Pap smear and hpv vaccine


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o&g update course 2012 hospital segamat

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Pap smear and hpv vaccine

  2. 2.  Papanicolaou test – exfoliative cytology test  cells collected are from normally shedding epithelium .  collected using spatulas or brushes.  Specimen is fixed, stained and studied for morphology under microscope.
  3. 3.  Initially using vaginal pool smears to study hormonal status .  Found cancer cells on a slide containing a specimen from a woman's uterus.  Dr. George Papanicolaou reported the usefulness of the technique for detecting neoplastic cervical cells in 1941.  late 1940s to early 1950s, Pap smear became widely used as a screening technique. Dr. George Nicholas Papanicolaou
  4. 4.  Visual inspection of the lower genital tract and cervix.  Locate the TZ.  An optimal cervical specimen  includes sampling of the squamous and columnar epithelium  encompassing in particular the transformation zone
  5. 5.  Correct timing  Correct technique Correct instruments Correct sampling technique Correct spreading technique Correct fixation
  6. 6.  AYRE’S SPATULA
  8. 8.  CYTOBRUSH
  9. 9.  After menses preferably midcycle.  When there is no signs of inflammation or infections  No prior vaginal douching or contraceptive cream / jelly .  No sexual intercourse < 12 hours prior to pap smear.  Pregnancy is NOT a contraindication for pap smear.
  10. 10.  Label the frosted end of the glass slide with the patient's name prior to collection.  Insert the speculum.  Visually inspect the cervix for abnormalities.  Identify the transformation zone and direct sampling efforts to encompass this area.  The endocervical limit of the transformation zone is dynamic, defined by the leading edge of the migrating squamo-columnar junction.  In post menopausal women, it is often high in the endocervical canal and not visible.
  11. 11. An optimal cervical specimen includes sampling of the squamous epithelium (Ectocervix) and columnar epithelium (Endocervix) and in particular the TRANSFORMATION ZONE, where the majority of cervical neoplasias arise.
  13. 13.  Choose the contoured end of the spatula which best conforms to the cervix and the transformation zone.  Rotate the spatula 360o about the circumference of the cervix, while maintaining firm contact with the epithelial surface.  With a clockwise rotation beginning and ending at 9 o'clock (or counter-clockwise rotation from 3 o'clock to 3 o'clock), the collected material is retained on the upper horizontal surface as the instrument is removed.
  14. 14.  These brushes have circumferential bristles that come into contact with the entire os surface on insertion.  The brush need only be turned 1/4 turn.  Roll the brush across the slide by twirling the handle.  Not recommended for pregnancy.
  15. 15.  Spread : quick and even , cellular material in a monolayer on the slide.  Thin out large clumps of material as much as possible, avoide excessive manipulation which can damage cells.  Fix the specimen by either immersing the slide in 95% ethanol or coating the slide with a surface fixative.
  16. 16. Spread the material collected on the spatula / cervix brush evenly over the slide with a painting action and single smooth stroke motion using both sides
  17. 17. Spatula / Cervix brush Endocervical brush Spatula / Cervix brush Endocervical brush Endocervical brush Spatula / Cervix brush
  18. 18. Alcohol fixation : Immediately immerse into 95% Alcohol for 20-30 minutes. Drying the slide – 5 minutes Alcohol fixation Slide jacket
  19. 19.  May be moistened with water or saline if necessary. Traditionally, no other lubricants are recommended.  study in 182 patients randomly assigned to have either only warm water or a water soluble lubricant to assist speculum insertion, only 2 unsatisfactory smears were found among 93 patients with the lubricant and two were found among 89 using only warm water.  They concluded that use of a water soluble lubricant on the vaginal introitus and external speculum facilitates examination with no adverse effect on Pap smear interpretation. Harer WB. Valenzuela G Jr. Lebo D. Lubrication of the vaginal introitus and speculum does not affect Papanicolaou smears. Obstet Gynecol 2002; 100:887-8.  Do not use any lubricants other than water or saline on Thin-prep slides since they plug the filter and may produce an unsatisfactory smear.
