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Ch 4 Skin Power Point


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Ch 4 Skin Power Point

  1. 1. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. Skin Intro Activity – Touch1. Working in pairs2. Individual #1 is blindfolded while #2 lays out sandpaper squares on desk.3. Individual #1 must use fingers only to feel the squares & place the squares in order from most rough to most smooth.4. #2 will record the order they were placed in5. Repeat steps 2-4 only this time #1 must use their elbow to feel so #2 must rub the squares against the elbow of #1. (#2 must be sure to shuffle the squares first)6. Now switch who is blindfolded & repeat.7. Record your data in the table on the laptop so we can share as a class.© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. Data – Pd 4 A & P Order with fingers Correct? Correct?© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  4. 4. Lost in the Desert – Case Study •Words to define: •Heat stroke •First degree burns •Electrolytes •Glucose •Melanin© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  5. 5. DIN Wed Oct 19Based upon what you have learned about Brownian motion & diffusion, which way, if any, do you think water will move & why?a. It won’tb. Both directions but more will move toward side Bc. Both directions but more will move toward side A A B© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  6. 6. DIN1. Which side has more free water molecules?2. Which side has more solute?3. Which way will water move?4. What is the name of the process that is occurring here?© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  7. 7. Understanding & applying terms:1. solution is hypertonic?2. Which solution is hypotonic?3. Which solution is isotonic?4. Which way will water move? If distilled water were given in IV:© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  8. 8. Skin & Body MembranesClassification of Body Membranes 1. Explain that skin is one of several different types of body membranes.Integumentary System (Skin) 2. List several important functions of the integumentary system and explain how these functions are accomplished. 3. When provided with a model or diagram of the skin, recognize and name the following skin structures: epidermis, dermis (papillary and reticular layers), hair and hair follicle, sebaceous gland, and sweat gland. 4. Name and identify the layers of the epidermis and describe the characteristics of each. 5. Describe the distribution and function of the epidermal derivatives-sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair. 6. Explain the importance of keratin and state what layer of skin it is present in. 7. Name the factors that determine skin color and describe the function of melanin. 8. Differentiate between first-, second-, and third-degree burns. 9. Summarize the characteristics of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma.10. Briefly describe the following related to skin: psoriosis, jaundice, pallor, erythema, bruising, decubitus ulcers, male pattern baldness, contact dermatitus,Developmental Aspects of Skin and Body Membranes 11. List several examples of integumentary system aging.© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  9. 9. Use the informational article on skin to determine the variouslayers.© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  10. 10. Use the informational article on skin to determine the various layers.© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  13. 13. Integumentary System•Skin (cutaneous membrane)•Skin derivatives •Sweat glands •Oil glands •Hair •Nails© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  14. 14. Skin Functions •Protects deeper tissues from: •Mechanical damage (bumps) •Chemical damage (acids and bases) •Bacterial damage •Ultraviolet radiation (sunlight) •Thermal damage (heat or cold) •Dessication (drying out)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  15. 15. Skin Functions Continued• Aids in body heat loss or heat retention as controlled by the nervous system• Aids in excretion of urea and uric acid• Synthesizes vitamin D© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  16. 16. Skin Structure – 3 major layers• Epidermis—outer layer • Stratified squamous epithelium • Keratinized (hardened by keratin) to prevent water loss • Avascular • Most cells are keratinocytes• Dermis – middle layer • Dense connective tissue• Subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) is deep to dermis • Not technically part of the skin • Anchors skin to underlying organs • Composed mostly of adipose tissue • Insulates© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  17. 17. Layers of the Epidermis• Stratum basale (stratum germinativum) • Deepest layer of epidermis • Lies next to dermis • Wavy borderline with the dermis anchors the two together • Cells undergoing mitosis • Daughter cells are pushed upward to become the more superficial layers• Stratum spinosum• Stratum granulosum© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  18. 