Scientific writing


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  • 围绕我所的优势学科和特点,本着 “ 减少学科重叠,增强学科交叉和渗透,发挥整体综合优势 ” 的原则,依据 “ 强化研究中心的总体调控,减轻研究室的管理负担 ” 的指导思想,强化办事机构的办事效率,服务意识,加强研究中心的总体调控能力。将 13 个研究室组合四个综合研究中心和一个植物园。
  • 依据强化办事机构的办事效率和服务意识的原则,将 12 处(办公室)合并为 3 个处和 1 个综合办公室;
  • 依据强化办事机构的办事效率和服务意识的原则,将 12 处(办公室)合并为 3 个处和 1 个综合办公室;
  • 依据强化办事机构的办事效率和服务意识的原则,将 12 处(办公室)合并为 3 个处和 1 个综合办公室;
  • 依据强化办事机构的办事效率和服务意识的原则,将 12 处(办公室)合并为 3 个处和 1 个综合办公室;
  • 依据强化办事机构的办事效率和服务意识的原则,将 12 处(办公室)合并为 3 个处和 1 个综合办公室;
  • 依据强化办事机构的办事效率和服务意识的原则,将 12 处(办公室)合并为 3 个处和 1 个综合办公室;
  • 依据强化办事机构的办事效率和服务意识的原则,将 12 处(办公室)合并为 3 个处和 1 个综合办公室;
  • Scientific writing

    1. 1. Scientific WritingInstitute of Botany, CAS Xingguo Han, Ph.D November 12, 2007
    2. 2. Outlineq What is scientific writing?q Who reads your writing?q What factors shape the style?q How can I make my writing more effective?q How I can make my writing more precise?
    3. 3. What is scientific writing?q Research paper Research noteq Scientific article Review articleq Conference paper Meeting posterq Thesis or dissertation Book chapterq Annual report Newsletterq Project proposal Magazine article
    4. 4. Why?Scientific writing is the culmination or end product ofscientific research. Scientists pose questions and thenperform experiments to answer their questions. Theresults that come from experimentation must finallybe presented to the rest of the scientific community inthe form of a published paper in a primary journalbefore the research is considered finished.
    5. 5. Main PointWriting an effective scientific paper is not easy. A good rule of thumb is to write as if your paper will be read by a person who knows about the field in general but does not already know what you did.Before you write a scientific paper it is a good idea to read some scientific papers in the format of the paper you will use. In addition to the science, pay attention to the writing style and format.
    6. 6. Example (1)q An evaluation of the program by us will encourage increase in efficiency in the servicing of clients.q We will evaluate the program so that we can serve our clients more efficiently.
    7. 7. Example (2)q The design of the experiment, in terms of the establishment of a clear control and the practicability of timing the reactions precisely, although compensations were included to address these factors, was not successful.q The design of the experiment was not entirely successful, because the failure to establish a clear control and time reactions precisely, although compensation were included to address these factors.
    8. 8. A step-by-step procedure (1)The Preliminaries2. Choose a topic3. Begin preliminary reading4. Restrict the subject5. Develop a preliminary thesis statement
    9. 9. A step-by-step procedure (2) Gathering Data3. Compile the working bibliography4. Prepare the bibliography on cards5. Working in libraries or office
    10. 10. A step-by-step procedure (3) Taking Notes2. Develop a preliminary outline3. Prepare to write:Consider your real and imagined readers4. Write the rough draft5. Check your documentation carefully6. Revise and rewrite7. Check the format of the text, citations…8. Proofread
    11. 11. The layout of a Scientific Paper (IMRAD)Introduction2. Presents clearly the background and scope of a problem3. Review pertinent literature4. Presents the investigation method5. Lists principal findings6. Summarizes main conclusions
    12. 12. Additional Tips1. Move from general to specific2. Engage your reader3. Make clear the links4. Be selective5. Ask your instructor
    13. 13. Additional TipsThis study investigates the relationship betweentree density and fruit size.The purpose of this study is to determine the effectof enzyme concentration on the reaction rate of ....
    14. 14. Additional TipsThe hypothesis is the explanation you are proposingfor certain observations. It is a tentative answer to thequestion you have posed above. It should beaccompanied by a prediction of results expectedunder certain conditions if the hypothesis is correct.If competition lowers reproductive output, then fruitsize should be smaller when tree density increases.
