Honey-suckersSanitation systems without pipes  The informal sector at work
Partially based on a research        Sludge Reuse from Mega-Cities – A               Southern India CaseElisabeth Kvarnstr...
Bangalore – Population 9 million
India Sanitation (Census 2011)Septic Tanks             Pit toilets•           (million)    •               (million)• Urba...
Septic tanks and Pit LatrinesAnother 113 million rural householdsand 14 million urban households willbuild toilets and mos...
Bangalore city sanitation (Census 2011)Septic Tanks       169,406   Pit toilets   325,175                             •• T...
Current Drivers of SanitationThe employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of DryLatrines (Prohibition) Act 1993• K...
The city utilities response• Only 400 MLD out of 1000 MLD sewage  generated is collected• Of the 400 MLD collected only ar...
Foam riversUntreated sewage primary cause
From untreated sewage
The informal sector in urban sanitation
Pre-cast concrete rings
In informal vacant sites
Pit toilet connected to WC
The user interface remains conventional
Pit toilets are common in the urban               periphery
The Honeysucker vacum sucks a pit             toilet
Mechanization eliminates manual          scavenging
Trucks are now indigenously         developed
They have a water jetting and vacum    sucking pump (upto 30 H.P.)
Assembling a honey-sucker
The barrels – informal sector body         building works
All over the country – Mobile Technology
Mobile technology
We estimate nearly 300 honey-suckers            in Bangalore
Protocol for safe disposal needs to be               evolved
The sewage is nutrient rich but also           pathogenic
Cost to building Rs 1200/ to Rs 3000/
Soil as a nutrient recipient rather than                 water
In many apartments a daily visit
In the most expensive of buildings
Behind the bushes
BWSSB (Guidelines for discharging domestic waste water from soak pits/         mobile toilets into Board Sewers in the pre...
The informal sectors response
The composting (?) pit
Diluted grey-water
Compost sells for Rs 2500/- to Rs 3500/- a         tractor load (4 cu mt)
Compost sample being collected for            testing
Fertilizer value of sewage sludgeKind of Nutrient                                   Average nutrient content in           ...
The city moves in
Application on banana
The crop
The fruits
The soil – alive with alive with    earthworms and ants
Humanure for Arecanut
The Economics                  For the truck•   A Honeysucker costs Rs 800,000 /-•   Charges Rs 1500 / per trip•   Can do ...
The Economics             for the household• Rs 1500 / every 2 years• Rs 60 / a month approx• Rs 15 a month if you are con...
The Economics                for a farmer• Free compost• On labour - expenditure Rs 5000 /• Savings per acre Rs 20,000 to ...
Land required to absorb nutrients• 250 tanker loads per Hectare• 2500 peoples nutrients can be absorbed by 1  Hectare of l...
Way forward…• Better understanding, from a business and  sanitation perspective, of existing practices  around the country...
Way forward• Developing a protocol for the inclusion of non-  sewerage based or on-plot sanitation systems in  India• Deve...
Way forward• Civic authorities to incorporate sewage  disposal systems in building plan approvals• Land use plans to earma...
Guidelines for the safe use of       wastewater, excreta and grey waterCost-effective strategies for controlling negative ...
Thank you!zenrainman@gmail.com
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The management of sludge in the informal sector, India

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The management of sludge in the informal sector, India

