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Honey-suckers




Sanitation systems without pipes
        Eco-san at work ?
Based on an ongoing research
        Sludge Reuse from Mega-Cities – A
               Southern India Case




Elisabeth Kvarnström, Vectura Consulting, Inc.
Joep Verhagen, IRC
Mats Nilsson, MN Context
Vishwanath Srikantaiah, Biome
Karan Singh, Biome
Shubha Ramachandran, Biome
India - 17.9 million cubic meters of sewage and
4 million tons of sludge each year
Combined nutrient contribution of 2.4 lakh tons of N, 1.3 lakh
tons of P2O5 and 1.2 lakh tons of K2O besides 12 lakh tons of
organic carbon most of which are being wasted leading to
pollution of soil and water bodies.
To exploit the huge potentiality of anthropogenic wastes as a
supplement to fertilizers, many changes in policies and practices
of civic bodies are needed besides a thorough research on use of
anthropogenic wastes in agriculture.
 The only alternative to address these problems is to go for scientific use of
 Anthropogenic Wastes in agriculture.
Septic tanks and Pit Latrines


India has 102 million septic tanks and
pit latrines . (World Bank, 2006)
India has more than 68 million single
pit or double pit toilets in rural areas
(ddws.nic.in)
Present Agriculture Scenario in India
 The fertilizer cost has escalated enormously the demand for
  fertilizer use is increasing.
 Indiscriminate use of fertilizer has deteriorated soil health.
 The availability of organic manures is limited and organic
  carbon content of semi arid tropical soils is very low.
 The multi-micronutrients deficiency in soils is wide spread.
We are in the midst of problems


 Shortage and escalating cost of fertilizers
 Growing demand for fertilizers
 Nutrient deficiencies in soils
 Declined yield of crops
 Decreased availability of good quality water
 Increased production of highly polluting       industrial
  wastes, posing disposal problems
Bangalore –Sanitation
Sanitation deficiency is largely prevalent in the conurbation and green
belt of Bangalore. In conurbation areas, only 47% of households have
toilets, 19% share toilets and a significant 35% defecate in the open.
But the state of sanitation is worse in green belt areas where only
26% households have toilets while 4% share toilets and a staggering
70% defecate in the open. This shows that there is a high disparity in
access to sanitation facilities across the core area and suburban and
rural areas. The absence of a sewage network in conurbation areas,
the green belt and rural areas is the main shortcoming.

Survey of the Environment report -2008 , Govt. of Karnataka
Foam rivers
Untreated sewage primary cause
From untreated sewage
The informal sector in urban sanitation
Pre-cast concrete rings
In informal vacant sites
Pit toilets are common in the urban
               periphery
The Honeysucker vacum sucks a pit
             toilet
Mechanization eliminates manual
          scavenging
Trucks are now indigenously
         developed
They have a water jetting and vacum
    sucking pump (upto 30 H.P.)
Assembling a honey-sucker
The barrels – informal sector body
         building works
We estimate nearly 300 honey-suckers
            in Bangalore
Protocol for safe disposal needs to be
               evolved
The sewage is nutrient rich but also
           pathogenic
Cost to building Rs 1200/ to Rs 3000/
Soil as a nutrient recipient rather than
                 water
Mobile technology
In many apartments a daily visit
The composting pit
Compost after 3 months- sells for Rs
 1500/- to Rs 2000/- a tractor load
Compost sample being collected for
            testing
Application on banana
The crop
The fruits
The soil – alive with alive with
    earthworms and ants
The Economics
                 For the truck
•   A Honeysucker costs Rs 13.50 lakhs
•   Charges Rs 1500 / per trip
•   Can do 5 trips in a day
•   Income Rs 7500 a day Rs 2.25 Lakhs a month
•   Income in a year Rs 27 lakhs
•   Expenditure for O and M - Rs 4.0 lakhs
•   One truck can service a population of 20,000
    assuming a 2 year pit emptying cycle
The Economics
             for the household
• Rs 1500 / every 2 years
• Rs 60 / a month
The Economics
                for a farmer
• Free compost
• On labour - expenditure Rs 5000 /
• Savings per acre Rs 20,000 to Rs 50,000 /- on
  manure alone (10 to 25 tractor load per acre
  per year )
Business Model
Institutional                    Technology and
environment                      environment
Way forward…
• Better understanding, from a business and
  sanitation perspective, of existing practices
  around the country
• Embedding of current practices as an officially
  accepted option to sanitation service delivery
  for all urban dwellers
Way forward
• Developing a protocol for the inclusion of non-
  sewerage based or on-plot sanitation systems in
  India
• Developing a protocol and a legal frame-work for
  handling, transportation, composting and
  application of nutrients from septage and on-plot
  systems
• Research on understanding nutrient – pathogens
  and safe application for nutrient reuse
Way forward
• Civic authorities to incorporate sewage
  disposal systems in building plan approvals
• Land use plans to earmark space for solid and
  liquid waste composting .
• Separate systems for toilets and grey-water
• Understanding the pit / groundwater interface
  and designing systems for non-pollution.
Thank you!
• Elisabeth Kvarnström, Vectura Consulting, Inc.,
  elisabeth.kvarnstrom@vectura.se
• Joep Verhagen, IRC, verhagen@irc.nl
• Mats Nilsson, MN Context,
  mncontext@gmail.com
• Vishwanath Srikantaiah, Biome,
  zenrainman@gmail.com
• Karan Singh, Biome, karan@biome-solutions.com
• Shubha Ramachandran, Biome, shubha@biome-
  solutions.com

