Josiah Strong- was an American Protestant clergyman, organizer, editor and author. He was one of the founders of the Social Gospel movement that sought to apply Protestant religious principles to solve the social ills brought on by industrialization, urbanization and immigration.
Hawaiian Annexation- The Newlands Resolution, was a joint resolution written by and named after United States Congressman Francis G. Newlands. It was an Act of Congress to annex the Republic of Hawaii and create the Territory of Hawaii.
Samoa- a country encompassing the western part of the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific Ocean.
Alfred Thayer Mahan- was a United States Navy flag officer, geostrategist, and historian, who has been called "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century."
Spanish American War- was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States. It ultimately ended with the Americans defeating the Spaniards. Cuban independence.
Yellow journalism- or the yellow press is a type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers. Exaggerations.
Philippine Annexation- phillipine and American war: was an armed conflict between a group of Filipino revolutionaries and the United States which arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain independence following annexation by the United States.
Emilio Aguinaldo- was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role during the Philippines' revolution against Spain, and the subsequent Philippine-American War or War of Philippine Independence that resisted American occupation.
Open Door Policy- a concept in foreign affairs, which usually refers to the policy around 1900 allowing multiple Imperial powers access to China, with none of them in control of that country. As a theory, the Open Door Policy originates with British commercial practice, as was reflected in treaties concluded with Qing Dynasty China after the First Opium War (1839-1842)
Platt Amendment- was a rider appended to the Army Appropriations Act presented to the U.S. Senate by Connecticut Republican Senator Orville H. Platt (1827–1905) replacing the earlier Teller Amendment. The amendment stipulated the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba after the Spanish-American War, and defined the terms of Cuban-U.S. relations until the 1934 Treaty of Relations. The Amendment ensured U.S. involvement in Cuban affairs, both foreign and domestic, and gave legal standing to U.S. claims to certain economic and military territories on the island including Guantanamo Bay Naval Base.
McClure’s Magazine- popular magazine: muckraking expose monopoly.
Socialism- is an economic system in which the means of production are publicly or commonly owned and controlled co-operatively, or a political philosophy advocating such a system.
Interest groups- a group of individuals or organizations with interest in a shared area.
Robert La Follette- American Republican and then Progressive.
“Wisconsin Idea”- fosters public universities contributors to state.
Theodore Roosevelt- was the 26th President of the United States (1901–1909). He is noted for his exuberant personality, range of interests and achievements, leadership of the Progressive Movement, and his "cowboy" image and robust masculinity.
“Bully Pulpit”- position of authority, holder opportunity to speak ou and be listed on any matter.
Northern Securities Case- US Railroad Trust formed
Hepburn Act- gave Interstated Commerce Commision ICC power to set max railroad rates.
The Jungle- muckraking journalist Upton Sinclair novel portray life as an emigrant in US. Corruption of meatpacking industry. Health violations.
FDA- Food Drug Administration. US dept of health and human services, protecting and promoting public health through regulation and food safety.
Independent regulatory commission- exercising autonomous authority over some area of human activity in a regulatory or supervisory capacity.
Woodrow Wilson- leader of Progressives Movement
Ludlow Massacre- resulted in the violent deaths of 19 people during an attack by the Colorado National Guard on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families at Ludlow, Colorado on April 20, 1914.
Underwood Tariff- re-imposed the federal income tax following the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment and lowered basic tariff rates from 40% to 25%, well below the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act of 1909.
Federal Reserve System- is the central banking system of the United States. It was created in 1913 with the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act, largely in response to a series of financial panics, particularly a severe panic in 1907.
Federal Trade Commission- independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act. Its principal mission is the promotion of consumer protection and the elimination and prevention of what regulators perceive to be harmfully anti-competitive business practices, such as coercive monopoly.
Panama Canal- ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. The United States, under President Theodore Roosevelt, bought out the French equipment and excavations for US$40 million and began work on May 4, 1904. The United States paid Colombia $10 million in 1921 and (later $250,000 per annum) , seven years after completion of the canal, for redress of President Roosevelt's role in the creation of Panama, and Colombia recognized Panama under the terms of the Thomson-Urrutia Treaty.