  1. 1. Honey-suckersSanitation systems without pipes The informal sector at work
  2. 2. Partially based on a research Sludge Reuse from Mega-Cities – A Southern India CaseElisabeth Kvarnström, Vectura Consulting, Inc.Joep Verhagen, IRCMats Nilsson, MN ContextVishwanath Srikantaiah, Biome (responsible for this slide show)Karan Singh, BiomeShubha Ramachandran, Biome
  3. 3. Bangalore – Population 9 million
  4. 4. India Sanitation (Census 2011)Septic Tanks Pit toilets• (million) • (million)• Urban 30.09 • Urban 55.97• Rural 24.67 • Rural 17.68• Total 54.76 • Total 73 .65 • Grand Total 128.41
  5. 5. Septic tanks and Pit LatrinesAnother 113 million rural householdsand 14 million urban households willbuild toilets and mostly pit toilets inthe futureThis represents a massive sludgemanagement challenge
  6. 6. Bangalore city sanitation (Census 2011)Septic Tanks 169,406 Pit toilets 325,175 •• Total 494,241
  7. 7. Current Drivers of SanitationThe employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of DryLatrines (Prohibition) Act 1993• Karnataka has adopted this Act in 1997• All toilets should have a water seal of at least 20cm.• No removal of human waste by human hands• 208,323 + 586,087 = 794,410 engaged in the practise
  8. 8. The city utilities response• Only 400 MLD out of 1000 MLD sewage generated is collected• Of the 400 MLD collected only around 180 MLD is treated• Sanitation is subsidized. People pay Rs 15 a month as sewage charges .• The externality is pollution of rivers
  9. 9. Foam riversUntreated sewage primary cause
  10. 10. From untreated sewage
  11. 11. The informal sector in urban sanitation
  12. 12. Pre-cast concrete rings
  13. 13. In informal vacant sites
  14. 14. Pit toilet connected to WC
  15. 15. The user interface remains conventional
  16. 16. Pit toilets are common in the urban periphery
  17. 17. The Honeysucker vacum sucks a pit toilet
  18. 18. Mechanization eliminates manual scavenging
  19. 19. Trucks are now indigenously developed
  20. 20. They have a water jetting and vacum sucking pump (upto 30 H.P.)
  21. 21. Assembling a honey-sucker
  22. 22. The barrels – informal sector body building works
  23. 23. All over the country – Mobile Technology
  24. 24. Mobile technology
  25. 25. We estimate nearly 300 honey-suckers in Bangalore
  26. 26. Protocol for safe disposal needs to be evolved
  27. 27. The sewage is nutrient rich but also pathogenic
  28. 28. Cost to building Rs 1200/ to Rs 3000/
  29. 29. Soil as a nutrient recipient rather than water
  30. 30. In many apartments a daily visit
  31. 31. In the most expensive of buildings
  32. 32. Behind the bushes
  33. 33. BWSSB (Guidelines for discharging domestic waste water from soak pits/ mobile toilets into Board Sewers in the premises of BWSSB STP)• Non refundable deposit amount equivalent to 6 months as indicated by the applicant at the rate of Rs 50/kl• Rs 50/kl charge per month• Domestic wastewater which will be disposed to the Board sewer in the premises of STP shall comply for BWSSB standards fixed for discharging trade effluent• Till now 75 permits have been issued for 1mld. ( Contrast with 494,221 households having septic tanks or pit toilets.)
  34. 34. The informal sectors response
  35. 35. The composting (?) pit
  36. 36. Diluted grey-water
  37. 37. Compost sells for Rs 2500/- to Rs 3500/- a tractor load (4 cu mt)
  38. 38. Compost sample being collected for testing
  39. 39. Fertilizer value of sewage sludgeKind of Nutrient Average nutrient content in 1000 kg of sewage sludge 1000 kg of farm yard (10% TS) grams manure gramsN 5.5 17.5P2O5 17.5 17.5K2O 0.75 65S (Total) 12.5 25MgO 30 15Cu (Total) 1.2 0.03Zn (Total) 1.5 0.15Mn (Total) 0.6 0.4Mo (Total) 0.01 0.001B (Total) 0.03 0.035 Source: Ludwig Sasse, BORDA, 1998, DEWATS Decentralised Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries
  40. 40. The city moves in
  41. 41. Application on banana
  42. 42. The crop
  43. 43. The fruits
  44. 44. The soil – alive with alive with earthworms and ants
  45. 45. Humanure for Arecanut
  46. 46. The Economics For the truck• A Honeysucker costs Rs 800,000 /-• Charges Rs 1500 / per trip• Can do 5 trips in a day• Income Rs 7500 a day Rs 225,000 a month• Income in a year Rs 2.7 million• Expenditure for O and M - Rs 400,000• Simple Return on Investment 6 months• One truck can service a population of 20,000 assuming a 2 year pit emptying cycle
  47. 47. The Economics for the household• Rs 1500 / every 2 years• Rs 60 / a month approx• Rs 15 a month if you are connected to the sewage
  48. 48. The Economics for a farmer• Free compost• On labour - expenditure Rs 5000 /• Savings per acre Rs 20,000 to Rs 50,000 /- on manure alone (10 to 25 tractor load per acre per year )
  49. 49. Land required to absorb nutrients• 250 tanker loads per Hectare• 2500 peoples nutrients can be absorbed by 1 Hectare of land• 50000 population town needs 20 Hectares of land• 100,000 - 40 Ha.• 1 Million 400 Hectares
  50. 50. Way forward…• Better understanding, from a business and sanitation perspective, of existing practices around the country• Embedding of current practices as an officially accepted option to sanitation service delivery for all urban dwellers
  51. 51. Way forward• Developing a protocol for the inclusion of non- sewerage based or on-plot sanitation systems in India• Developing a protocol and a legal frame-work for handling, transportation, composting and application of nutrients from septage and on-plot systems• Research on understanding nutrient – pathogens and safe application for nutrient reuse
  52. 52. Way forward• Civic authorities to incorporate sewage disposal systems in building plan approvals• Land use plans to earmark space for solid and liquid waste composting .• Separate systems for toilets and grey-water• Understanding the pit / groundwater interface and designing systems for non-pollution.
  53. 53. Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and grey waterCost-effective strategies for controlling negative health impacts• Treatment of wastewater, excreta and greywater is used to prevent the contaminants from entering the environment.• Crop/produce restriction is used to minimize health risks to product consumers.• Waste application techniques (e.g. drip irrigation) and withholding periods aim to reduce contamination of the products or allow sufficient time for pathogen dieoff in the environment prior to harvest.• Exposure control methods (e.g. protective equipment, good hygiene) will prevent environmental contamination from reaching exposed groups.• Produce washing/rinsing/disinfection and cooking reduce exposures for product consumers.• Vector control reduces exposures for workers and local communities.• Chemotherapy and immunization can either prevent illness for those who are exposed or treat those who are ill and thus reduce future pathogen inputs into the wastewater, excreta or greywater. Source: WHO 2006
  54. 54. Thank you!zenrainman@gmail.com

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