A & p ch 5 skeleton condensed

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A & p ch 5 skeleton condensed

  1. 1. The Skeletal System• Parts of the skeletal system http://www.youtube.co • Bones (skeleton) m/watch?v=8d- • Joints RBe8JBVs • Cartilages • Ligaments• Two subdivisions of the skeleton • Axial skeleton • Appendicular skeleton© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. Functions of Bones • Support the body • Protect soft organs • Skull and vertebrae for brain and spinal cord • Rib cage for thoracic cavity organs • Allow movement due to attached skeletal muscles • Store minerals and fats • Calcium and phosphorus • Fat in the internal marrow cavity • Blood cell formation (hematopoiesis)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. Bones of the Human Body• The adult skeleton has 206 bones• Two basic types of bone tissue 1. Compact bone 2. Spongy bone • Small needle-like pieces of bone • Many open spaces© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  4. 4. Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape• Bones are classified as: • Long • Short • Flat • Irregular© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  5. 5. Classification of Bones• Long bones • Typically longer than they are wide • Shaft with heads situated at both ends • Contain mostly compact bone • All of the bones of the limbs (except wrist, ankle, and bones) • Example: • Femur • Humerus© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  6. 6. Classification of Bones• Short bones • Generally cube-shaped • Contain mostly spongy bone • Includes bones of the wrist and ankle • Sesamoid bones are a type of short bone which form within tendons (patella) • Example: • Carpals • Tarsals© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  7. 7. Classification of Bones• Flat bones • Thin, flattened, and usually curved • Two thin layers of compact bone surround a layer of spongy bone • Example: • Skull • Ribs • Sternum© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  8. 8. Classification of Bones• Irregular bones • Irregular shape • Do not fit into other bone classification categories • Example: • Vertebrae • Hip bones© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  9. 9. Articular cartilage Anatomy of a Long Bone• Diaphysis Proximal • Shaft epiphysis Spongy bone Epiphyseal • Composed line of compact Periosteum Compact bone bone Medullary• Epiphysis cavity (lined by endosteum) Diaphysis • Ends of the bone • Composed mostly of http://www.youtube. spongy com/watch?v=owlpf bone 6zHgyw Distal epiphysis (a) Figure 5.3a© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  10. 10. Anatomy of a Long Bone • Periosteum • Outside covering of the diaphysis • Fibrous connective tissue membrane • Perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers • Secure periosteum to underlying bone • Arteries • Supply bone cells with nutrients • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8A0rRIpjutY&feature=r elmfu© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  11. 11. Endosteum Yellow bone marrow Compact bone Periosteum Perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers Nutrient arteries (c)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.3c
  12. 12. Anatomy of a Long Bone Articular cartilage Compact bone • Articular cartilage Spongy bone • Covers the external surface of the epiphyses • Made of cartilage (b) • Decreases friction at joint surfaces© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.3b
  13. 13. Anatomy of a Articular cartilage Long Bone• Epiphyseal plate Proximal epiphysis Spongy bone • Flat plate of Epiphyseal hyaline line cartilage seen Periosteum in young, Compact bone growing bone Medullary cavity (lined• Epiphyseal line by endosteum) Diaphysis • Remnant of the epiphyseal plate • Seen in adult bones Distal epiphysis (a)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.3a
  14. 14. Anatomy of a Long Bone •Marrow (medullary) cavity •Cavity inside of the shaft •Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults •Contains red marrow for blood cell formation in infants •In adults, red marrow is situated in cavities of spongy bone and epiphyses of some long bones© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  15. 15. Bone Markings • Surface features of bones • Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments • Passages for nerves and blood vessels • Categories of bone markings • Projections or processes—grow out from the bone surface • Terms often begin with ―T‖ • Depressions or cavities—indentations • Terms often begin with ―F‖© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  16. 16. Microscopic Anatomy of Compact Bone •Osteon (Haversian system) •A unit of bone containing central canal and matrix rings •Central (Haversian) canal •Opening in the center of an osteon •Carries blood vessels and nerves •Perforating (Volkmann’s) canal •Canal perpendicular to the central canal •Carries blood vessels and nerves© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  17. 17. Osteon (Haversian system) Lamellae Blood vessel continues into medullary cavity containing marrow Spongy bone Perforating fibers Compact bone Periosteal blood vessel Central (Haversian) canal Periosteum Perforating (a) (Volkmann’s) canal Blood vessel© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.4a