18. Layers of the Epidermis Continued •Stratum lucidum •Formed from dead cells of the deeper strata •Occurs only in thick, hairless skin of the palms of hands and soles of feet •Stratum corneum •Outermost layer of epidermis •Shingle-like dead cells are filled with keratin (protective protein prevents water loss from skin)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  19. 19. Layers of the Epidermis• Summary of layers from deepest to most superficial • Stratum basale • Stratum spinosum • Stratum granulosum • Stratum lucidum • (thick, hairless skin only) • Stratum corneum© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  20. 20. Melanin• Pigment (melanin) produced by melanocytes• Melanocytes are mostly in the stratum basale• Color is yellow to brown to black• Amount of melanin produced depends upon genetics and exposure to sunlight© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  21. 21. Keratinocytes Epidermal Desmosomes dendritic cell Stratum corneum. Cells are dead; represented only by flat membranous sacs filled with keratin. Glycolipids in extracellular space. Stratum granulosum. Cells are flattened, organelles are deteriorating; cytoplasm full of granules. Stratum spinosum. Cells contain thick bundles of intermediate filaments made of pre-keratin. Stratum basale. Cells are actively Merkel dividing stem cells; some newly cell formed cells become part of the more superficial layers. Sensory Dermis Melanocytes Melanin nerve granules ending© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.4
  22. 22. Layers of the Dermis• Two layers • Papillary layer (upper dermal region) • Projections called dermal papillae • Some contain capillary loops • Others house pain receptors and touch receptors • Reticular layer (deepest skin layer) • Blood vessels • Sweat and oil glands • Deep pressure receptors© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  23. 23. • Overall dermis structure • Collagen and elastic fibers located throughout the dermis Dermis • Collagen fibers give skin its toughness • Elastic fibers give skin elasticity • Blood vessels play a role in body temperature regulation© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  25. 25. Epidermis Papillary layer of dermis Reticular layer of dermis© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.5
  26. 26. Normal Skin Color Determinants• Melanin • Yellow, brown, or black pigments• Carotene • Orange-yellow pigment from some vegetables• Hemoglobin • Red coloring from blood cells in dermal capillaries • Oxygen content determines the extent of red coloring© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  27. 27. Alterations in Skin Color• Redness (erythema)—due to embarrassment, inflammation, hypertension, fever, or allergy• Pallor (blanching)—due to emotional stress such as fear, anemia, low blood pressure, impaired blood flow to an area• Jaundice (yellowing)—liver disorder• Bruises—hematomas© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  28. 28. Skin Appendages• Cutaneous glands are all exocrine glands • Sebaceous glands • Sweat glands• Hair• Hair follicles• Nails© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  29. 29. Appendages of the Skin – Oil Glands• Oil (sebaceous) glands Sweat pore • Produce oil (sebum) Sebaceous Eccrine gland gland • Lubricant for skin • Prevents brittle hair • Kills bacteria • Most have ducts that empty into hair Dermal connective tissue follicles; others open Sebaceous directly onto skin gland duct Hair in surface hair follicle • Glands are activated Secretory cells at puberty (a) Photomicrograph of a sectioned© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. sebaceous gland (14×) Figure 4.7a
  30. 30. Appendages of the Skin – Sweat Glands Sweat• Sweat pore (sudoriferous) Sebaceous Eccrine gland gland glands • Produce sweat • Widely Dermal connective distributed tissue Eccrine in skin gland duct Secretory cells (b) Photomicrograph of a sectioned eccrine gland (180×)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  31. 31. Appendages of the Skin – Sweat Glands Cont.• Two types of sudoriferous glands • Eccrine • Open via duct to pore on skin surface • Produce sweat (clear) • Apocrine • Ducts empty into hair follicles (mostly axillary & genital) • Begin to function at puberty • Release sweat that also contains fatty acids and proteins (milky/yellowish color)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  32. 32. Sweat and Its Function • Composition • Mostly water • Salts and vitamin C • Some metabolic waste • Fatty acids and proteins (apocrine only) • Function • Helps dissipate excess heat • Excretes waste products • Acidic nature inhibits bacteria growth • Odor is from associated bacteria© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  35. 35. Appendages of the Skin - Hair• Hair • Produced by hair follicle • Consists of hard keratinized epithelial cells • Melanocytes provide pigment for hair color • Hair grows in the matrix of the hair bulb in stratum basale© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  36. 36. Appendages of the Skin – Associated Hair Structures• Associated hair structures • Hair follicle • Dermal and epidermal sheath surround hair root • Arrector pili muscle • Smooth muscle • Pulls hairs upright when cold or frightened Hair shaft • Sebaceous gland Arrector • Sudoriferous gland pili Sebaceous gland Hair root Hair bulb in follicle© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. (a)
