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Cereals or grains belong to the
monocot families ‘Poaceae or
Gramineae’ and are cultivated widely
to obtain the edible com...
The most familiar grains used for making the category of
cereals include:
Rice
Wheat
Maize
Barley
Sorghum
Millets
Oats
Rye...
Different types of rice include:
Long grain rice Medium grain rice Short grain rice Jasmine rice
Basmati rice Rose matta r...
There are six wheat classifications: 1) hard red winter, 2) hard red spring, 3) soft
red winter, 4) durum (hard), 5) hard ...
Maize Barley
Sorghum
Oats
Rye
Fonio
Buck Wheat
Quinoa
Pearl Millet Foxtail Millet
Kodo Millet
Finger Millet
World cereal production in 2015 is currently forecast at 2,534 million tones.
The major cereals production include rice at...
Rank Country Production (Metric tones)
1 China 422,599,164
2 United States 387,397,546
3 India 226,330,000
4 Russia 74,465...
There are five clear market leaders whose positions have remained unchanged.
Kellogg's
General mills
Cereal partners (Coll...
Source: FAOSTAT data,2014
34%
31%
14%
10%
7%
4%
% Market share
Kelloggs
General Mills
Kraft
Private label
PepsiCo
Other
Source: www.wikinvest.com
Cereals and cereal products are significant and important human food resources
and livestock feeds worldwide. In the Unite...
Cereal products derived from cereal grains include:
Wheat, rye, and oat flours.
Semolina
Cornmeal
Corn grits
Doughs
Bread
...
Whole cereals where only the husk of the grain is
removed, e.g. rice, wheat etc.
Milled grain products are made by removin...
Source: www.Larscom.com
According to a 2014 General Mills survey, US people eat 48% more
whole grains now than in 2009. A ...
The cereals are low moisture commodities due to which they are less
susceptible to spoilage and have greater shelf-life. T...
Biological:
Biological losses occurs due to micro-organisms, insects, rodents, etc.
The sources of contamination in cereal...
Bread is a major product prepared using flours. Spoilage of bread is usually of
two types viz. moldiness and ropiness.
Con...
Many cereal products are dry and contain lipids. They are stable against
microbial growth due to their lower water activit...
The packaging must contain and preserve a certain quantity of
product as efficiently as possible and also must protect its...
Primary Secondary
Tertiary
In direct
contact
with food
For distribution, several
primary packages are
placed.
Several seco...
Source: C. Brookes and K. Vrolijk, Soil association.
Choosing packaging materials for cereal products should be related to the
major indices of failure of cereals, which inclu...
Most cereals are packaged with paper-based materials
made from wood fibers. Microflute corrugated paperboards
have unique ...
Flexible plastic films have been used for cereals in single packaging or
multi-serving size packages with other packaging ...
Metal containers have been rarely used for cereals and cereal products
due to their cost, despite their perfect gas barrie...
Cereals are sold mainly in bulk quantities. The requirements for bulk
packaging are therefore, most important for these co...
Traditionally, jute has been the packaging material used for bulk
packaging of food grains. With the increasing growth of ...
HDPE and PP woven sacks have replaced jute bags in number of applications.
Several plants manufacturing these sacks have c...
Weaning food are an essential diet of growing infants. Weaning food based on
cereals are highly sensitive to changes in mo...
Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene (BOPP) is a rugged thermoplastic
polymer. When polypropylene is biaxially oriented, BOPP,...
Hot melt adhesives are used for sealing the closures of carton box. Hot melt
adhesives are thermoplastic polymer systems a...
Modern weighing systems are very accurate giving consumers the guarantee
that all packs are at or extremely close to the d...
Opportunity to communicate and promote the product and brand.
Tamper proof designed greatly to reduce oxygen permeation.
L...
Rice is the predominant staple food all around the world. Moulds are the
important microbes associated with cereals during...
Stand up pouch packaging is the modern version of flexible
packaging. The style of this packaging is mainly in a box form....
Tear Notch: Consumers use the tear notch to rip open the top of the pouch.
Bags are made with narrow interlocking tracks, ...
The premade pouches are sent to packaging line where the machine uses
suction to select one bag at a time off of a conveyo...
Stand up bags do exactly what the name implies: They
stand up on the shelf.