Roosevelt Corollary- was an extension of the Monroe Doctrine by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt in 1904. Roosevelt's extension of the Monroe Doctrine asserted a right of the United States to intervene to "stabilize" the economic affairs of small states in the Caribbean and Central America if they were unable to pay their international debts.
“Gentlemen’s Agreement”- was an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration, and Japan would not allow further emigration to the U.S. The goal was to reduce tensions between the two powerful Pacific nations.
Dollar Diplomacy- President William Howard Taft — to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries
Mexican Revolution- major armed struggle that started in 1910, with an uprising led by Francisco I. Madero against longtime autocrat Porfirio Díaz. The Revolution was characterized by several socialist, liberal, anarchist, populist, and agrarianist movements. Over time the Revolution changed from a revolt against the established order to a multi-sided civil war.
Triple Alliance- Triple Alliance was the military alliance between Germany, Austria–Hungary, and Italy that lasted from 1882
Triple Entente- was the name given to the alliance among Great Britain, France and Russia after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente in 1907.
Propoganda- a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position so as to benefit oneself.
U-boats- military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in World War I and World War II.
Lusitania- During the First World War, as Germany waged submarine warfare against Britain, the ship was identified and torpedoed by the German U-boat U-20 on 7 May 1915 and sank in eighteen minutes.
Unrestricted Submarine warfare- a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchantmen without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules (commonly known as "cruiser rules").
John Pershing- general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. Pershing is the only person to be promoted in his own lifetime to the highest rank ever held in the United States Army—General of the Armies
Convoys- group of vehicles, typically motor vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection.
Committee on Public Information (Creel Commision)- was an independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I.
Espionage Act- prohibited any attempt to interfere with military operations, to support U.S. enemies during wartime, to promote insubordination in the military, or to interfere with military recruitment.
Sedition Act- signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson on May 16, 1918. It forbade the use of "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the United States government, its flag, or its armed forces or that caused others to view the American government or its institutions with contempt.
Eugene Debs- American union leader, one of the founding members of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and several times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States.
“100 Percent Americanism”- KKK. Things that make American, Americans redefined.
Red Scare- The First Red Scare was about worker (socialist) revolution and political radicalism. The Second Red Scare was focused on national and foreign communists influencing society or infiltrating the federal government, or both.
Food Administration- responsible agency for the administration of the allies' food reserves. One of its important tasks was the stabilization of the price of wheat on the U. S. market.
14 Points- speech delivered by United States President Woodrow Wilson to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918. The address was intended to assure the country that the Great War was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe
Treaty of Versailles- one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I were dealt with in separate treaties.
League of nations- intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended World War I, and it was the precursor to the United Nations. The League was the first permanent international security organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace
Communism- sociopolitical movement that aims for a classless and stateless society structured upon common ownership of the means of production, free access to articles of consumption, and the end of wage labour and private property in the means of production and real estate
“Welfare capitalism”- combination of a capitalist economic system with a welfare state or, in the American context, to the practice of businesses providing welfare-like services to employees.
“American Plan”- US employers describe their policy of refusing to negotiate with unions.
Ernest Hemingway- American author and journalist. His distinctive writing style, characterized by economy and understatement, influenced 20th-century fiction, as did his life of adventure and public image. He produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s.
F. Scott Fitzgerald- was an American author of novels and short stories, whose works are the paradigm writings of the Jazz Age, a term he coined himself.
John Dos Passos- novelist: U.S. Army Medical Corps at Camp Crane in Pennsylvania. At war's end, he was stationed in Paris, where the U.S. Army Overseas Education Commission allowed him to study anthropology at the Sorbonne. A character in U.S.A. Trilogy goes through virtually the same military career and stays in Paris after the war.
Sacco- Vanzetti trial- unfair trial: convicted of murdering two men during a 1920 armed robbery
National Origins Quota Act- United States federal law that limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, down from the 3% cap set by the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921
Ku Klux Klan- advocated extremist reactionary currents such as white supremacy, white nationalism, and anti-immigration. Terrorism
Fundamentalism- strict adherence to specific theological doctrines typically in reaction against the theology of Modernism.
Scopes Trial- landmark American legal case in 1925 in which high school biology teacher, John Scopes, was accused of violating Tennessee's Butler Act which made it unlawful to teach evolution
Warren Harding- 29th President of the United States (1921–23). A Republican from Ohio, Harding was an influential self-made newspaper publisher.
