Ap bio ch 4 Scope & Cells


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Ap bio ch 4 Scope & Cells

  1. 1. Cells & Scopes, Baby! Ch 4• You’re made of them so don’t you think you need to know allllllll about them! Learn it, or else I’ll find you and then I’ll…use your imagination! Wahahahaha! Check out this video!http://www.xtranormal.com/watch/7316011/
  2. 2. AP Bio Ch 4 A Tour of the CellGoals• Describe the difference between the light microscope, transmission electron microscope & scanning electron microscope.• List one benefit of using the light microscope over either of the two electron microscopes.• State what part of a cell can be viewed by a TEM & SEM.• Distinguish between prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells.• Explain why cells can’t be too large or too small.• Explain the importance of compartmentalization in eukaryotic cells.• Describe the structure & function of the following cellular parts:• Cytoplasm (aka cytosol), cell membrane (aka plasma membrane), nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear envelope, chromatin & chromosome, ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum (smooth & rough), transport vesicles, Golgi bodies, vacuoles, peroxisome, mitochondria, chloroplast, cytoskeleton, centrioles, flagella & cilia, cell wall, extracellular matrix, plasmodesmata, gap junctions, tight junctions.• Describe & identify the parts of a mitochondria & chloroplast.• Be able to label a plant & animal cell with the above parts.
  3. 3. Transmission electronmicroscope
  4. 4. Scanning Electron Microscope
  5. 5. Caption: HIV infection. Budding release of HIV in human lymph tissue (RNAvirus, Retroviridae Family).Magnification*: x27,630Type: TEM
  6. 6. sem
  7. 7. (Danaus plexippus). Alsovisible is the last tarsalsegment with thicksetae. Insect claws areused to hold on to roughsurfaces such as leavesand flowers.
  8. 8. http://www5.pbrc.hawaii.edu/microangela/morebugs.htmLink to insect images taken w/ SEM
  9. 9. Onion Epidermis (clm)
  10. 10. Elodea under 40x, 100x, 400x (clm)
  11. 11. Human cheek cells 400x (clm)
  12. 12. Benefits of light scope over electron… vice versa• Light – living specimens, lower mag• Electron – dead specimens, artifacts, higher mag
  13. 13. Cells• Basic unit of life• Mostly water• Made of large molecules (carbohydrates, protei ns, fats, nucleic acids)• Think of them as little chemical factories that work together to keep us alive.• http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=BVvvx5HGpL g
  14. 14. I lovecells!
  15. 15. Cell Fractionation
  16. 16. Cell Sizehttp://www.cellsalive.com/howbig.htm
  17. 17. 2 Basic Cell TypesProkaryotes Eukaryotes
  18. 18. Prokaryotes• No organelles (membrane bound compartments)• All bacteria
  19. 19. Prokaryotes …• Contain the following:• Cell wall• Cell membrane• DNA• Ribosomes• cytoplasm
  20. 20. • Contain organelles Eukaryotes (membrane bound compartments)• All cells that aren’t bacteria• More efficient than prokaryotes since compartmentalized.• Much larger than prokaryotes•• http://www.youtube.c om/watch?v=Jn9oJt XZYcU&feature=pyv &ad=3444868461&k w=cell&gclid=CNK7y Y_Jyp0CFc5L5Qod GWP4rg
  21. 21. Cell Part Functions• Cell Membrane - forms the outer boundary of the cell and allows only certain materials to move into or out of the cell• Cytoplasm - a gel-like material inside the cell; it contains water and nutrients for the cell• Nucleus - directs the activity of a cell; it contains chromosomes with the DNA• Nuclear Membrane - separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
  22. 22. Cell Part Functions• Endoplasmic Reticulum - moves materials around in the cell• Ribosomes - make protein for the cell• Golgi Bodies - are used for packaging and secreting of chemicals• Mitochondria - break down food and release energy to the cell
  23. 23. Cell Part Functions• Lysosomes - are chemicals used to digest waste• Vacuoles - are storage areas for the cell• Some organelles are found only in Plant cells. These organelles are:• Cell Wall - provides structure to the plant cell• Chloroplasts –site of photosynthesis (making sugar from sun’s energy)
  24. 24. Cell Part Functions• Peroxisomes – mem bound sacs. Contain peroxidase• Centrioles – function in cell division
  25. 25. Eukaryotes …