The 1st two years

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The 1st two years

  1. 1. Motor Milestones
  2. 2. Chapter 6 - The First Two Years: Cognitive Development
  3. 3. Jean Piaget (1896–1980) Action = Knowledge Knowledge is the product of direct motor behavior. Stage approach to development – four distinct stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational. These stages occur from birth to adolescence and a combination of physical development and relevant experience are necessary to move from one stage to another.
  4. 4. 6.1 Basic Principles of Piaget’s Theory • Metaphor of child as scientist • Children are naturally curious and create theories about how the world works • In assimilation, new experiences are readily incorporated into existing theories • In accommodation, existing theories are modified based on experience • Sensoritmotor intelligence—active intelligence causing babies to think while using senses and motor skills
  5. 5. 6.1 Basic Principles of Piaget’s Theory • Assimilation and accommodation are usually in balance, or equilibrium • When balance is upset, children reorganize their theories to restore equilibrium, a process Piaget called equilibration • Process results in qualitatively different and more advanced theories
  6. 6. Sensorimotor Stage Substage 1: Simple reflexes birth to 1 month Reflexes at the center of cognitive life Substage 2: First habits and primary circular reactions 1–4 months Coordinate separate actions into single, integrated actions Substage 3: Secondary circular reactions 4–8 months Begin to act on outside world Substage 4: Coordination of secondary circular reactions 8–12 months Calculated approaches; object permanence begins Substage 5: Tertiary circular reactions 12–18 months Carry out miniature experiments to observe consequences Substage 6: Beginnings of thought 18–24 months Capacity for mental representation or symbolic thought; imagine where objects might be that they cannot see
  7. 7. Stages 1 and 2: Primary Circular Reactions • The feedback loop involving the infants own body; infant senses motion and tries to make sense of it • Stage 1 = Reflexes • Stage 2 = First Acquired Adaptations - adaptations of reflexes, i.e., sucking—new information taken in by senses and responded to Substage 1: Simple reflexes birth to 1 month Reflexes at the center of cognitive life Substage 2: First habits and primary circular reactions 1–4 months Coordinate separate actions into single, integrated actions Substage 3: Secondary circular reactions 4–8 months Begin to act on outside world Substage 4: Coordination of secondary circular reactions 8–12 months Calculated approaches; object permanence begins Substage 5: Tertiary circular reactions 12–18 months Carry out miniature experiments to observe consequences Substage 6: Beginnings of thought 18–24 months Capacity for mental representation or symbolic thought; imagine where objects might be that they cannot see
  8. 8. • Assimilation and Accommodation – assimilation—taking in new information by incorporating it into previous knowledge – accommodation— intake of new data to re-adjust, refine, expand prior schema or actions – babies eagerly adapt their reflexes and senses to whatever experiences they have Stages 1 and 2: Primary Circular Reactions, cont.
