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The role of women in the history of Pharmacy

Historical background on the women throughout history and examples of some of the most effective women in the history of Pharmacy.

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The role of women in the history of Pharmacy

  1. 1. The role of women in the history of pharmacy Made by group 5
  2. 2. The modern gender symbols  The two standard gender symbols denoting male ♂ and female ♀ are derived from astrological symbols, denoting the classical planets Mars and Venus, respectively.  These symbols have been in use since the renaissance.
  3. 3. The original ancient female symbol  The pagan female symbol is called The Chalice.  It resembles a cup or a vessel, but more importantly, it resembles the shape of a woman’s womb.  That’s why the ancients believed the female was sacred and holy, because she was able to create something from nothing, she was able to create life.
  4. 4. The Sacred Feminine  Thus, the woman was regarded sacred in all ancient civilization, and was worshipped as a Goddess.  For example, Ishtar in Babylon, Isis in Egypt and Venus in Greece.  The woman was regarded as holy until the medieval age.
  5. 5. The dark ages  In the medieval age, the church took control and wanted to give God a masculine image, and thus worked on demonizing all what’s female.  They claimed woman was the reason behind mankind’s misery because Eve ate the apple in Heaven, and thus called women the root of evil.  They regarded the pentagram the symbol of scared feminine in Pagan culture as the symbol of Satan.
  6. 6. Malleus Malifcarum  Known in English as The Hammer of the witches, is a book released by the church, known is the bloodiest book in history.  This book regarded all women who read or researched as witches and described ways to kill and torture them.
  7. 7. The Renaissance Age  Starting from the renaissance age, the woman began to make impact in all life aspects.  Whenever the society was developed, women were respected (Ancinet civilizations, modern Europe).  Whenever society was backward, women were disrespected (Meideval Europe, Modern Middle East, and almost any religious country).  Today we will take about a part of what women contributed to us, in the field of Pharmacy.
  8. 8. (1)Jean Kennedy Irvine
  9. 9. (1)Jean Kennedy Irvine  Jean Kennedy was born in Hawick in 1877.  Her first post was as assistant pharmacist to the Glasgow Apothecaries Company. She subsequently became chief pharmacist.  In 1916, she was appointed superintendent of the Joint Committee for Pricing Prescriptions, South-Eastern Division, and remained there for more than 30 years .
  10. 10. (1)Jean Kennedy Irvine  She was the first woman president of the staff side of the Whitley Council for the National Insurance administrative, technical and clerical services.  She was also the first woman elected to the presidency of the Insurance Committee Officers Association for England and Wales.
  11. 11. (1)Jean Kennedy Irvine  She was elected to the Society's council in 1937, only the third woman to have achieved this. She became its first woman President in 1947. She retired in 1952.  Mrs Irvine was also President of NAWP, She died in 1962, aged 85.
  12. 12. (2)Gloria Niemeyer Francke
  13. 13. (2)Gloria Niemeyer Francke  Dr.Gloria Niemeyer Frankce was born on 28th of April 1922.  A native of Dillsboro, Indiana, Gloria Niemeyer earned her B.S. degree in Pharmacy from Purdue University in 1942 and her Pharm.D in 1971 from the University of Cincinnati.  She then served as a drug literature specialist at the National Library of Medicine (1965–1967.
  14. 14. (2)Gloria Niemeyer Francke  She then served as a clinical pharmacy teaching coordinator for the Veterans Administration Hospital in Cincinnati (1967–1971).  She then Served as secretary of the American Institute of the History of Pharmacy (1968–1978).  She also served and as Chief of the program evaluation branch in the Alcohol and Drug Dependence Service, Veterans Administration (1971–1975).
  15. 15. (2)Gloria Niemeyer Francke  She served as a member of the APhA Foundation Advisory Committee. The society's Gloria Niemeyer Francke Leadership Mentor Award is named for her.  She died on the 3rd of August 2008.
  16. 16. (3)Elizabeth Marshall  She was born in 1786.  The second U.S. woman to be a pharmacist ,Elizabeth Marshall began her pharmacy career as an apprentice in a drugstore founded by her grandfather
  17. 17. (3)Elizabeth Marshall  In 1805 she took over the drugstore and restored the struggling business into a successful pharmaceutical laboratory, becoming the first woman in Philadelphia to have a successful commercial career.  In fact, several of Philadelphia’s most famous pharmacists began their careers working as apprentices under her guidance and leadership.  She died in 1836.
