Specialized tissue that enable
the body and its parts to move.
Anterior View
Posterior View
Functions of the Muscles
• Movement
• Maintenance of posture and
muscle tone
• Heat production
• Protects the bones and
in...
Muscle Classification
Functionally
• Voluntarily – can be moved at will
• Involuntarily – can’t be moved intentionally
Str...
The 3 T ypes of Muscles
3 T y p e s o f M u s c le s
S k e le t a l M u s c le

S m o o t h M u s c le

C a r d ia c M u s...
Smooth Muscle
Fibers are thin
and spindle
shaped.
No striations
Single nuclei
Involuntary
Contr acts
slowly
Smooth Muscle
They fatigue… but very slowly
Found in the circulatory system

• Lining of the blood vessels
• Helps in the ...
Cardiac Muscle
Cells are branched and
appear fused with one
another
Has striations
Each cell has a central
nuclei
Involunt...
Cardiac Muscle
•Found ONLY in the heart
•Contractions of the heart muscles pump
blood throughout the body and account
for ...
Skeletal Muscle
Fibers are long
and cylindrical
 Has many nuclei
 Has striations


-Have alternating
dark and light
ban...
Functions of Skeletal
Muscle
Maintenance of posture or muscle
tone
•

We are able to maintain our body position
because of...
Structure of Skeletal Muscle
Composed of striated muscle cells
(=muscle fibers) and connective
tissue.
•

Most muscles att...
Structure of Skeletal
Muscle
Microscopic anatomy
•

•

•

Muscle cells (fibers) are grouped in a
highly organized way in t...
Movement of Muscles
Origin: the attachment
of the muscle to the
bone that remains
stationary
Insertion: the
attachment of ...
Movement of skeletal
muscle
-These muscles move when the br ain
sends messages to the muscle
•Always work in pairs

2 move...
Categories of
skeletal muscle actions
Categories

Extensor
joint
Flexor
A bductor

Actions

Increases the angle at a
Decre...
Practice these
Movements
1.

Bend arm
- biceps  contr act
- triceps  e xtend

2.

Str aighten arm
- biceps  extend
- tr...
More Movements
4. Str aighten knee
- quadriceps  contr act
- hamstrings  extend
5.

Crunches
- abdomen  contr act
- bac...
Muscles Named by Location
Epicr anius
(around cranium)
Tibialis anterior
(front of tibia)

tibialis
anterior
Naming Skeletal
Muscles
Trapezius

Shape:
• deltoid (triangle)
• trapezius (trapezoid,
2 parallel sides)

Deltoid

• serra...
Muscles Named by Size
maximus (largest)
minimis (smallest)
longus (longest)
brevis (short)
major (large)
minor (small)

Ps...
Muscles Named by
Direction of Fibers
Rectus
(straight)

Rectus

abdominis

-parallel to
long axis
Transverse
Oblique

Exte...
Muscles Named for
Number of Origins
Biceps

brachii

Biceps (2)
Triceps (3)
Quadriceps
(4)
Muscles Named for
Action
Flexor carpi radialis
(extensor carpi radialis)
– flexes wrist

Abductor pollicis brevis
(adducto...
Muscular System
Diseases and Disorders
Fibromyalgia
Chronic, widespread pain in specific muscle
sites.
Symptoms

:

1. Mus...
 
Muscular Dystrophy
Group of inherited diseases
Leads to a chronic progressive muscle 
atrophy (muscles shrink in size an...
Myasthenia Gravis
Chronic condition in which nerve impulses 
are not transmitted properly to the muscles
Leads to progress...
Muscle Cramps
 Sudden, painful, involuntary contractions 
of muscles
Usually occur in legs or feet
May result from overexe...
Strain
Overstretching or injury to a muscle and/or 
tendons
Frequent sites include the back, arms, and 
legs
Prolonged or ...
TRIVIA!
How many muscles are there in the human body?
•
•

Answer: 640 Muscles
The muscles make up about 40 % of the body ...
• There are muscles in your root hair that give you goose
bumps.
• The hardest working muscle is in the eye. It
approximat...
There are about 60 muscles in the face.

Smiling is easier than
frowning .
It takes 20 muscles to smile and over 40 to fro...
Muscular system: M- mobility, U- unity, S- strength, C- coordination, L- locomotion and E- Endurance
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Muscular system: M- mobility, U- unity, S- strength, C- coordination, L- locomotion and E- Endurance

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It's fun to learn MUSCULAR SYSTEM...

This is primarily a synthesis of the topic including the different types of Muscular System, their movement, functions, sample practical exercises, categories on how muscles got its names, examples of diseases and its causes and effects, and a fun trivia to motivate the class...

Enjoy! God bless you all :)

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Muscular system: M- mobility, U- unity, S- strength, C- coordination, L- locomotion and E- Endurance