  9. 9. • Sucking as a Stage-Two Adaptation – begin adapting at about one month – reflexive assimilation Stages 1 and 2: Primary Circular Reactions, cont. Substage 1: Simple reflexes birth to 1 month Reflexes at the center of cognitive life Substage 2: First habits and primary circular reactions 1–4 months Coordinate separate actions into single, integrated actions Substage 3: Secondary circular reactions 4–8 months Begin to act on outside world Substage 4: Coordination of secondary circular reactions 8–12 months Calculated approaches; object permanence begins Substage 5: Tertiary circular reactions 12–18 months Carry out miniature experiments to observe consequences Substage 6: Beginnings of thought 18–24 months Capacity for mental representation or symbolic thought; imagine where objects might be that they cannot see
  10. 10. Stages 3 and 4: Secondary Circular Reactions • feedback loop involving people and objects • Stage 3 = Making Interesting Events Last - repetition - awareness • Stage 4 = New Adaptation and Anticipation - goal-directed behavior - object permanence Substage 1: Simple reflexes birth to 1 month Reflexes at the center of cognitive life Substage 2: First habits and primary circular reactions 1–4 months Coordinate separate actions into single, integrated actions Substage 3: Secondary circular reactions 4–8 months Begin to act on outside world Substage 4: Coordination of secondary circular reactions 8–12 months Calculated approaches; object permanence begins Substage 5: Tertiary circular reactions 12–18 months Carry out miniature experiments to observe consequences Substage 6: Beginnings of thought 18–24 months Capacity for mental representation or symbolic thought; imagine where objects might be that they cannot see
  11. 11. • Feedback loop that involves active experimentation and exploration - involves creativity, action, and ideas • Stage 5 = New Means Through Active Experimentation – little scientist Stages 5 and 6: Tertiary Circular Reactions Substage 1: Simple reflexes birth to 1 month Reflexes at the center of cognitive life Substage 2: First habits and primary circular reactions 1–4 months Coordinate separate actions into single, integrated actions Substage 3: Secondary circular reactions 4–8 months Begin to act on outside world Substage 4: Coordination of secondary circular reactions 8–12 months Calculated approaches; object permanence begins Substage 5: Tertiary circular reactions 12–18 months Carry out miniature experiments to observe consequences Substage 6: Beginnings of thought 18–24 months Capacity for mental representation or symbolic thought; imagine where objects might be that they cannot see
  12. 12. Transitions
  13. 13. Piaget Concepts  Circular reaction – an activity that permits the construction of positive schemes through the repetition of a chance motor event Primary – schemes reflecting an infant’s repetition of interesting or enjoyable activities just for the enjoyment of doing them Secondary – schemes regarding repeated actions that bring about a desirable consequence Tertiary – schemes regarding the deliberate variation of actions that bring desirable consequences
  14. 14. Piaget Concepts  Goal-directed behavior – several schemes are combined and coordinated to generate a single act to solve a problem  Mental representation – internal image of a past object or event  Deferred imitation – when a person who is no longer present is imitated, e.g., pretending to drive when mom even when mom is no longer driving  Object permanence – realization that people and objects exist even when they cannot be seen
  15. 15. Deferred imitation
  16. 16. Deferred imitation
  17. 17. Deferred imitation
  18. 18. Piaget and Modern Research • Habituation—process of getting used to an object or event through repeated exposure to it • fMRI—functional magnetic resonance imaging measuring technique for brain activity and neurological responses • First three years are prime time for cognitive development
  19. 19. Affordances • Affordances—opportunities for perception and interaction offered by environment • How something is perceived and acted upon depends on – past experiences – current developmental level – sensory awareness of opportunities – immediate needs and motivation
  20. 20. Criticism of Piaget’s Theory  Waves, not stages – Robert Siegler (1995) suggested development in waves, or ebb and flow, as opposed to stages  Motor development may not be the only basis – Piaget was not familiar with sensory and perceptual systems  Object permanence may occur earlier – motor skills or memory deficits may not allow that concept to develop earlier  Fixed pattern – infants may be able to imitate facial expressions earlier than Piaget proposed
  21. 21. Information-Processing Approaches Information is encoded, stored, and retrieved, much like a computer. Information-processing theory— perspective that compares human thinking processes to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, stored memories, and output
  22. 22. 6.2 Information Processing • People and computers are both symbol processors • Distinction between hardware and software • Hardware includes sensory, working, and long-term memory • Software is task specific
  23. 23. Mental Hardware 6.2: Information Processing
  24. 24. Memory in Infants  Memory, the process by which information is initially recorded, stored, and retrieved, is certainly in the realm of infants. Infant memory capabilities increase with age.  Infantile amnesia is a lack of memory for experience that occurred before 3 years old.  Early memories appear to be implicit. Explicit memory emerges by the second half of the first year.
  25. 25. Increased Working Memory 6.2: How Information Processing Changes with Development
  26. 26. • Certain amount of experience and maturation in order to process and remember experiences • In first year infants have great difficulty storing new memories • Older children often unable to describe events that occurred when they were younger Memory
  27. 27. • Very early memories possible if – situation similar to real life – motivation high – special measures aid retrieval by acting as reminders Memory, cont.