    15. 15. Materials and Methods– Describes exactly materials, quantity, and sources– Makes possible repetition of experiment– Describes clearly the experimental design– Uses past tense– Gives references for methods used– States the statistical analysis
    16. 16. Additional Tips1. Provide enough detail for replication2. Order3. Use past tense4. Quantity5. Don’t mix results with procedures
    17. 17. Additional Tips1. Provide enough detail for replication2. Order3. Use past tense4. Quantity5. Don’t mix results with procedures
    18. 18. Resultsq B ig p ic ture o n re s ultsq Imp a rtia l p re s e nta tio nq Re p re s e nta tive d a taq Us e s ta b le s a nd fig ure s
    19. 19. Resultsq 1. Explain why each procedure was done, i.e., what variable were you measuring and why? Example: Difficult to understand: First, I removed the frog muscle and then I poured Ringer’s solution on it. Next, I attached it to the kymograph. Improved: I removed the frog muscle and poured Ringer’s solution on it to prevent it from drying out. I then attached the muscle to the kymograph in order to determine the minimum voltage required for contraction.q 2. Experimental procedures and results are narrated in the past tense (what you did, what you found, etc.) whereas conclusions from your results are given in the present tense.q 3. Mathematical equations and statistical tests are considered mathematical methods and should be described in this section along with the actual experimental work.q 4. Use active rather than passive voice when possible. Always use the singular "I" rather than the plural "we" when you are the only author of the paper. Throughout the paper, avoid contractions, e.g. did not vs. didn’t.q 5. If any of your methods is fully described in a previous publication (yours or someone else’s), you can cite that instead of describing the procedure again.
    20. 20. Right and Wrongq NO: Dissolved oxygen results are shown in Table 1.q YES: Table 1 shows that dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 14 ppm to 9 ppm.q NO: Figure 1 shows the relationship between water depth and dissolved oxygen concentration.q YES: As shown in Figure 1, dissolved oxygen concentration decreases with depth.
    21. 21. Right and Wrongq NO: The geologic cross section shows the makeup of the subsurface.q YES: The geologic cross section illustrates that the subsurface consists of sand and gravel with some clay lenses.q NO: The geologic cross-section shows that groundwater can travel quickly through the subsurface. (discussion).
    22. 22. Additional Tips1. Order: from most to least important, from simple to complex, organ by organ2. Use past tense3. Don’t simply repeat table data4. Don’t interpret results5. Avoid extra words
    23. 23. Discussion1. Principles, patterns, relationships, generalizations2. Exceptions and unsettled points3. Results compared with previous work4. Implications, applications, beneficiaries5. Clear conclusions6. Evidence summarized for each conclusion7. Possible future research arising, if any
    24. 24. Additional Tips1. Move from specific to general2. Don’t bury or ignore the major issue3. Make explanations complete• Don’t overgeneralize• Don’t ignore deviations in your data• Avoid speculation that can not be tested in the foreseeable future
    25. 25. Examples•NO: The groundwater is getting cleaner. YES: On February 12, 1990 the monitoring well contained 23,000 ppb of dissolved hydrocarbons; while on September16, 1996 the same well contained only 87 ppb. This indicatesthe groundwater is getting cleaner.•NO: The lake is not in danger of becoming acidified.YES: An alkalinity of 140 ppm helps to prevent the lake frombecoming acidified.
    26. 26. Titles1. Categorize titles4. Identify mistakes in titles
    27. 27. Titlesq The title should contain three elements:q 1. the name of the organism studied;q 2. the particular aspect or system studied;q 3. the variable(s) manipulated.
    28. 28. Types of Titles1. Indicative2. Informative3. Question type4. Main/subtitle type
    29. 29. In d ic ative•Effects of differential irrigation onmaize growth and yield on a clay soil•Effect of Injected Sea Anemone toxinon Symbiotic Fish Species
    30. 30. Informativeq Differential irrigation decreases maize growth and yield on a clay soilq Enhanced reproduction of strawberry plants under low light conditions
    31. 31. Q u e s tio n Typ eDoes differential irrigation affect maize growthand yield on a clay soil?Will reproduction of strawberry plants beenhanced under low light conditions
    32. 32. Main /S u b title Typ eDifferential irrigation: effects on maize growth andyield on a clay soil
    33. 33. N o te s1. Never too long or too short3. Avoid using waste words: A study of, investigations of, Observations on5. Avoid using many abbreviations
    34. 34. Ke y Wo rd s1. Generally not appeared in the title3. Do not fabricate key words5. Order: follow the instruction of the journal
    35. 35. Ab s trac t1. Ind ic a tive2. Info rma tive
    36. 36. This is a brief synopsis of the paper so that the reader can get the pointand decide whether to read the entire paper. Abstracts are typicallyincluded along with titles in bibliographic sources such as the onesyou use in on-line searches. In about 100 or 200 words, an abstractsummarizes the purpose of the study or question investigated, themethod used, the major results, and the conclusions drawn from thestudy. It is good practice to write the abstract last, even though itappears at the beginning.