“Return to Normalcy”- return to the way of life before World War I (Harding)
Calvin Coolidge- 30th President of the United States (1923–1929). A Republican lawyer from Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics, eventually becoming governor of that state. Restored public confidence in the White House after the scandals of his predecessor's administration, and left office with considerable popularity.
Herbert Hoover- 31st President of the United States. won the Republican nomination. Failure to end the downward economic spiral.
Volunteerism- practice of people working on behalf of others or a particular cause without payment for their time and services.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation- independent agency of the United States government, established and chartered by the US Congress in 1932.
Franklin Roosevelt- FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States (1933–1945) and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war. New Deal—a variety of programs designed to produce relief
New Deal- was a series of economic programs implemented in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They were passed by the U.S. Congress during the first term of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Relief, recover, and reform.
Tennessee Valley Authority- federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter in May 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression
National Recovery Administration- primary New Deal agency established by U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) in 1933. The goal was to eliminate "cut-throat competition" by bringing industry, labor and government together to create codes of "fair practices" and set prices
Charles Coughlin- ontroversial Roman Catholic priest at Royal Oak, Michigan's National Shrine of the Little Flower Church. He was one of the first political leaders to use radio to reach a mass audience, as more than thirty million tuned to his weekly broadcasts during the 1930s.
Huey Long- 40th Governor of Louisiana from 1928–1932 and as a U.S. Senator from 1932 to 1935. A Democrat, he was noted for his radical populist policies. Share our wealth.
Francis Townsend- American physician who was best known for his revolving old-age pension proposal during the Great Depression
Social Security Act- social insurance program that is funded through dedicated payroll taxes called Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax (FICA)
Wagner Act- national labor relation act: limits the means with which employers may react to workers in the private sector who create labor unions, engage in collective bargaining, and take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
Congress of Industrial Organizations- proposed by John L. Lewis in 1932, was a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955.
Dust Bowl- period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands from 1930 to 1936. Severe drought.
Indian Reorganization Act- restored to Native Americans the management of their assets (being mainly land) and included provisions intended to create a sound economic foundation for the inhabitants of Indian reservations. Adopt constitution.
“Court- packing”- proposed by U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt to add more justices to the U.S. Supreme Court. Roosevelt's purpose was to obtain favorable rulings regarding New Deal legislation that had been previously ruled unconstitutional.
What was Progressivism? Why did the Progressive reform movement take place? Who became Progressives? Why did these people become Progressives? How did Progressives try to change society
Progressivism is the attempt to expand the government to deal with social problems. The reason progressivism took place was because the middle class believed it was the duty to solve the problems in society such as crime, poverty, and inequality. The country had many problems which are also happening today. These problems happen no matter where anybody lives. They believe that Christians are supposed to help the poor and the democracy of the idea where all men are created equal are based on the Social Gospel. Pollution was also a problem, because there were many filthy environments in the society in this era including ethnic enclaves. Progressivism took place because of the optimism that Americans have with the mindset of “nothing is impossible”. Doctors were the leading progressives at the time. Doctors became the leading progressives because at the time doctors were not certified and not very effective at helping people. The doctor progressives tried to change society by regulating doctors and drugs. In order to do this they use statics, government, and most importantly the media. Other Progressives tried to change society by using the method of bureaucracy to make things more efficient with the data collection of experts and the communication between bosses and experts made things more effective and are able to find a solution. Money was also an important contribution in trying to change the society by the government trying to pass laws locally, by state, and at the national level. Donations by non-profit organizations also helped try to change society. The media with money backing it up provided public information and pressured government politicians to do something about the social problems in society.
What was the New Imperialism? Why did the nations of Europe and America seek colonies between 1880 and 1914? What geographic areas did the United States try to influence? What were America’s goals in these areas? Know examples of American imperialism (Cuba, Panama, the Philippines, etc.). What limited American imperial power?