Optimal product protection & long-lasting shel...
Premade pouches are
opened, filled, and heat-
sealed.
Capacity: 50bags/minute.
The equipment can fill four
different sizes...
The replacement of the air in a container with a different gas or a
combination of gases is called modified atmosphere pac...
Francine Farine an UK based company changed the
packaging of wheat flour from normal packaging eco can
packaging. The body...
Dole Foods is introducing an innovative
product called Take Away that
combines chopped salad mix with a
packet of whole gr...
Video link:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oi9DP53
mYCY
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i1IUjFg9L
l4
Valentas, K. (1997). Handbook of food engineering practice (pp. 1-698). Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press.
http://wholegrainscou...
http://www.packworld.com/package-type/bagspouches/innovation-drives-lundbergs-new-rice-packaging
http://www.google.com/pat...
Cereals and its products packaging
Cereals and its products packaging
Cereals and its products packaging
Cereals and its products packaging
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Cereals and its products packaging

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Packaging of the cereals and cereal-based products

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Cereals and its products packaging

  1. 1. Cereals or grains belong to the monocot families ‘Poaceae or Gramineae’ and are cultivated widely to obtain the edible components of their fruit seeds. Botanically, these fruits are called ‘caryopsis’ and are structurally divided into endosperm, germ, and bran. Cereal grains are cultivated in huge quantities and provide more food energy than any other type of crop, therefore, they are known as staple crops.
  2. 2. The most familiar grains used for making the category of cereals include: Rice Wheat Maize Barley Sorghum Millets Oats Rye Fonio Buck wheat Quinoa
  3. 3. Different types of rice include: Long grain rice Medium grain rice Short grain rice Jasmine rice Basmati rice Rose matta rice Red cargo rice Black rice Dark wild rice
  4. 4. There are six wheat classifications: 1) hard red winter, 2) hard red spring, 3) soft red winter, 4) durum (hard), 5) hard white, and 6) soft white wheat. Hard red winter Hard white Soft white Soft red winter Hard red spring Durum (hard)
  5. 5. Maize Barley Sorghum Oats
  6. 6. Rye Fonio Buck Wheat Quinoa
  7. 7. Pearl Millet Foxtail Millet Kodo Millet Finger Millet
  8. 8. World cereal production in 2015 is currently forecast at 2,534 million tones. The major cereals production include rice at 1.9 million tones and wheat at 735 million tones. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Global cereal production Source: www.fao.org Million tones
  9. 9. Rank Country Production (Metric tones) 1 China 422,599,164 2 United States 387,397,546 3 India 226,330,000 4 Russia 74,465,000 5 France 69,676,000 Source: FAOSTAT data,2014
  10. 10. There are five clear market leaders whose positions have remained unchanged. Kellogg's General mills Cereal partners (Collaboration between General mills and Nestle) PepsiCo Inc. Ralcorp Holdings in collaboration with Post holdings, Inc. Source: www.bakeryandsnacks.com
  11. 11. Source: FAOSTAT data,2014
  12. 12. 34% 31% 14% 10% 7% 4% % Market share Kelloggs General Mills Kraft Private label PepsiCo Other Source: www.wikinvest.com
  13. 13. Cereals and cereal products are significant and important human food resources and livestock feeds worldwide. In the United States the recommended intake of cereals is 6–11 servings a day of which at least 3 servings should consist of a variety of cereals in foods.
  14. 14. Cereal products derived from cereal grains include: Wheat, rye, and oat flours. Semolina Cornmeal Corn grits Doughs Bread Breakfast cereals Pasta Snack foods Dry mixes Cakes Pastries Tortillas In addition, cereal products are used as ingredients in numerous products, such as batters and coatings, thickeners and
  15. 15. Whole cereals where only the husk of the grain is removed, e.g. rice, wheat etc. Milled grain products are made by removing the bran and usually the germ of the seed and then crushing the kernel into various sized pieces. These include wheat flour, all purpose flour, semolina, etc. Processed cereal based products include weaning food, breakfast cereals, etc. Ready mixes include cake mix etc. Semolina Breakfast Cereals Cake Mix
  16. 16. Source: www.Larscom.com According to a 2014 General Mills survey, US people eat 48% more whole grains now than in 2009. A whole grain stamp has been created and is appended on nearly 10,000 products. The whole grains movement is driving demand for ancient grains such as amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and brown rice. Million Tones
  17. 17. The cereals are low moisture commodities due to which they are less susceptible to spoilage and have greater shelf-life. The spoilage mainly occurs due to moisture absorption during storage leading to fungal growth at high temperature and humidity. Before bulk packaging and storage, the whole grains are fumigated to reduce microbial load and increase storage period. The factors influencing the quality of cereals are: Physical: Physical losses are caused by spillages, which occur due to use of faulty packaging materials. Physiological: Physiological losses include respiration and heating in grains, temperature, humidity and oxygen.