  28. 28. Reminders and Repetition • Reminder session—any perceptual experience that helps a person recall an idea or experience
  29. 29. A Little Older, A Little More Memory • After 6 months infants capable of retaining information for longer periods of time with less reminding • Deferred imitation apparent after end of first year • By middle of the 2nd year, children capable of remembering and reenacting complex sequences
  30. 30. A Little Older, A Little More Memory, cont. • Memory is not just single entity; distinct brain regions for particular aspects of memory; humans have a memory for – words – images – actions – smells – experiences – “memorized” facts
  31. 31. Language and Infants  Language is a systematic, meaningful arrangement of symbols that provides a basis for communication.  Phonology refers to basic sounds of language.  Morpheme is the smallest language unit that has meaning.  Semantics are rules that govern meaning of words and sentences.
  32. 32. Language and Infants  Prelinguistic communication refers to communication through sounds, facial expressions, gestures, imitation, and other nonlinguistic means.  Babbling refers to making speechlike but not meaningful sounds.  Holophrases are one-word utterances that stand for a whole phrase, whose meaning depends on the context used.  Telegraphic speech is speech in which words not critical to meaning are left out.  Underextension is the overly restrictive use of words, common among children just mastering spoken language.  Overextension is the overly broad use of words, overgeneralizing their meaning.  Referential style is a speaking style in which language is used primarily to label objects.  Expressive style is a speaking style in which language is primarily used to express feelings and needs about oneself and others.
  33. 33. • Children around the world have the same sequence of early language development but – timing and depth of linguistic ability vary The Universal Sequence of Language Development
  34. 34. First Noises and Gestures • Baby talk—high-pitched, simplified, and repetitive ways adults talk to babies • Vocalization – crying – cooing • Babbling – deaf babies do it later and less frequently, but are more advanced in use of gestures
  35. 35. • First word and sentences at age of 1 year First Words
  36. 36. The Language Explosion and Early Grammar • Naming explosion—sudden increase in infant vocabulary, especially nouns, beginning at 18 months • Holophrase—single word that expresses a complete, meaningful thought • Grammar—all the methods that languages use to communicate meaning
  37. 37. Theories of Language Learning • Even the very young use language well • Three schools of thought – infants are taught language – infants teach themselves – social impulses foster infant language
  38. 38. Learning Theory Approach vs. Nativist Approach  Learning theory says that language acquisition follows the basic laws of reinforcement and conditioning.  Nativist approach states a genetically determined, innate mechanism directs language development.
  39. 39. Theory 1: Infants are Taught • Skinner’s reinforcement theory: quantity and quality of talking to child affects rate of language development (learned) – parents are good instructors – baby talk characterized by • high pitch • simpler vocabulary • shorter sentence length • more questions and commands • repetition Nature Or Nurture?
  40. 40. • Chomsky and LAD (Language Acquisition Device)—hypothesized neurological (inborn) structure that prewires all children for language, including basic aspects of intonation, grammar, and vocabulary – infants innately ready to use their minds to understand and speak whatever language offered to them – they are experience expectant Theory 2: Infants Teach Themselves Nature Or Nurture?
  41. 41. • Social-pragmatic—social reason for language: to communicate • Infants seek to respond, which shows their being social in nature— and thus mutually dependent—by - vocalizing - babbling - gesturing - listening - pointing Theory Three: Social Impulses Foster Language Nature Or Nurture?
  42. 42. A Hybrid Theory • Emergentist coalition—combination of valid aspects of several theories - cortex contains many language centers - nature provides several paths to learning language Nature Or Nurture?
  43. 43. 6.2 Core-Knowledge Theories • Builds on Piaget’s metaphor of child as scientist • Research traces children’s knowledge of > naive physics (understanding objects) > naive psychology (theory of mind) > and naive biology (understanding unique properties of animate objects)
  44. 44. 6.3 Understanding People • Children use naïve psychology to predict how people will act • Even 1-year-olds have understanding of intentionality • Between ages 2 and 5, children develop a theory of mind
  45. 45. Theory of Mind

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