    37. 37. Introductionq Opening statementq Example of examplesq Literature review (exhaustive historical review)q Citationsq Criticizing previous workq Ending the introduction
    38. 38. The Method Sectionq Lead the reader through the procedureq Name all groups, variables and operationsq Reliability and validity of dataq Data deletionsq References
    39. 39. Results Sectionq Setting the stageq Statistical analysisq Remind reader of the the hypothesisq Remind reader of the operations performedq Speak to the audience in numbersq Smooth transitionq Figures and tables
    40. 40. The Discussion Sectionq Beginning by telling us what you have learnedq Comparison with findings of othersq Do not dwell compulsively on every flawq Questions undressedq End with a bang, not a whimper
    41. 41. Referencesq Citation style (following the guide of the journal)q Relevanceq Accurateq Availabilityq Balance (geographical, academic schools)
    42. 42. Rememberq Alphabetize literature citations by first authors last name.q Within a journal citation, give authors, year date, title of paper, title of journal, volume and pages. Do not use quotation marks around title of paper. Capitalize first word of title and any proper nouns. Do not underline or italicize title of journal.q Within a book citation, give authors, year date, title of book, publisher, city. Capitalize first word of book title and any proper nouns. Do not underline or italicize book title.
    43. 43. For exampleq Greene, E., L. J. Orsak, and D. W. Whitman. 1987. A tephritid fly mimics the territorial displays of its jumping spider predators. Science 236:310 312.q Merritt, J. F. 1987. Guide to the mammals of Pennsylvania. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh.
    44. 44. Acknowledgmentsq Give credits to others (field work, lab analysis, comments on manuscripts, language editing)q Source of grantsq Other helps
    45. 45. Notesq • Interest, inform, and persuade the readerq • Write for your reader and write clearlyq • Eliminate unnecessary redundancyq • Avoid digressionsq • Dont over explain and avoid overstatementq • Avoid unnecessary qualifiersq • Use consistent tensesq • Use the precise wordq • Simpler words are preferred over complex words and use concrete words and examplesq • Simpler sentences are preferred over more complicated sentencesq • Use the active voice (except generally in methods)q • Make sure the subject and verb agreeq • Use affirmative rather than negative constructionsq • Avoid use of the indefinite "this"q • Use transitionsq • Cite sources as well as findingsq • Proofread your paper carefully; spell check does not catch everything; "there" is spelledq correctly but not if you meant "their"
    46. 46. Acknowledgmentsq Give credits to others (field work, lab analysis, comments on manuscripts, language editing)q Source of grantsq Other helps
    47. 47. Acknowledgmentsq Give credits to others (field work, lab analysis, comments on manuscripts, language editing)q Source of grantsq Other helps
    48. 48. Acknowledgmentsq Give credits to others (field work, lab analysis, comments on manuscripts, language editing)q Source of grantsq Other helps
    49. 49. Acknowledgmentsq Give credits to others (field work, lab analysis, comments on manuscripts, language editing)q Source of grantsq Other helps
    50. 50. More to tell ……q Logic flowq Contextq Accuracyq Concise and clear (clarity)q Tenseq Completeq Honesty
    51. 51. How can we improve our writing?q Read more papers.q Learn basic English grammar, vocabulary, sentence- making.q Collocationsq Associationsq Synonymsq Classifications
    52. 52. Get some good dictionariesq Advanced Learner’s English Chinese Dictionary (Oxford, Sixth Edition)q 孙谷陆编,英汉大字典(第二版)q 牛津英语搭配字典(英汉双解版)q 朗文英语联想活用词典(第二版)q 英汉联想搭配词典 ( 商务印书馆 )
    53. 53. Get some good dictionariesq Webster’s New Dictionary of Synonymsq 英语搭配大辞典 ( 外语教学版 , 市川繁荣治郎 )q 当代英语搭配大词典 ( 高教出版社 )q 朗文英语联想活用词典(第二版)q 英汉联想搭配词典 ( 商务印书馆 )q 英语词汇逻辑记忆法 ( 黎学智 )q 英语同义词词典 ( 商务 )
    54. 54. What is English Collocations?q Mr. Wang wrote a book. The book was about a story happened in the 1930’s in China. This story portrayed a family of five brothers who were struggling to resist the invasions of Japanese army. After I quickly read the book that had Mr. Wang’s name in it, I started to like the book very much. I would like to recommend it to you.
