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Yogi PGR Seminar 060613


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Yogi PGR Seminar 060613

  1. 1. Climate Policy Integration andOrganisational Implications:ACase Study of IndonesianForestry SectorYogi SuwarnoPGR Seminar, June 6th,2013
  2. 2. Outline□Introduction□ Climate change□ Policy on climate change□Literature Review□ Policy integration□ Policy Making□ Climate Policy Integration□Background□ Indonesia□ Forest-related actors
  3. 3. Introduction□ Climate change□ Main causes□ Natural processes□ Human-induced□ Main impacts□ Water shortages, food production□ Sea level increase, flooding□ Increased rate of death from water-related diseases□ Biodiversity loss, drought, fire□ From realm of scientific research and environmental advocacyto mainstream political and economic policy discussion (Held,2011)□ Main strategies□ Mitigation□ Adaptation
  4. 4. Policy Integration□Coherence policy making (OECD, 1996) cross-cutting policy making (Cabinet office, 2000), policycoordination (Challis, 1988; Alter and Hage,1993; Peters, 1998), concerted decision-making(Warren, 1974), holistic government, joined-uppolicy (Wilkinson and Appelbee, 1999), joined-upgovernment (Ling, 2002)□In organisational theories, refers to inter-organisational co-ordination (Rogers and Whetten,1982), inter-organisational collaboration (Alter andHage, 1993), inter-governmental management(Agranoff, 1986), network management (Kickert,1997)
  5. 5. Policy Integration□ It refers to a policy where theconstituent elements are broughttogether and made subjects to asingle, unifying conception(Underdal, 1980: 159)□ It concerns the management ofcross-cutting issues in policymaking, transcend boundaries,not correspond to the institutionalresponsibilities of individualdepartments (Meijers, 2004)□ Generally it can be simplysynonymised with policyincorporation or policy integration(UNDP, 2004; Dalal-Clayton,2009; Gupta, 2010: 67; Nunan,, 2012)Integratedpolicy-makingCoordinationCo-operation
  6. 6. National LevelRegional LevelLocal LevelMinistry Ministry MinistryAgenciesCouncilCouncilAgenciesAgenciesVerticalintegrationHorisontal integrationPolicy field:ForestryPolicy field:HealthPolicy field:Education
  7. 7. Policy Integration in Practice□International / regional level□ 1992: UN Framework Convention on Climate Change:□ 1997: Kyoto Protocol□ 2012: Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol□OECD□ Communicative, organisational, and procedural instruments□EU□ The 1997 Amsterdam treaty, article 6: “environmental protectionrequirements must be integrated into the definition and theimplementation of …community policies…”□Implications to sectoral policy□Organisational structures and processes challenges
  8. 8. Indicators of successful policy integration□UNDP-UNEP PEI (2009)□ the inclusion of poverty-environment linkages,□ the strengthening of ministerial capacity,□ widening stakeholders,□ increasing budget allocation and improving livelihood and□ access to environment and natural resources for the poor□Dalal-Clayton and Bass (2009)□ EM can be considered successful when ministries or agenciescould recognise and address issues routinely into their policy anddecision-making.
  9. 9. EPI, CPI and the contextSustainableDevelopmentEPICPI
  10. 10. Policy Process□Frameworks□ Stages heuristic□ Institutional rational choice□ Multiple streams□ Punctuated-equilibrium framework□ The advocacy coalition framework□ Policy diffusion framework□Responses to cross-cutting issues□Organisational arrangements challenges to policyintegration
  11. 11. Policy Network(Adapted from Marsh,1998)Literature Form Members Characteristics RemarkAmerican Sub-government / irontriangleInterests groups,bureaucraticagencies,governmentPrivate interests controlrather than respond toJordan,Peter,McFarlandBritish Policy network / sub-systemGovernmentagencies,pressure groupsClose relation betweenparticular interests anddifferent sections ofgovernmentRichardsonand JordanInter-organisationalrelationsPoliticalinstitutionsStructural (rather thanindividual) relationshipbetween political institutionsRhodesEuropean Governance (German) Policy networks as a mode ofgovernanceMayntz,Scharf ,SchneiderThe rational centralrule model (Dutch)Government as a key actor KickertDemocratic model(Dutch)Government no longersuperior, directive, role
  12. 12. Policy Network and Policy Outcomes□As a structure (Marsh and Rhodes)□ Downplay the important of agents□ Structural links between interests involved□ Structure of network affects policy outcome□ Factors exogenous lead to change in policy network and outcomes□As a resource exchange pattern□ Pattern of interaction and resource exchange between agents□ Bargaining between actors within the network affects policyoutcomes□ Emphasise the factors endogenous that lead to change
  13. 13. The Burke-Litwin Model of Organisational Performance and Change(Burke,2011)
  14. 14. Indonesia
  15. 15. BackgroundFactso 4th biggest populationo 3rd biggest rainforest• High forest cover country• High deforestation rate• 3rd biggest carbon emitter• Deforestation and land conversionare the largest source of emission• Emission from energy sector issmall but growing rapidly• One of the most vulnerablecountries affected by climatechange (World Bank, 2011;Measey, 2010)Carbon emission sources(MoE, 2009)26605808501601501650050010001500200025003000PeatWasteForestryAgricultureIndustryEnergy200020052020Total by2020
  16. 16. Actors, climate-related institutions□Nation-wide□ Ministry of Forestry□ Ministry of Environment□ Ministry of Agriculture□ Ministry of National Development Planning□ Cross-Ministerial Committee on Forestry□ National Council for Climate Change (DNPI)□ REDD+ Task Force□ National Council on Forest (DKN)□Stakeholders□ Private organisations, NGOs□ Indigenous people□International institutions: UN, Embassies
  17. 17. Research Questions□What does policy integration mean within a sector?□What are the organisational implications of policyintegrationThank You