Scalable security decisions
Trusted partners, business contracts, customer
organizations, trust frameworks
User-based trust decisions
Follow Trust on First Use model, keep logs
Very bad sites we don’t
want to deal with, ever
• Use open standards
• Give your people digital identities and let
them decide where to use them
• Use federation where possible
I’m not part of corporate IT, but I build interesting stuff that people want to use.
Make everybody sign up for accounts
But now I have to do key management
And I’ll probably get it wrong
But mine isn’t the only application that people use
Extra credentials floating around
And I probably got something wrong
Besides, the user already has an account, let’s use that…
Use same password across many sites, all backed by the same user store
Benevolent MITM: user sends me their credentials directly, I replay those credentials against another service to make sure they’re good.
Site could easily replay user credentials somewhere else, and users still need to enter UN/PW
I never want to see your passwords!
Plus, it’s not an HTTP protocol
Why not use traditional enterprise SSO? Users get a cookie that represents them, it’s easy to integrate, it’s how we’ve always done it…
SSO domains are closely guarded and protected, centrally controlled
I’m not an official IT app developer, I don’t have permission (and often can’t get permission)
Many implementations suffer from the same MITM problems via domain-wide cookies (this has been used as a “feature” to proxy content for users)
Additionally, the traditional SSO approach can’t extend to sites outside the firewall.
“Welcome to your first day, now go get a gmail account so we can get started.”
We give employees a phone, we give them an email address, why not an identity?
OpenID 2.0 server backed by corporate SSO
“We do SSO so you don’t have to”
Running on corporate hardware in corporate environment
Funded by a (tiny) corporate research initiative
Libraries available for OpenID 2.0 in a wide array of languages and platforms.
One discussion with identity vendor: “We support *both* platforms!” … ?
User is inside, the site they’re accessing is also inside. Typical development prototype system, driving much of my original use case.
User is inside, site is on the outside. This bridges corporate SSO credentials to an outside site, like Stack Overflow.
MITRE now has a nearly-SSO user experience for a site that we have no contract or other special relationship with. Think about the implications of that.
User outside, site outside. We want more factors (especially with personal devices) but want to allow access to any external sites.
We do *not* allow people to tunnel into the firewall.
We have deployed both OpenID 2.0 and OpenID Connect using this architecture
Shared DNS between servers (both look like “id.mitre.org”)
Screenshot of MITREid OpenID 2.0 server
Security decisions for users If you don’t know the answer to a trust question, ask the end user. Remember the decision. Log the event.
TOFU: Trust On First Use.
MITRE’s Handshake system (at the time another research prototype, now a well-used production service) is hosted outside of MITRE’s firewall to allow external user access. Handshake needed a mechanism that allowed MITRE people to log in using SSO credentials. They used the OpenID prototype to great success.
Handshake is whitelisted by the OpenID server, meaning most users have an SSO-experience and don’t realize they’re using OpenID at all.
Each bar is one site that was used, at least once, at the OpenID 2.0 server
Logarithmic scale, number of users per site. Traditional IT likes to take care of the top couple sites (the “80%” rule)
But what about all the sites with 5 users? 50 users?
Most of the top ten aren’t whitelisted – some of the top sites aren’t even run by MITRE!
There are 416 total sites
There are 7896 total users
There are 12611 total site approvals.
Somebody had set up a Gitorious instance inside the firewall. Gitorious already had built-in OpenID 2.0 support. I typed in my identifier and it just worked.
id.mitre.org: current MITRE users
partnerid.mitre.org: extneral-to-MITRE username/password accounts
cacproxy.mitre.org: DoD CAC holders
We can separate classes of users foremost based on their IdP of origin
In the future we hope to have other IdPs not run by MITRE
We tried to make our OpenID 2.0 system as compatible and capable as possible (PAPE, SREG, AX, directed identities), but the world was starting to look into future capabilities of OAuth2 and OpenID Connect
MITREid was built on a shoestring budget with duct tape and bailing wire, MITREid Connect was engineered much more deliberately and released as open source (before any code was developed
Apache 2.0 license
Transitioned to MIT KIT in fall 2013 (co-owned by MITRE)
MITRE continues to contribute through the OSS process
Server and client in Java / Spring / Spring Security
Related projects: JWK generator, JS account chooser, example custom server, example custom client
All major development, bugs, documentation done on GitHub (small adaptor layers for
Track and help build the specifications in IETF and OIDF
Bring our use cases to the table and participate in the discussions, make sure the general solution is robust and powerful for all
No need for domain-wide cookies to get SSO-like behavior (like “classic” enterprise SSO uses)
Primary and global-secondary credentials aren’t leaked through sites, pairwise authentication only
(incidentally, that back-end connection is where OAuth comes in, and we’re also using that extensively)
We can revoke access to specific sites autonomously at the IdP
Different sites get different parts of my identity
Don’t need to ask a sysadmin’s permission (!!)
Support across a wide variety of platforms and use cases
Avoid mass upgrades to all the sites that are connected to your infrastructure (as long as the protocol doesn’t change)
When we switched from CA SiteMinder to Oracle Access Manager, the hundreds of sites (MITRE and not) that were using the OpenID system never even knew the change happened.
End users know what they’re trying to do – ask them to make the decisions (in the right circumstances)