    55. 55. Writeq 副词 +Write : Clearly, neatly, busily, beautifully, well, badly, extensively, anonymously, briskly, entertainingly, despairingly, gracefully, distinctly, expressly, forciblyq Write+ 介词: Down, on, away, back, about, for, of, on, uponq 动词 +write” Commission somebody to, inspire somebody to, prompt somebody to
    56. 56. Bookq 形容词 +Book: Latest, new, recent, forthcoming, hardback, paperback, printed, rare, second-hand, delightful, excellent, fascinating, remarkable, useful, influential, memorandum, voluminousq 动词 +Book: Be engrossed in, be immersed in, inscribe, dedicate, translate, edit, bind, censor, borrow, take out, renewq Book+ 动词: Appear, come out, be out, go outq Book+ 介词: About, on, for, from, of
    57. 57. Storyq 形容词 +Story: True, plausible, false, made-up, apocryphal ( 假的 ), cock-and-bull, official, wild, convincing, compelling, delightful, dramatic, exciting, amazing, fascinating, exciting, fantastic, good, great, interesting, intriguing, nice, wonderful, bizarre, colorful, crazy, extraordinary, incredible, outrageous, remarkable, strange, inspiring, amusing, entertaining, epic, elaborate, complex, straightforward, awful, horrific, horrifying, nasty, shocking, depressing, poignant, coherent…q 动词 +Story: Read, write, relate, rate, recount, embellish ( 装饰 ), embroider ( 润饰 ), believe, stick to, swap…q Story+ 动词 : Abound, circulate, get about, go around, be entitled with, revolve around sth.q Story+ 词组 : So the story goes, the story goes that, the story of my life, a version of a story
    58. 58. Happenq 副词 +Happen: Actually, really, just, spontaneously, overnight, often, frequently, easily, sometimesq 动词 +Happen: Going to, be bound to, be likely, tend to, make sth. To, want sth. To, let sth. Toq 介词 : To Portrayq 副词 +Portray: Accurately, faithfully, clearly, dramatically, graphically, vividly,q 动词 +Portray: Attempt to, try toq 介词: As
    59. 59. Armyq 形容词 +Army: Great, huge, large, mighty, powerful, small, professional, conscript, disciplined, modern, allied, opposing, invading, occupying, victorious, retreating, invading, defeated…q 动词 +Army: Have, go into, join, leave, bi in command of, lead, amass, build up, raise, recruit, equip, mobilize, deploy, crush, decimate, rout…q Story+ 动词 : Gather, flee, pulling back, retreat, withdraw, clash, camp, go into action, invade…
    60. 60. Readq 副词 +Read: Aloud, silently, carefully, avidly, voraciously,q 动词 +Read: Be able to, learn to, teach sb how toq Read+ 介词 : About, from, of, through, toq Story+ 词组 : Read and write Startq 副词 +Start: Suddenly, immediately, just, out, offq 介词: By, from, on, withq 词组: Get started, Let’s start Recommendq 副词 +Recommend: Highly, thoroughly, certainly, definitely, heartily, personallyq 介词: For, toq 词组: Sth has a lot to recommend, sth has much to recommend
    61. 61. A forthcoming book…q A fascinating book written by Mr. Wang will be coming out soon. This epic book vividly portrays the life of a penniless family with five brothers to go into the army to combat with the fully armed inhuman Japanese invaders, taking place in the 1930’s in the northern China plains. After I skimmed through the sample copy in which Mr. Wang inscribed his name, I was immediately engrossed in it. This book should be a highly recommended must read for all Chinese people who want to recall that bloody war between the brave Shandong people and the brutal Japanese aggressors.