  18. 18. Biological: Biological losses occurs due to micro-organisms, insects, rodents, etc. The sources of contamination in cereals are: Soil Air Insects Natural microflora of harvested cereals. At initial stages, the grains are contaminated by Pseudomonas, Micrococci, Lactobacillus and Bacillus. Spoilage of stored grains by molds is attributed to the following factors: Type and number of microorganisms Moisture content of more than 12-13% Storage temperature Physical damage
  19. 19. Bread is a major product prepared using flours. Spoilage of bread is usually of two types viz. moldiness and ropiness. Contamination usually occurs when cooling is done as well as during packing, handling and from the environment. The molds which are prevalent are Rhizopus stolonifera (referred as bread mold), Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger. Mucor and Geotrichum also develop. Ropiness in bread is usually due to Bacillus subtilis or B. licheniformis and is considered more prevalent in home made breads. Another type of spoilage of bread is chalky bread which is caused by growth of yeast like fungi Endomycosis fibuligera and Trichosporon variable. An unusual spoilage of bread is Red or Bloody bread, which is due to the growth of bacteria Serratia marcescens. Moldiness Ropiness Chalky Red/Bloody
  20. 20. Many cereal products are dry and contain lipids. They are stable against microbial growth due to their lower water activity (aW < 0.6), but not against chemical and enzymatic reactions that result in product deterioration. The most important modes of deterioration in cereal products are loss of crispiness and lipid oxidation causes rancidity/off- flavors. Loss of crispiness: During storage or upon opening of the package due to moisture uptake. Lipid Oxidation: Fat is used in most products as processing aid or flavor inducer and this causes lipid oxidation. Generally products made from wheat, barley, rice and maize (lipid content 1.5–2.0%) have longer shelf life than those made from oats (lipid content 7%). The susceptibility of cereal products to lipid oxidation is associated with the concentration and type of fat used and the number of unsaturated bonds in fatty acids.
  21. 21. The packaging must contain and preserve a certain quantity of product as efficiently as possible and also must protect its contents from external threats including spoilage, breakage, damage from external environmental conditions, pilfering and theft. Primary, secondary and tertiary packaging must be designed so that the product stays in perfect condition until it reaches the end user. The package must be strong and durable enough to protect the product with a reasonable safety margin.
  22. 22. Primary Secondary Tertiary In direct contact with food For distribution, several primary packages are placed. Several secondary packages are placed in a unit load.
  23. 23. Source: C. Brookes and K. Vrolijk, Soil association.
  24. 24. Choosing packaging materials for cereal products should be related to the major indices of failure of cereals, which include loss of crispness, lipid oxidation, and nutrient loss. Protection against environmental conditions like humidity, temperature, etc. The packaging material should be able to withstand mechanical hazards during transportation and facilitate stacking several tiers high so as to optimize the use of available space. To protect the contents from spillage. To protect the contents from insect infestation. To protect from external odor. Easy to handle. Economical and easily available.
  25. 25. Most cereals are packaged with paper-based materials made from wood fibers. Microflute corrugated paperboards have unique characteristics including good strength properties, excellent shock absorbing ability, good aesthetic appearance, environmental advantages, and distinctive print properties. White board is suitable for contact with food and is often coated with low density polyethylene (LDPE), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), or wax. It is used for snack, chocolate, and frozen food cartons. Different types of cereal based products are packed in paper based materials. The major products include weaning foods and breakfast cereals.