  21. 21.  Whether the pap is an adequate sample  Incidental findings such as evidence of infection  Evidence of lesions: low-grade SIL, high-grade SIL, or cancer
  22. 22. 1. Specimen adequacy 2. Negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy 3. Epithelial Cell Abnormalities A. Squamous Atypical (ASCUS/ASC-H) LSIL ( Mild Dyskaryosis / HPV/CIN 1) HSIL (Mod or Severe Dyskaryosis / CIN 2,3) Invasive Squamous Carcinoma B. Glandular / Columnar Atypical (undetermined or favour neoplastic) Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) Invasive adenocarcinoma C. Endometrial cells in women age > 40
  23. 23.  Low-grade squamous lntraepithelial lesion (low-grade SIL)  Cellular changes associated with HPV  Mild (slight) dysplasia/CIN 1  High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (high-grade SIL)"  Moderate dysplasia/CIN II  Severe dysplasia/CIN III  carcinoma in situ/CIN III  Atypical Squamous Cells (ASC)  Unspecified (ASC-US) - includes uspecified and favor benign/inflammation  Cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H)  Atypical Glandular Cells of Uncertian Significance (AGC) AGC is broken down into favoring endocervical, endometrial, or not otherwise specified origin or endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)  Unspecified (AGC-US)  Atypical glandular cells, favor neoplastic (AGC-H)
  24. 24. 1. Abnormal due to dysplastic changes 2. Abnormal due to inadequacy 3. Abnormal due to inflammation 4. Abnormal due to infection
  25. 25.  Squamous Atypical (ASCUS/ASC-H) LSIL ( Mild Dyskaryosis / HPV/CIN 1) HSIL (Mod or Severe Dyskaryosis / CIN 2,3) Invasive Squamous Carcinoma  Glandular Atypical (undetermined or favour neoplastic) Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) Invasive adenocarcinoma
  26. 26.  Sampling Scanty cells Blood, mucous, pus Mainly endocervical cells *  Preparation Too thick due to poor spreading Air drying artifact
  27. 27.  Correct timing of smear  Do not use cream or gel  Cleaning of excessive mucus  Choice of sampling devices  Correct spreading  Rapid fixation (< 10 second)
  28. 28.  Infection  Chronic cervicitis  Atrophic cervicitis
  29. 29. Observed and repeat pap smear Treat (inflammation & infection) and repeat pap smear Refer for Colposcopy
  30. 30. Unsatisfactory/Inadequate smear Reactive cellular changes due to radiation, repair or IUCD ASCUS with Low Risk HPV type or no facility for HPV typing Selected LSIL – repeat in 6 months, if persistent, do colposcopy HPV effect
  31. 31. 1. INFECTIONS Trichomonas vaginalis ( Metronidazole 400mg tds and Doxycyline 100mg bd for 1 week) Fungal infection : Antifungal Bacterial vaginosis (Metronidazole, Clindamycin) Actinomyces species : Penicillin Herpes simplex : Acyclovir Repeat smear in 6-8 weeks, if persistent in 3 occasion, refer for colposcopy. 2. ATROPHIC SMEAR Local oestrogen cream/tab (1 gm nighty for 2 weeks then twice weekly) 6-8 weeks and repeat pap smear in 3-4 months.
  32. 32.   Suspicious looking cervix.   Unexplained post-coital bleeding.   Persistent unsatisfactory smear on 3 occasions, 3 monthly.   Persistent inflammatory smear on 3 occasions, 3 monthly (despite treatment).   Persistent Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance (ASC-US) on 2 occasions.   Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance (ASC- US) positive for high risk HPV.   Atypical Squamous Cells –cannot exclude high grade lesion (ASC-H) 
  33. 33.  Persistent Low Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL) on 2 occasions, 6 monthly.   Persistent Low Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL) with high risk factors.   High Grage Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (HSIL).   Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC).   Atypical Glandular Cells (AGUS).   Adenocarcinoma.   High risk HPV DNA positive.
  34. 34. Complicates up to 5% of pregnancies Most women will have low-grade disease A significant degree of expertise and experience is required in the colposcopic triage of the abnormal pap smear in pregnancy Cervical biopsy is safe in pregnancy. Cone biopsy is best avoided and delayed until 6-8 weeks after delivery (Risk of spontaneous miscarriage 25%, excessive bleeding in 5-15% and risk of persistent disease 50%) The most important aspect in management of abnormal pap smear in pregnancy is to exclude invasive cancer .
  35. 35. Satisfactory and negative PAP SMEAR UNSATISFACTORY FOR EVALUATION Repeat smear in 3 months 2nd smear unsatisfactory Negative for malignant cells Repeat smear in 3 months 3rd smear unsatisfactory Refer for colposcopy Refer to Flowchart for Management of ‘Negative For Malignant Cells’ Smear. * NOTE •Treat any infection. •Give a course of estrogen if there are atrophic changes.