    62. 62. What is association?包办 : Be the whole show, monopolize everything;惩办 : Punish, chastise承办 : Undertake, handle筹办 : Make preparations创办 : Set up, establish催办 : Press for implementation大办 : Go in for sth. in a big way代办 : Act on sb.’s behalf, agent, charge d’affaires公办 : State-run, state-owned
    63. 63. q 公事公办 : Do official business according to official principlesq 好办 : Easily arrangedq 举办 : Host, holdq 申办 : Bid forq 严办 : Punish with severityq 置办 : Purchaseq 酌办 : Proceed at one’s discretion
    64. 64. 联想q Birthwort: 马兜铃 Butterwort: 捕虫堇q Feverwort: 泽兰 ) Figwort: 玄参q Hornwort: 角苔 Liverwort: 地钱q Lungwort: 疗肺草 ) Masterwort: 星q Milkwort: 远志 Moneywort: 珍珠草q Motherwort: 益母草 Mugwort: 艾蒿q Quilwort: 水芹 Ribwort: 长叶车前q Sealwort : 添姑草 Soapwort: 皂草q Spleenwort: 疗脾草 Woundwort: 水苏
    65. 65. 同义词q Horror, Terror, Fear, Dread, Fright, Alarm, Dismay, Consternation, Panic, Trepidation, Aversion, Antipathy, Repugnance, Abhorrence, Repellency, Repulsion, Distasteful, Recoil, Flinching, Blenching, Loathing, Hatred, abomination, detestation, Dislike, Disfavor, Hostility, Antagonismq Admiration, Enjoyment, Esteem, Regard, Respect, Liking, Relish, Affection, Attachment, Savor, Tang, Flavor, Taste, Smack, Predilection, Partiality, Prepossession,
    66. 66. 分类 ( 行为 , 态度 , 气概 , 气量 )q 行为 (Behavior, action) 作为 (Deed, conduct, accomplishment)q 行动 (Action, act) 举措 (Move, behave, measures)q 举止 (Bearing, manner) 表现 (Display, manifest, express)q 言行 (Words and deeds) 暴行 (Atrocities, cruelties, brutality)q 罪行 (Crime, guilt, offence) 态度 (Attitude)q 神态 (Manner, expression) 姿态 (Pose, posture)q 作风 (Style, style of work) 派头 (Manner, style)q 风格 (Mode, style) 格调 (Moral quality)q 气概 (Lofty quality) 威风 (Might, power and prestige)q 气势 (Momentum) 锐气 (Dashing spirit, drive)q 正气 (Righteousness) 气量 (Forbearance, broad- minded)q 心胸 (Tolerance) 气度 (Laudably tolerant spirit: 气度不凡 )
    67. 67. 分类q Amaranthine ( 紫红的 ) Beetfaced ( 鲜红的 )q Bloody ( 血红的 ) Cardinal ( 深红 )q Carmine ( 洋红 ) Cherry ( 樱桃红 )q Cochineal ( 胭脂红 ) Crimson ( 绯红 )q Florid ( 鲜红 ) Fuchsia ( 紫红 )q Garmet ( 暗红 ) Incarmadine ( 淡红的 )q Moroon ( 枣红 ) Mauve ( 紫红 )q Murrey ( 紫红 ) Peach ( 桃红 )q Pink ( 粉红 ) Reddish ( 微红 )q Ruby ( 红宝石红 ) Rufescent ( 带红色的 )q Saffron ( 藏红 ) Salmon ( 橙红 )q Sanguine ( 血红 ) Scarlet ( 猩红 )q Vermeil ( 朱红 ) Vermillion ( 橘红 )q Vinaceous ( 葡萄红 ) Vine ( 深红 )
    68. 68. 逻辑记忆 (Logical memory)q -ibble: Dibble ( 点播器 ), Kibble ( 粗磨 ), Nibble ( 啃 ), Quibble ( 托辞 ), Cribble ( 筛子 ), Fribble ( 逐渐消散 )q -iddle: Diddle ( 闲荡 ), taradiddle ( 谎话 ), fiddle ( 小提 琴 ), kiddle ( 拦河栅 ), middle ( 中间的 ), piddle ( 懒 惰 ), riddle ( 谜语 ), griddle ( 大眼筛 ), tiddle ( 微不足 道的 )q -iggle: Giggle ( 咯咯地笑 ), higgle ( 争论 ), jiggle ( 轻轻 摇晃 ), niggle ( 琐碎的 ), sniggle ( 钓鳗鱼 ), wiggle ( 摇 动 ), wriggle ( 蠕动 )
    69. 69. 习惯用语 ( 习语 ) (Idioms)q It’s chucking it down: It is raining heavily.q Charity begins at home: 近水楼台先得月 .q He’s got no money to speak of. 他没钱了 .q His complaints have a familiar ring. 他的抱怨听 上去耳熟 .q I recognize his face but I can’t put a name to it. ( 面熟 , 但记不得他的名字 )
    70. 70. 记忆外来词 ( 法 , 意 , 西 , 德 )q Cameo: 硬石 , 贝壳上的浮雕q Campanile: 钟楼q Canto: 长诗或书中 的一篇q Cupola: 圆顶房子q Intaglio: 雕刻q Mezzanine: 戏院里的包厢q Patina: 铜器上的绿锈q Portico: 门廊q Stucco: 灰泥q Terra cotta: 赤土制成的陶器
    71. 71. 专业词q Order:q Succession:q Chalk:q Grass root:q Radical:q Reduce:q Corpus:
    72. 72. Thank you!