  26. 26. Flexible plastic films have been used for cereals in single packaging or multi-serving size packages with other packaging materials. Biaxially oriented films are most widely used, as it has qualities of toughness (against puncture and abrasion) and clarity, and is rendered heat sealable by coextrusion or coating with polyolefin copolymers. Films are also coated with other polymers or aluminum to improve the barrier properties or to impart heat sealability. Other films include: LDPE/LLDPE films, High Molecular High Density Polyethylene films. Laminates made from BOPP/LDPE, Cast Polypropylene (CPP)/LDPE, Polyester/ LDPE are used in few branded commodities. Although laminates are essential for expensive products like Basmati rice where the flavor retention of the product is very important. Major cereal products packed in plastic films are rice, flour etc.
  27. 27. Metal containers have been rarely used for cereals and cereal products due to their cost, despite their perfect gas barrier properties, convenience, and extreme strength. Aluminium cans are most commonly used. Many commodities are easily affected by sunlight, which damages their appearance and worsens their taste. Aluminium solves this problem in the best way possible which is why it is generally regarded as the ideal core packaging material for food. Aluminium is non-toxic, so it does not damage the foods packed in it, but instead protects them. Most commonly packed cereal based product in aluminium cans are Malted milk powder.
  28. 28. Cereals are sold mainly in bulk quantities. The requirements for bulk packaging are therefore, most important for these commodities. The packaging materials used for bulk packing of cereals are as follows: Jute Bags Woven sacks made out of high density polyethylene or polypropylene Multiwall paper Sacks
  29. 29. Traditionally, jute has been the packaging material used for bulk packaging of food grains. With the increasing growth of these commodities, there has been a quest to look at alternate packaging materials due to the stagnant jute production. Plastic woven sacks have the potential to fulfill this need in a cost-effective manner. These are made either from HDPE or PP. Cost: Jute sacks are 5-6 times heavier than the sack made out of plastic material like HDPE or Polypropylene for a similar weight pack. The nature of jute packaging is such that, lot of food packed therein gets exposed to deteriorating factors and germs. Air borne germs and the ones present in the storage rooms may seek way through the pores of the fabric and may contaminate the food. Such food, when consumed may cause illness like food poisoning.
  30. 30. HDPE and PP woven sacks have replaced jute bags in number of applications. Several plants manufacturing these sacks have come up in different parts of the country making the availability of these products possible at low price. Elongation at break of HDPE tapes is about 15-20% in comparison to jute bags, which is about 30%. Owing to this property HDPE woven sacks have better resistance to dropping. HDPE and PP woven sacks of strength equivalent to that of jute bags can be made using almost 70 times lower weight of the resin and hence are almost 60-65% cheaper than the jute bags. Although HDPE/PP undergo degradation under UV light, it is possible to arrest the same by using appropriate UV stabilizers. It is possible to laminate HDPE woven sacks with LDPE. The laminated bags protect the product packed in the bag from moisture and also prevent the loss of products like flours due to spillage, which usually occur through plain jute bags, which are commonly used for packing of flour. HDPE and PP woven sacks are the most hygienic material for packing of cereals.
