LODD Causes 1. Improper Risk Assessment / Poor size-up 2. Lack of Command 3. Lack of accountability 4. Inadequate communications 5. Lack of SOP / failure to follow SOPs
  28. 28.  Bunker Gear (NFPA 1971)   Thermal protection Requirements for overlapping coverage
  29. 29.  SCBA (NFPA 1981)  Greater capacity  Better components  Universal Connections  Heads-Up display @ 50%  Integrated PASS Device
  30. 30.  New changes to 1981 for 2013 include changing the EOSTI (End of Service Time Indicator)  Change the EOSTI from 25% to 33%
  31. 31. NIOSH   NFPA 40 lit/min 30 minute (1200L) bottle = 31.8 minutes of work   100 lit/min 30 minute (1200L) bottle = 12.8 minutes of work Total Volume Work Period Work Time Exit Reserve Exit Time 45 min. bottle 1800 L 1350 L 13.5 min. 450 L 4.5 min. 30 min bottle 1200L 900L 9 min 300L 3 min
  32. 32. NFPA 100L/MIN NEW Total Volume Work Period Work Time Exit Reserve Exit Time 45 min. bottle 1800 L 1200 L 12 min. 600 L 6 min. 30 min bottle 1200L 800L 8 min 400L 4 min
  33. 33. Changes in Gear In 1980 lenses were tested and found to fail above 300°F NIST data shows the mask is the first component to fail. Melting at temps above 900ºF and seeing degradation above 600ºF Rollover along the ceiling can be seen between 900°F and 1300°F
  34. 34. Changes in Gear 2013 edition of NFPA 1981 changes the recommendations for face pieces. 600ºF is improved to 950ºF 900ºF is improved to 1800ºF Rollover / Flashover occurs between 900°F and 1300°F
  35. 35.  Impact of Horizontal Ventilation on Fire Behavior Modern furniture  New fire growth curve  Tenability  Forcing the door  Proper vent locations  Coordination of fire attack  Pushing Fire 
  36. 36.  What does this mean………..    Strategy is the overall goal Tactics are the objectives to reach that goal Don’t forget about the Tasks  Functions preformed to reach the objectives
  37. 37.      Lacking sufficient manpower, rescue takes precedence. Remove those in greatest danger first! With insufficient manpower to perform needed tasks, perform those that protect the most first. When sufficient manpower is available coordinate both rescue and fire attack. If there are no threats to occupants or no occupants, Firefighters should not be unduly endangered
  38. 38. What’s our goal? What are the current fire conditions? What is the expected outcome? How are we going to get our information?
  39. 39.  How are we going to get it done?  Which line do we pull?  Are we going to knock it down form the outside with a Transitional Attack?  When should ventilation be started, and by who?  Who is responsible for the Search vs. Fire Attack
  40. 40.         Know the limits of your gear Manage your reserve air Keep crew integrity Don’t delay a Call for Assistance Choose the right equipment Coordinate Ventilation efforts Complete the 360º Make sure your efforts are consistent with the game plan.
  41. 41. ZACH-HICKMAN@IOWA-CITY.ORG www.slideshare.net Title - Dying Inside Author - ZHICKMAN User - zhickman
  42. 42.     NIOSH Report #F2010-10 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2nt0DT0 nXq8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JKYW6u K4vDI http://www.firerescue1.com/fireproducts/training-products/articles/1283235High-tech-video-explains-firefighter-death/
  43. 43.        http://www.usfa.fema.gov/fireservice/fatalities/statistics/history.shtm http://www.nfpa.org/assets/files/PDF/fffstructure.pdf http://www.iaff.org/hs/LODD_Manual/LODD%20Reports/Colerain% 20Township,%20OH%20%20Preliminary%20Broxterman%20and%20Schira.pdf http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/fire/pdfs/face200312.pdf http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/fire/pdfs/face201010.pdf http://statter911.com/2010/03/31/illinois-firefighter-dead-anothercritical-elderly-resident-dead-in-house-fire-in-homewood/ http://www.ul.com/global/eng/pages/offerings/industries/buildingm aterials/fire/fireservice/ventilation/

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