  18. 18. (4)Mary Munson Runge
  19. 19. (4)Mary Munson Runge  Mary Munson Runge was born on 1928.  She graduated from Xavier university of Louisiana in 1948.  She practiced pharmacy for 21 years and retired in 1994.
  20. 20. (4)Mary Munson Runge  She was the first woman and African American to serve as the president of the American pharmacist Association (APhA) in 1979.  A few of her many acheivements include recipient of The Hugo H. Schaefer Award, honorary doctor of science degree and honorary Doctor of Pharmacy degree.  she passed away on 8 Jan, 2014.
  21. 21. (5)Katherine Kay Keating
  22. 22. (5)Katherine Kay Keating  Katherine Kay Keating was born on 8 Feb, 1922.  After the world war II, she returned to collage to earn her pharmacy degree.  She enlisted in the Navy in 1942 and was among the first women inducted into the WAVES.
  23. 23. (5)Katherine Kay Keating  Keating transferred to the Navy’s Medical Service Corps to become the Navy’s first woman pharmacist and was assigned to head up the Navy’s pharmacist technicians’ school.  She served during three wars, becoming the first woman to rise from the rank of seaman to captain.
  24. 24. (6)Elizabeth Gooking Greenleaf  She was born in 1681.  She was recognized as the first female pharmacist in America.  Elizabeth Greenleaf is listed among the 32 apothecaries in New England during the late 1600s and early 1700s.
  25. 25. (6)Elizabeth Gooking Greenleaf  She owned an apothecary shop in Boston in 1727.  She was the wife of Daniel Greenleaf, a minister, physician and an apothecary.  She dies in 1762.
  26. 26. (7)Nellie Wakeman  She was born in 1883.  In 1913, Nellie Wakeman received a Ph.D. in pharmaceutical chemistry from the University of Wisconsin, thus becoming the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in a pharmacy discipline.
  27. 27. (7)Nellie Wakeman  She continued at the university as a faculty member from 1913 until her retirement in 1946.  She was an activist who encouraged women to pursue graduate education.  She died in 1952.
  28. 28. (8)Edna Capurra Gleason  She was born in 1886.  Edna Gleason was the first female pharmacist elected president of the California Pharmaceutical Association.  She was active in the National Association of Retail Druggists.
  29. 29. (8)Edna Capurra Gleason  She became a leader, both in California and nationally, in the fight for fair trade pricing.  As the owner of a community pharmacy, she promoted patient-oriented practice.  She died in 1963.
  30. 30. (9)Zada Mary Cooper
  31. 31. (9)Zada Mary Cooper  She was born on the 31st of January in 1875.  Zada Mary Cooper was the daughter of James and Janetta Cooper. She graduated from the State University of Iowa in 1897.  After graduation she became a Professor of Pharmacy at the State University, serving a total of 45 years before her retirement in 1942.
  32. 32. (9)Zada Mary Cooper  During her time at the university, she organized and developed the first departmental library in the college of pharmacy.  She also taught pharmaceutical arithmetic and laboratory courses, was the first editor of the College of Pharmacy News.
  33. 33. (9)Zada Mary Cooper  Also she was the first woman to become president of Rho Chi (national honorary pharmaceutical society), and wrote a history of the State University of Iowa College of Pharmacy in 1947.  After her retirement she made her home in Villisca, Iowa, with her brother, Dr. J. Clark Cooper.
  34. 34. (9)Zada Mary Cooper  Zada was a resident of Villisca when she died at an Omaha hospital at the age of 86 years.  She died on the 6th of May, in 1961.
  35. 35. (10)Ella P.Stewart
  36. 36. (10) Ella P.Stewart  She was born in 1893.  Ella P. Stewart may have been the first African American woman pharmacist to practice with a license.  She was the first African American woman to graduate from Pittsburgh University’s College of Pharmacy.
  37. 37. (10)Ella P.Stewart  Years later, after earning her license and buying a drugstore in Pittsburgh, she moved with her husband, who was also a pharmacist, to Toledo, Ohio, where they opened a pharmacy that would serve as a community center for African Americans.
  38. 38. (10)Ella P.Stewart  Stewart became a civic leader and was a member of the first group of inductees into the Ohio Women’s Hall of Fame.  She died in 1987.
  39. 39. This presentation was brought to you by: Group (5)  Ahmed Abdelhamid 5113016  Ziad Gamal Abdelnasser 5113140  Zeyad Magdy 5113141  Sara Moheeb 5113152  Abdallah Khaled  Nada  Mona