  31. 31. Weaning food are an essential diet of growing infants. Weaning food based on cereals are highly sensitive to changes in moisture, resulting in caking when the relative humidity exceeds 60%. At higher moisture the product turns bitter owing to hydrolytic rancidity. They are mostly available in bag-in-box type packaging CR paper board is used where LDPE is used as the sealant layer. The other films used for liner bags are BOPP/Poly or Polyester. Some baby food are available in lined cartons. BOPP Film CR Paper Board
  32. 32. Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene (BOPP) is a rugged thermoplastic polymer. When polypropylene is biaxially oriented, BOPP, it becomes crystal clear but remains available in white and matte finishes. BOPP is also coated with layer of aluminium in range of 0.5 micrometers. Food industry now often prefer BOPP over cellophane, polyester, polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene because of it properties like moisture barrier, heat sealable, high glossy and flavor barrier. Heat sealing temperature range from 93⁰C (200⁰F) to 145⁰C (293⁰F) with high hot- tack values. Coated recycled paperboard (CRB), a multiply material, is produced from 100% recovered paperboard just like uncoated paperboard. However, it is typically coated with a thin layer of kaolin clay over a top ply of white recovered fiber to improve its printing surface. Some CRB products may have a brown kraft back side, hence the term “Coated Kraft Back” (CKB), or a white layer of fiber on the back side. Coating contains kaolin clay, polyethylene resin for wet strength. binders and additives (starch, latex). It is applied to one or both sides of the paper either once, twice or three times and varies from 3–40 g/m2/ side of paper.Kaolin clay
  33. 33. Hot melt adhesives are used for sealing the closures of carton box. Hot melt adhesives are thermoplastic polymer systems applied in a molten state. They are available in the form of Pellets, Pillow Bags, Slats, Cakes, Bricks drum, pail, and rail car. Melting temperature 248-350⁰F, viscosity 1000- 2000 cps, setting speed 1-2 seconds under compression and Opening time 2-5 sec. Different forms of hot melt adhesives Compression Case sealing line Source: www.adhesives.org
  34. 34. Modern weighing systems are very accurate giving consumers the guarantee that all packs are at or extremely close to the declared weight. The product is initially weighed into bags. The bag is required to preserve the integrity and freshness of the product and acts as a barrier to moisture. This has the added advantage of physically protecting the product from factory to kitchen shelf. Bags are inserted into boxes at high speed. They are vibrated prior to insertion to remove ballooning. Nevertheless, bag surfaces are not perfectly flat, and there has to be a tolerance on the clearance between the bag and the box to prevent jamming. To protect the product, the bag forming and filling cycle is designed to ensure the integrity of the bag. Heat sealers must be able to operate freely and effectively and the cutting mechanism must be clear for the bag to drop unhindered. To this end, product falls into the packaging tube well below the jaws of the sealer and prior to sealing as much air as possible is squeezed from the bag without damaging the product.
  35. 35. Opportunity to communicate and promote the product and brand. Tamper proof designed greatly to reduce oxygen permeation. Longer shelf life. Consumer friendly- easy to carry, store and use. Environmentally friendly- recyclable, lower carbon footprint than plastics. Major disadvantage for this type of packaging is associated with re-closing the package after the product has been dispensed or consumed therefrom. Source: www.beveragedaily.com
  36. 36. Rice is the predominant staple food all around the world. Moulds are the important microbes associated with cereals during growth, harvest, storage and shipping. Good storage conditions and packaging are the key plugs to keep rice fresh as spores only germinate if the moisture, temperature and oxygen levels are optimum. Moulds cannot grow in rice grains below 14% moisture. Warm conditions also encourages fungal growth. They are mostly available in plastic bags. The other forms of packaging include plant fibre bags (jute, cotton, and sisal) which are mainly used for bulk packaging. Flat Bottom Window Tear Notch Side Gusset
  37. 37. Stand up pouch packaging is the modern version of flexible packaging. The style of this packaging is mainly in a box form. The pouch has a very flat bottom surface and when it is filled it balances straight up, unaccompanied. The pouch also has left and right side gussets. Material forms used during the production process of these bags include; Plastic, PET, BOPP, PE or Foil aluminum. All these materials contribute to the durability and flexibility of stand up pouch bag packaging designs. The thickness and capacity of packaging material depends upon type of product. Normal thickness of packaging material for rice is 80-200 microns. PET PE BOPP
  38. 38. Tear Notch: Consumers use the tear notch to rip open the top of the pouch. Bags are made with narrow interlocking tracks, made from the same plastic material, that are sealed into the poly bag near the open end across the width. These are called zipper bags or reclosables. Stand up pouches are typically made from 2 or more films laminated together. Films can be laminated by using an adhesive or by heat and pressure. One of the more common laminated structures is PET/Ink/LLDPE. PET or Polyester is the outside layer. It provides strength and has a high melting point. Ink is the printing that occurs on the inside of the PET layer and will get sandwiched with the next layer of film. LLDPE or Poly is the inside layer. It provides a moisture barrier and has a low melting point. This is the layer that melts together to form the seal.