  18. 18. Microscopic Anatomy of Bone •Lacunae •Cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes) •Arranged in concentric rings called lamellae •Lamellae •Rings around the central canal •Sites of lacunae •http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cNdwwVCpl d8&feature=relmfu© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  19. 19. Lamella Osteocyte Canaliculus (b) Lacuna Central (Haversian) canal© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.4b
  20. 20. Osteon Lacuna (c) Central Interstitial© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. canal lamellae Figure 5.4c
  21. 21. Microscopic Anatomy of Bone •Canaliculi •Tiny canals •Radiate from the central canal to lacunae •Form a transport system connecting all bone cells to a nutrient supply •http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CQhUINnT dZI&feature=relmfu© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  22. 22. Lamella Osteocyte http://www.yo utube.com/w atch?v=ylma nEGjRuY&fe ature=relmfu Canaliculus (b) Lacuna Central (Haversian) canal© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.4b
  23. 23. Formation of the Human Skeleton •In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage •During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone – called ossification •Cartilage remains in isolated areas •Bridge of the nose •Parts of ribs •Joints© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  24. 24. Bone Growth (Ossification) •Epiphyseal plates allow for lengthwise growth of long bones during childhood •New cartilage is continuously formed •Older cartilage becomes ossified •Cartilage is broken down •Enclosed cartilage is digested away, opening up a medullary cavity •Bone replaces cartilage through the action of osteoblasts© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  25. 25. Bone Growth (Ossification) •Bones are remodeled and lengthened until growth stops •Bones are remodeled in response to two factors •Blood calcium levels •Pull of gravity and muscles on the skeleton •Bones grow in width (called appositional growth)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  26. 26. http://www.youtube.c Articular om/watch?v=t5_3sN cartilage LtfxQ Hyaline cartilage Spongy bone New center of bone growth New bone Epiphyseal forming plate cartilage Growth Medullary in bone cavity width Bone starting Invading to replace Growth blood cartilage in bone vessels length New bone Bone collar forming Hyaline Epiphyseal cartilage plate cartilage model In an embryo In a fetus In a child© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.5
  27. 27. Types of Bone Cells •Osteocytes—mature bone cells •Osteoblasts—bone-forming cells •Osteoclasts—giant bone-destroying cells •Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium in response to parathyroid hormone •Bone remodeling is performed by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  28. 28. Bone Fractures •Fracture—break in a bone •Types of bone fractures •Closed (simple) fracture—break that does not penetrate the skin •Open (compound) fracture—broken bone penetrates through the skin •Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  29. 29. Common Types of Fractures http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=c5Q5GPwAS4k •Comminuted—bone breaks into many fragments Setting a bone: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nQVih •Compression—bone is crushed uOUQkU&feature=related •Depressed—broken bone portion is pressed inward •Impacted—broken bone ends are forced into each other •Spiral—ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone •Greenstick—bone breaks incompletely© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  30. 30. Comminuted fracture Compression fracture© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  31. 31. Depressed fracture Impacted fracture© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  32. 32. Spiral fracture Greenstick fracture© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  33. 33. Healing of bone fractures Hematoma External Bony callus callus of spongy bone New Internal blood callus vessels Healed (fibrous fracture tissue and Spongy cartilage) bone trabecula 1 Hematoma 2 Fibrocartilage 3 Bony callus 4 Bone remodeling forms. callus forms. forms. occurs.© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.7
  34. 34. The Axial Skeleton •Forms the longitudinal axis of the body •Divided into three parts •Skull •Vertebral column •Bony thorax© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  35. 35. Cranium Skull Facial bones Clavicle Thoracic cage Scapula (ribs and sternum) Sternum Rib Humerus Vertebra Vertebral column Radius Ulna Sacrum Carpals Phalanges Metacarpals Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges (a) Anterior view© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.8a