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The basics of sentences session 5pptx.pptx
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Honeysuckers - Sanitation solution from the informal sector

  • 2. Based on an ongoing research Sludge Reuse from Mega-Cities – A Southern India Case Elisabeth Kvarnström, Vectura Consulting, Inc. Joep Verhagen, IRC Mats Nilsson, MN Context Vishwanath Srikantaiah, Biome Karan Singh, Biome Shubha Ramachandran, Biome
  • 3. India - 17.9 million cubic meters of sewage and 4 million tons of sludge each year Combined nutrient contribution of 2.4 lakh tons of N, 1.3 lakh tons of P2O5 and 1.2 lakh tons of K2O besides 12 lakh tons of organic carbon most of which are being wasted leading to pollution of soil and water bodies. To exploit the huge potentiality of anthropogenic wastes as a supplement to fertilizers, many changes in policies and practices of civic bodies are needed besides a thorough research on use of anthropogenic wastes in agriculture. The only alternative to address these problems is to go for scientific use of Anthropogenic Wastes in agriculture.
  • 4. Septic tanks and Pit Latrines India has 102 million septic tanks and pit latrines . (World Bank, 2006) India has more than 68 million single pit or double pit toilets in rural areas (ddws.nic.in)
  • 5. Present Agriculture Scenario in India  The fertilizer cost has escalated enormously the demand for fertilizer use is increasing.  Indiscriminate use of fertilizer has deteriorated soil health.  The availability of organic manures is limited and organic carbon content of semi arid tropical soils is very low.  The multi-micronutrients deficiency in soils is wide spread.
  • 6. We are in the midst of problems  Shortage and escalating cost of fertilizers  Growing demand for fertilizers  Nutrient deficiencies in soils  Declined yield of crops  Decreased availability of good quality water  Increased production of highly polluting industrial wastes, posing disposal problems
  • 7. Bangalore –Sanitation Sanitation deficiency is largely prevalent in the conurbation and green belt of Bangalore. In conurbation areas, only 47% of households have toilets, 19% share toilets and a significant 35% defecate in the open. But the state of sanitation is worse in green belt areas where only 26% households have toilets while 4% share toilets and a staggering 70% defecate in the open. This shows that there is a high disparity in access to sanitation facilities across the core area and suburban and rural areas. The absence of a sewage network in conurbation areas, the green belt and rural areas is the main shortcoming. Survey of the Environment report -2008 , Govt. of Karnataka
  • 10. The informal sector in urban sanitation
  • 13. Pit toilets are common in the urban periphery
  • 14. The Honeysucker vacum sucks a pit toilet
  • 16. Trucks are now indigenously developed
  • 17. They have a water jetting and vacum sucking pump (upto 30 H.P.)
  • 19. The barrels – informal sector body building works
  • 20. We estimate nearly 300 honey-suckers in Bangalore
  • 21. Protocol for safe disposal needs to be evolved
  • 22. The sewage is nutrient rich but also pathogenic
  • 23. Cost to building Rs 1200/ to Rs 3000/
  • 24. Soil as a nutrient recipient rather than water
  • 26. In many apartments a daily visit
  • 28. Compost after 3 months- sells for Rs 1500/- to Rs 2000/- a tractor load
  • 29. Compost sample being collected for testing
  • 33. The soil – alive with alive with earthworms and ants
  • 34. The Economics For the truck • A Honeysucker costs Rs 13.50 lakhs • Charges Rs 1500 / per trip • Can do 5 trips in a day • Income Rs 7500 a day Rs 2.25 Lakhs a month • Income in a year Rs 27 lakhs • Expenditure for O and M - Rs 4.0 lakhs • One truck can service a population of 20,000 assuming a 2 year pit emptying cycle
  • 35. The Economics for the household • Rs 1500 / every 2 years • Rs 60 / a month
  • 36. The Economics for a farmer • Free compost • On labour - expenditure Rs 5000 / • Savings per acre Rs 20,000 to Rs 50,000 /- on manure alone (10 to 25 tractor load per acre per year )
  • 37. Business Model Institutional Technology and environment environment
  • 38. Way forward… • Better understanding, from a business and sanitation perspective, of existing practices around the country • Embedding of current practices as an officially accepted option to sanitation service delivery for all urban dwellers
  • 39. Way forward • Developing a protocol for the inclusion of non- sewerage based or on-plot sanitation systems in India • Developing a protocol and a legal frame-work for handling, transportation, composting and application of nutrients from septage and on-plot systems • Research on understanding nutrient – pathogens and safe application for nutrient reuse
  • 40. Way forward • Civic authorities to incorporate sewage disposal systems in building plan approvals • Land use plans to earmark space for solid and liquid waste composting . • Separate systems for toilets and grey-water • Understanding the pit / groundwater interface and designing systems for non-pollution.
  • 41. Thank you! • Elisabeth Kvarnström, Vectura Consulting, Inc., elisabeth.kvarnstrom@vectura.se • Joep Verhagen, IRC, verhagen@irc.nl • Mats Nilsson, MN Context, mncontext@gmail.com • Vishwanath Srikantaiah, Biome, zenrainman@gmail.com • Karan Singh, Biome, karan@biome-solutions.com • Shubha Ramachandran, Biome, shubha@biome- solutions.com