  39. 39. The premade pouches are sent to packaging line where the machine uses suction to select one bag at a time off of a conveyor on the U-shaped line. The machine also uses suction to open the bag and then shoots a burst of air into the pouch to open it and blow out any possible particles. As the pouches moves to feeding section, rice is deposited into the top of the open pouch, which is subsequently heat-sealed prior to exiting the machine. Pouches index through a heat-sealing station, proceeding to the end of the conveyor for downstream packing into shipping cases. Shelf life of the product will be one-year. Pouch Filling Sealing Secondary Packaging Palletization Source: www.packworld.com, www.khs.com
  40. 40. Stand up bags do exactly what the name implies: They stand up on the shelf. Optimal product protection & long-lasting shelf-life through high-barrier laminates. Sturdy, durable and puncture resistant. Protects the rice from oxygen, insects and moisture. The easy-to-reclose feature makes consumers happy. Ideal canvas for brand presentation with printing. Customer friendly and easy to handle. They are highly cost effective but not always the cheapest option. The price depends on the thickness of the bag and the number of layers you need and recyclable. Source: www.standuppouches.net
  41. 41. Premade pouches are opened, filled, and heat- sealed. Capacity: 50bags/minute. The equipment can fill four different sizes: 8-oz, 1-lb, 2- lb, and 4-lb versions.
  42. 42. The replacement of the air in a container with a different gas or a combination of gases is called modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The most commonly used gases are carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2). MAP and CA are often used for processing products such as cereals of all kinds and cereal based products to protect against microorganisms. The main gas used in CA of grains is usually CO2 although propane combustion gases were also used effectively. Gas absorption by cereal grains was reduced steadily with increasing temperature. Apart from CA, MAP was another promising alternative in terms of following gas composition: 2% O2 (or less), and MA of N2-CO2: 80/20, 70/30. Combination of MA with active packaging or preservative(s) led to even more promising results depending on the preservation temperature.
  43. 43. Francine Farine an UK based company changed the packaging of wheat flour from normal packaging eco can packaging. The body of the package is made from fully coated recycled board, heat-sealed on top of white-lined chipboard and bleached kraft inner liner. The reclosable lid is made from Ensocoat (high-end graphical board) and the bottom from polymer coated board.
  44. 44. Dole Foods is introducing an innovative product called Take Away that combines chopped salad mix with a packet of whole grains and seeds, along with a dressing or salsa to drizzle on top. It includes a mixture of seeds, nuts, roasted edamame, dried corn and roasted soy nuts and different types of grains. There are six varieties including vegetarian and non vegetarian. Packed in a leak proof, resalable container for convenient consumption on the go. Fork included.
  45. 45. Video link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oi9DP53 mYCY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i1IUjFg9L l4
  46. 46. Valentas, K. (1997). Handbook of food engineering practice (pp. 1-698). Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. http://wholegrainscouncil.org/whole-grains-101/types-of-rice http://www.riceassociation.org.uk/content/1/10/varieties.html http://www.dunmore.com/technical/bopp-film.html http://www.toraytpa.com/news-updates/2014/toray-plastics-new-torayfan%C2%AE-pc5-ultra-high- barrier-metallized-bopp-film-excels-3 http://www.upmpaper.com/en/Papers/downloads/brochures/Documents/UPM_Making_paper_brochur e_Web_19186_0.pdf http://pkgpackaging.com/packaging/materials/paperboard/ http://paperboardpackaging.org/about-paperboard-packaging http://www.brandpackaging.com/articles/83056-a-comparison-of-folding-carton-substrates-and- appropriate-applications http://www.adhesives.org/docs/default-document-library/albrecht-hbfuller-fc05-hmsc.pdf?sfvrsn=0 http://www.custompoly.com/index/educational-resources/terminology.asp http://www.coffeebags.co.za/bags-with-gussets/ http://www.fao.org/docrep/t0522e/T0522E0e.htm http://www.swisspac.com/flat-bottom-pouches/ http://www.dura-pack.com/PDF/Bags-FilmRev1.pdf
  47. 47. http://www.packworld.com/package-type/bagspouches/innovation-drives-lundbergs-new-rice-packaging http://www.google.com/patents/US20070014898 http://www.packworld.com/package-type/bagspouches/innovation-drives-lundbergs-new-rice-packaging http://www.standuppouches.net/blog/build-your-rice-brand-using-stand-up-bags http://www.mondigroup.com/products/PortalData/1/Resources/products_services/packaging/consumer _flexibles/download/Pouches_08_E.pdf

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