  36. 36. changes resolve changes resolve PAP SMEAR NEGATIVE FOR MALIGNANT CELLS Atrophic changes (without inflammatio n) No endocervic al cells seen Specific micro- organisms identified Inflammatory changes Endometrial cells seen Correlate with clinical findings, client’s age, hormonal and menstrual status Refer Gynaecologist if necessary Treat appropriatel y as clinically indicated Treat any infection or atrophy. Repeat smear in 3–6 months. 2nd smear with similar changes 3rd smear with similar changes Treat any infection or atrophy. Repeat smear in 3–6 months. Refer Gynaecolog ist Repeat smear in 1 year Routine screening schedule Routine screening schedule
  37. 37. Cannot exclude high grade lesion (ASC-H) Undetermined significance (ASC-US) PAP SMEAR ATYPICAL SQUAMOUS CELLS Refer for colposcopy Repeat smear in 6 months Negative for malignant cells Repeat smear in 6 months Resume routine screening if negative for malignant cells •Atypical squamous cells •Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion •High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion Refer for colposcopy •NOTE •HPV DNA testing should be considered if available •If positive for high risk HPV, to refer for colposcopy
  38. 38. NoYes Presence of at least one criteria: •Age > 30 years •Poor compliance •Immunocompromised •Symptomatic •History of pre invasive lesion •High risk HPVpositive. Repeat smear in 6 months PAP SMEAR LOW-GRADE SQUAMOUS INTRAEPITHELIAL LESION (LSIL) Negative for malignant cells Resume routine screening schedule Mild dysplasia or CIN I Refer for colposcopy Immediate colposcopy Assessm ent of client
  40. 40. ALL ATYPICAL GLANDULAR CELLS (except Atypical Endometrial Cells) ADENOCARCINOM AIN SITU (AIS) & ADENOCARCINOM A PAP SMEAR Refer to Gynaecological Oncologist Refer to Gynaecologist for: •colposcopy (with endocervical sampling) •endometrial sampling (if > 35 years or abnormal bleeding) ATYPICAL ENDOMETRIAL CELLS Refer to Gynaecologist
  41. 41.  Genital HPV is a common virus that is passed from one person to another through direct skin-to- skin contact during sexual activity.  Most sexually active people will get HPV at some time in their lives, though most will never even know it.  HPV infection is most common in people in their late teens and early 20s
  42. 42.  Two HPV types (HPV-16 and HPV-18) that cause 70% of cervical cancers, 80% of anal cancers, 60% of vaginal cancers, and 40% of vulvar cancers.  These HPV types also cause most HPV induced oral cancers, and some other rare genital cancers.
  43. 43.  Bivalent vaccine (CERVARIX)  Quadrivalent vaccine (GARDASIL).  Gardasil, also prevents HPV types that cause most genital warts  Both vaccines are given in 3 shots over 6 months.
  44. 44.  HPV vaccination is recommended with either vaccine for 11 and 12 year-old girls.  It is also recommended for girls and women age 13 through 26 years of age who have not yet been vaccinated or completed the vaccine series;  HPV vaccine can also be given to girls beginning at age 9 years
  45. 45.  The vaccines are not recommended for pregnant women.  Studies show that HPV vaccines do not cause problems for babies born to women who were vaccinated while pregnant, but more research is still needed.  A pregnant woman should not get any doses of either HPV vaccine until her pregnancy is completed.  Getting the HPV vaccine when pregnant is not a reason to consider ending a pregnancy.
  46. 46.  The vaccines target the HPV types that most commonly cause cervical cancer.  Both vaccines are highly effective in preventing the targeted HPV types  The vaccines are less effective in preventing HPV- related disease in young women who have already been exposed to one or more HPV types.  That is because the vaccines prevent HPV before a person is exposed to it. HPV vaccines do not treat existing HPV infections or HPV-associated diseases
  47. 47.  Research suggests that vaccine protection is long-lasting.  Current studies have followed vaccinated individuals for six years, and show that there is no evidence of weakened protection over time
  48. 48.  The vaccines do not protect against all HPV types— so they will not prevent all cases of cervical cancer.  About 30% of cervical cancers will not be prevented by the vaccines, so it will be important for women to continue getting screened for cervical cancer (regular Pap tests).  Also, the vaccines do not prevent other sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
  49. 49.  Both vaccines have been licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).  The CDC has approved these vaccines as safe and effective.  Side effects reported in these studies were mild, including pain where the shot was given, fever, dizziness, a nd nausea