  36. 36. Cranium Bones of Clavicle pectoral girdle Scapula Upper limb Rib Humerus Vertebra Radius Bones Ulna of pelvic Carpals girdle Phalanges Metacarpals Femur Lower limb Tibia Fibula (b) Posterior view© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.8b
  37. 37. The Skull •Two sets of bones •Cranium •Facial bones •Bones are joined by sutures •Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  38. 38. Coronal suture Frontal bone Parietal bone Sphenoid bone Temporal bone Ethmoid bone Lambdoid Lacrimal bone suture Squamous suture Nasal bone Occipital bone Zygomatic process Zygomatic bone Maxilla External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Alveolar processes Styloid process Mandible (body) Mental foramen Mandibular ramus© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.9
  39. 39. Frontal bone Cribriform plate Ethmoid Crista galli bone Sphenoid bone Optic canal Sella turcica Foramen ovale Temporal bone Jugular foramen Internal acoustic meatus Parietal bone Occipital bone Foramen magnum© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.10
  40. 40. Coronal suture Frontal bone Parietal bone Nasal bone Superior orbital fissure Sphenoid bone Optic canal Ethmoid bone Temporal bone Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone Middle nasal concha of ethmoid bone Maxilla Inferior nasal concha Vomer Mandible Alveolar processes© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.12
  41. 41. Paranasal Sinuses •Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity •Functions of paranasal sinuses •Lighten the skull •Give resonance and amplification to voice© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  42. 42. The Fetal Skull •The fetal skull is large compared to the infant’s total body length •Fetal skull is 1/4 body length compared to adult skull which is 1/8 body length •Fontanels—fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones •Allow skull compression during birth •Allow the brain to grow during later pregnancy and infancy •Convert to bone within 24 months after birth© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  43. 43. Anterior fontanel Frontal bone Parietal bone Posterior fontanel Occipital bone (a)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.15a
  44. 44. Anterior fontanel Sphenoidal Parietal bone fontanel Frontal Posterior bone fontanel Occipital bone Mastoid fontanel Temporal bone (b)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.15b
  45. 45. The Vertebral Column• Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location • There are 24 single vertebral bones separated by intervertebral discs • Seven cervical vertebrae are in the neck • Twelve thoracic vertebrae are in the chest region • Five lumbar vertebrae are associated with the lower back •Nine vertebrae fuse to form two composite bones •Sacrum •Coccyx© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  46. 46. Anterior Posterior 1st cervical vertebra (atlas) Cervical curvature 2nd cervical (concave) vertebra (axis) 7 vertebrae, C1 – C7 1st thoracic vertebra Transverse process Spinous Thoracic curvature process (convex) 12 vertebrae, Intervertebral T1 – T12 disc Intervertebral foramen 1st lumbar vertebra Lumbar curvature (concave) 5 vertebrae, L1 – L5 Sacral curvature (convex) 5 fused vertebrae Coccyx 4 fused vertebrae© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.16
  47. 47. Superior Auricular Sacral articular surface canal process Ala Body Median Sacrum sacral crest Posterior sacral foramina Sacral Coccyx hiatus© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.21
  48. 48. The Bony Thorax •Forms a cage to protect major organs •Consists of three parts •Sternum •Ribs •True ribs (pairs 1–7) •False ribs (pairs 8–12) •Floating ribs (pairs 11–12) •Thoracic vertebrae© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  49. 49. T1 vertebra Jugular notch Clavicular notch Manubrium Sternal angle Body Xiphisternal Sternum True joint ribs Xiphoid (1 –7) process False ribs (8–12) Intercostal spaces L1 Vertebra Floating Costal cartilage ribs (11, 12) (a)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.22a
  50. 50. T2 Jugular T3 notch T4 Sternal angle Heart T9 Xiphisternal joint (b)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.22b
  51. 51. The Skull Cranium Facial bonesAppendicular ClavicleSkeleton Thoracic cage (ribs and Scapula sternum) Sternum Rib Humerus Vertebra Vertebral column Radius Ulna Sacrum Carpals• Composed of 126 Phalanges bones Metacarpals Femur • Limbs Patella (appendages) Tibia • Pectoral girdle Fibula • Pelvic girdle Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges (a) Anterior view© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.8a