  37. 37. Appendages of the Skin - Hair • Notice how the scale-like cells of the cuticle overlap one another in this hair shaft image (660×) • The link below shows hair replacement surgery video: •© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  38. 38. Appendages of the Skin - Nail• Nails • Scale-like modifications of the epidermis • Heavily keratinized • Stratum basale extends beneath the nail bed • Responsible for growth • Lack of pigment makes them colorless© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  39. 39. Appendages of the Skin – Nail Cont.• Nail structures • Free edge • Body is the visible attached portion • Root of nail embedded in skin • Cuticle is the proximal nail fold that projects onto the nail body© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  40. 40. Skin Homeostatic Imbalances •Burns •Tissue damage and cell death caused by heat, electricity, UV radiation, or chemicals •Associated dangers •Dehydration •Electrolyte imbalance •Circulatory shock© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  41. 41. Rule of Nines• Way to determine the extent of burns• Body is divided into 11 areas for quick estimation• Each area represents about 9 percent of total body surface area Totals 1 4 /2% Anterior and posterior head and neck, 9% Anterior and posterior upper limbs, 18% Anterior and posterior 1/ % 4 2 1/ % trunk, 36% 4 2 Anterior trunk, 18% Perineum, 1% 9% 9% Anterior and posterior lower limbs, 36% 100% (a)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.1
  42. 42. Severity of Burns• First-degree burns • Only epidermis is damaged • Skin is red and swollen• Second-degree burns • Epidermis and upper dermis are damaged • Skin is red with blisters• Third-degree burns • Destroys entire skin layer; burned area is painless • Burn is gray-white or black© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  43. 43. Critical Burns •Burns are considered critical if •Over 25 percent of body has second-degree burns •Over 10 percent of the body has third- degree burns •There are third-degree burns of the face, hands, or feet© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  44. 44. Skin Homeostatic Imbalances• Infections • Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) • Caused by fungal infection • Boils • Caused by bacterial infection • Cold sores • Caused by virus© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  45. 45. Skin Homeostatic Imbalances• Infections and allergies • Contact dermatitis • Exposures cause allergic reaction • Impetigo • Caused by bacterial infection • Psoriasis • Cause is unknown • Triggered by trauma, infection, stress© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  46. 46. Skin Cancer• Cancer—abnormal cell mass• Classified two ways • Benign • Does not spread (encapsulated) • Malignant • Metastasized (moves) to other parts of the body• Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  47. 47. Skin Cancer Types• Basal cell carcinoma • Least malignant • Most common type • Arises from stratum basal© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  48. 48. Skin Cancer Types• Squamous cell carcinoma • Metastasizes to lymph nodes if not removed • Early removal allows a good chance of cure • Believed to be sun-induced • Arises from stratum spinosum© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  49. 49. Skin Cancer Types• Malignant melanoma • Most deadly of skin cancers • Cancer of melanocytes • Metastasizes rapidly to lymph and blood vessels • Detection uses ABCD rule© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  50. 50. ABCD Rule• A = Asymmetry • Two sides of pigmented mole do not match• B = Border irregularity • Borders of mole are not smooth• C = Color • Different colors in pigmented area• D = Diameter • Spot is larger then 6 mm in diameter© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  51. 51. Making your own fake burns: Materials needed: 1.Vaseline 2. toilet tissue 3. ashes (from fire pit or fireplace) 4. Make-up, face paint, tempora paint. 4. Fake blood (the kind that you buy to harden but it still looks runny is the best) Directions: 1. Rub vaseline onto an area of skin. You want it to be kind of thick. 2. Take a thin, jagged piece of toilet tissue (single layer) and lay on top of vaseline…. This gives the skin a blistered look. 3. Apply more vaseline, more tissue 4. Use make-up to make the coloring look real… see following slides for a few examples.© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
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