The New Imperialism was the United States imposing it will on another nation. The reasons why the industrial countries like Europe and America seek colonies were because of prosperity, prestige, and civilization. The examples of prosperity, prestige, and civilization were being resources, bases, and religion respectfully The United States wanted the influence in the west and south which were China and Latin America. In China the United States wanted more market for them to sell and resources they could not get like tea. When expanding the influence in the west America would capture island between China and them in order to build coal base. The Philippines is a example how America need a coal base and market closer to China. In Latin America they wanted bases and oil. The wanted bases in Latin America for national security. An example on national security is when they help Panama become independent and built the Panama Canal for navel ship to reinforce each other. There was limitation on American imperialism which were war, imperial overstretch, and resistance.
Why did the United States get involved in World War 1? Why did America choose to fight on the side of Great Britain, France, and Russia? How did the Russian Revolution during the war alter international relations? What did Russia offer the word after the war? What did America offer the world? Why did the Versailles Treaty fail? How did America engage the world after the defect of the Versailles Treaty?
The United States got involved in World War I because Germany had violated international laws when German U-subs sunk American ships. Also the England and France own debts to American big business and if they lost no one will pay them back. United States had very relation England political an example would be the war of 1812 where England accepted the United States agreement to pay them back. Russia during the war was beaten badly by the Germany armies which force the Russian people to revolt causing the Russian Revolution. This revolution causes Russia to withdraw from the war effect to deal with domestic problems. After the war Russia offered the world the ideology of communism with origins of Marxism which was against the ideology of America. Communism was also damaging because it apply to the current state of Europe after the war. America offer Woodrow Wilson and his 14 points. The 14 points were made to stop world wars, depressions, and imperialism by introducing collective security, free trade, and self-determination.
What factors contributed to onset of the Great Depression?
The factors that contributed to the onset of the Great Depression was the debts of European countries, debts from farmers, credit from the factory workers, and speculation. After World War I Europe in a state of debt where both England and France own a large amount to the banks. When both countries begin to exhaust the money supply they turn to Germany to pay them back. This cause Germany to ask for a loan from American Banks which result in a cycle where Germany will pay back both England and France who will then pay the United States back who will then loan money to Germany. In rural America, the prices decreased and the debt start increasing. The environment in the Americas was exposed to erosion and dry farming which resulted in the Dust Bowl. This is also due to the cost of deforestation and with the topsoil being eroded away. The shift of consumer economy was caused by the shift of consumers and production. This resulted to credit and loans were given out, while debts were also increasing. In the 1920s the economy shift to a consumer one where a lot of products were being produce and need to be consume. In order for producer to sell the ideas to the factory worker then invented credit. Credit was the system where a buyer would pay a down payment ever month or so depending on the terms until payment was complete. This was a time bomb because if the factory worker could not pay the down payment then they would lose both the item and anything they have a value. Since factory worker borrow from banks did they could also not pay back the banks. Speculations were due to bad investments, fraud, and leverage. Many people used other people’s success as an example to become rich like them. This created many opportunities to fraud since there were many greedy people. An example of a fraud was the Ponsche’s scheme which is also known as a pyramid scam nowadays. People trusted people with the same ethnic backgrounds. Another factor that’s contributed to onset of Great Depression was leverage which was buying investments with debt. Interest accumulates really fast and people stayed in the bubble which means that they tried jumping on the bandwagon.
Why was the power of the Federal Government enlarged in order to fight the Depression? How did Hoover strengthen the government? How did Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) differ from Hoover? How did Roosevelt strengthen the government? What were the strengths of FDR’s program? The limitations?
The reason why power of the Federal Government was enlarge to fight the Depression was because of the equation GDP = C + I + G + X. In the equation C the consumer, I the investor, G the government spending, and X export were decreasing which result in the GNP the economy of the nation to go down. By increasing the Federal Government power it regulate each 4 components from going down. During Hoover administration he listened to the secretary of treasury Andrew Mellon about nothing doing anything at first. This result made the economy even worse then before. He later made the Business Confidence to reinsure investor that banks were safe by putting money in them. FDR differ from Hoover from being well like by the people and improving the economy during the Depression. FDR strengthen the government by creating government jobs and relief. The jobs and relief were provide to the poor a jobless in order to help the consumer. He also made government reform society by creating minimal wages and sell of electricity. The government creates damns which provide jobs, home, and product. The strength of FDR’s programs were they aim at both consumer and investor. The problems was if he put to much for consumer it will discourage investor and vice versa