  52. 52. Cranium Bones of Clavicle pectoral girdle Scapula Upper limb Rib Humerus Vertebra Radius Bones Ulna of pelvic Carpals girdle Phalanges Metacarpals Femur Lower limb Tibia Fibula (b) Posterior view© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.8b
  53. 53. Acromio- clavicular Clavicle joint Scapula (a) Articulated right shoulder (pectoral) girdle showing the relationship to bones of the© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. thorax and sternum Figure 5.23a
  54. 54. Distal Middle Phalanges (fingers) Proximal 4 3 2 Metacarpals 5 (palm) 1 Hamate Trapezium Carpals Pisiform Trapezoid (wrist) Triquetrum Scaphoid Lunate Capitate Ulna© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Radius Figure 5.25
  55. 55. Bones of the Pelvic Girdle •Formed by two coxal (ossa coxae) bones •Composed of three pairs of fused bones •Ilium •Ischium •Pubis© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  56. 56. Bones of the Pelvic Girdle •The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis •It protects several organs •Reproductive organs •Urinary bladder •Part of the large intestine© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  57. 57. lliac crest Sacroiliac joint llium Coxal bone (or hip bone) Sacrum Pelvic brim Pubis Coccyx Ischial spine Acetabulum Ischium Pubic symphysis Pubic arch (a)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.26a
  58. 58. Gender Differences of the Pelvis •The female inlet is larger and more circular •The female pelvis as a whole is shallower, and the bones are lighter and thinner •The female ilia flare more laterally •The female sacrum is shorter and less curved •The female ischial spines are shorter and farther apart; thus the outlet is larger •The female pubic arch is more rounded because the angle of the pubic arch is greater© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  59. 59. False pelvis Inlet of true pelvis Pelvic brim Pubic arch (less than 90°) False pelvis Inlet of true pelvis Pelvic brim Pubic arch (more than 90°) (c)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.26c
  60. 60. Phalanges: Distal Middle Proximal Tarsals: Medial Metatarsals cuneiform Tarsals: Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneiform Navicular Cuboid Talus Calcaneus© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.28
  61. 61. Joints •Articulations of bones •Functions of joints •Hold bones together •Allow for mobility •Two ways joints are classified •Functionally •Structurally© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  62. 62. Acromion of scapula Ligament Joint cavity containing Bursa synovial fluid Ligament Articular (hyaline) Tendon cartilage sheath Synovial membrane Tendon of Fibrous layer of the biceps muscle articular capsule Humerus© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.31
  63. 63. Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial (a) Plane joint (a)© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.32a
  64. 64. Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial (b) Humerus Ulna (b) Hinge joint© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.32b
  65. 65. Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial Ulna (c) Radius (c) Pivot joint© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.32c
  66. 66. Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial Carpal Metacarpal #1 (e) (e) Saddle joint© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.32e
  67. 67. Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial (f) Head of humerus Scapula (f) Ball-and-socket joint© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.32f
  68. 68. Inflammatory Conditions Associated with Joints •Bursitis—inflammation of a bursa usually caused by a blow or friction •Tendonitis—inflammation of tendon sheaths •Arthritis—inflammatory or degenerative diseases of joints •Over 100 different types •The most widespread crippling disease in the United States •Initial symptoms: pain, stiffness, swelling of the joint© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  69. 69. Developmental Aspects of the Skeletal System •At birth, the skull bones are incomplete •Bones are joined by fibrous membranes called fontanels •Fontanels are completely replaced with bone within two years after birth© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  70. 70. Parietal bone Frontal bone of skull Occipital bone Mandible Clavicle Scapula Radius Ulna Humerus Femur Tibia Ribs Vertebra Hip bone© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.34
  71. 71. Skeletal Changes Throughout Life •Osteoporosis •Bone-thinning disease afflicting •50 percent of women over age 65 •20 percent of men over age 70 •Disease makes bones fragile and bones can easily fracture •Vertebral collapse results in kyphosis (also known as dowager’s hump) •Estrogen aids in health and normal density of a female skeleton© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  72. 72. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.36
  73. 73. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.37

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