  1. 1. Specialized tissue that enable the body and its parts to move.
  2. 2. Anterior View
  3. 3. Posterior View
  4. 4. Functions of the Muscles • Movement • Maintenance of posture and muscle tone • Heat production • Protects the bones and internal organs.
  5. 5. Muscle Classification Functionally • Voluntarily – can be moved at will • Involuntarily – can’t be moved intentionally Structur ally • Striated – have stripes across the fiber • Smooth – no striations
  6. 6. The 3 T ypes of Muscles 3 T y p e s o f M u s c le s S k e le t a l M u s c le S m o o t h M u s c le C a r d ia c M u s c le
  7. 7. Smooth Muscle Fibers are thin and spindle shaped. No striations Single nuclei Involuntary Contr acts slowly
  8. 8. Smooth Muscle They fatigue… but very slowly Found in the circulatory system • Lining of the blood vessels • Helps in the circulation of the blood Found in the digestive system • Esophagus, stomach, intestine • Controls digestion Found in the respir atory system • Controls breathing Found in the urinary system • Urinary bladder • Controls urination
  9. 9. Cardiac Muscle Cells are branched and appear fused with one another Has striations Each cell has a central nuclei Involuntary
  10. 10. Cardiac Muscle •Found ONLY in the heart •Contractions of the heart muscles pump blood throughout the body and account for the heartbeat.
  11. 11. Skeletal Muscle Fibers are long and cylindrical  Has many nuclei  Has striations  -Have alternating dark and light bands  Voluntary
  12. 12. Functions of Skeletal Muscle Maintenance of posture or muscle tone • We are able to maintain our body position because of tonic contractions in our skeletal muscles. These contractions don’t produce movement yet hold our muscles in position. Heat production – contraction of muscles produces most of the heat required to maintain body temperature.
  13. 13. Structure of Skeletal Muscle Composed of striated muscle cells (=muscle fibers) and connective tissue. • Most muscles attach to 2 bones that have a moveable joint between them. • • • • The attachment to the bone that does not move is the origin. The attachment to the bone that moves is the insertion. Tendons anchor muscle firmly to bones. Tendons are made of dense fibrous connective tissue. Ligaments connect bone to bone at a joint.
  14. 14. Structure of Skeletal Muscle Microscopic anatomy • • • Muscle cells (fibers) are grouped in a highly organized way in the muscle. The membrane that surrounds the muscle cell is called the sarcolemma. Muscle cells are filled with 2 types of fine threadlike proteins called myofilaments: myosin (thick) and actin (thin). These structures slide past each other causing the muscle cell to contract or shorten. The myofilaments are arranged in the cells in small units called sarcomeres.
  15. 15. Movement of Muscles Origin: the attachment of the muscle to the bone that remains stationary Insertion: the attachment of the muscle to the bone that moves origin belly insertion Belly: the fleshy part of the muscle between the tendons of origin and/or insertion
  16. 16. Movement of skeletal muscle -These muscles move when the br ain sends messages to the muscle •Always work in pairs 2 movements of skeletal muscle • Contr action (shorten) • Extension (lengthen)
  17. 17. Categories of skeletal muscle actions Categories Extensor joint Flexor A bductor Actions Increases the angle at a Decreases the angle at a joint Moves limb away from midline of body A dductor Moves limb toward midline of body Rotator Sphincter Rotates a bone along its axis Constricts an opening
  18. 18. Practice these Movements 1. Bend arm - biceps  contr act - triceps  e xtend 2. Str aighten arm - biceps  extend - triceps  contr act 3. Bend knee - quadriceps  extend - hamstrings  contr act
  19. 19. More Movements 4. Str aighten knee - quadriceps  contr act - hamstrings  extend 5. Crunches - abdomen  contr act - back muscles  extend 6. Point toes - calf muscle  contr act - shin muscle  extend
  20. 20. Muscles Named by Location Epicr anius (around cranium) Tibialis anterior (front of tibia) tibialis anterior
  21. 21. Naming Skeletal Muscles Trapezius Shape: • deltoid (triangle) • trapezius (trapezoid, 2 parallel sides) Deltoid • serratus (sawtoothed) • rhomboideus (rhomboid, 4 parallel sides) • orbicularis and sphincters (circular) Rhomboideus major Serratus anterior
  22. 22. Muscles Named by Size maximus (largest) minimis (smallest) longus (longest) brevis (short) major (large) minor (small) Psoas minor Psoas major
  23. 23. Muscles Named by Direction of Fibers Rectus (straight) Rectus abdominis -parallel to long axis Transverse Oblique External oblique
  24. 24. Muscles Named for Number of Origins Biceps brachii Biceps (2) Triceps (3) Quadriceps (4)
  25. 25. Muscles Named for Action Flexor carpi radialis (extensor carpi radialis) – flexes wrist Abductor pollicis brevis (adductor pollicis) – flexes thumb Abductor magnus – abducts thigh Extensor digitorum – extends fingers Adductor magnus
  26. 26. Muscular System Diseases and Disorders Fibromyalgia Chronic, widespread pain in specific muscle sites. Symptoms : 1. Muscle stiffness 2. Numbness or tingling in the arms or legs 3. Fatigue 4. Sleep disturbances 5. Headaches 6. Depression
  27. 27.   Muscular Dystrophy Group of inherited diseases Leads to a chronic progressive muscle  atrophy (muscles shrink in size and lose  strength) Usually appears in early childhood Most types result in total disability and early  death
  28. 28. Myasthenia Gravis Chronic condition in which nerve impulses  are not transmitted properly to the muscles Leads to progressive muscular weakness and  paralysis Fatal when it affects respiratory muscles
  29. 29. Muscle Cramps  Sudden, painful, involuntary contractions  of muscles Usually occur in legs or feet May result from overexertion, low  electrolyte levels, or poor circulation
  30. 30. Strain Overstretching or injury to a muscle and/or  tendons Frequent sites include the back, arms, and  legs Prolonged or sudden muscle exertion is  usually cause
  31. 31. TRIVIA! How many muscles are there in the human body? • • Answer: 640 Muscles The muscles make up about 40 % of the body mass. What is the longest muscle in the body? • • Answer: The Sartorius The Sartorius runs from the outside of the hip, down and across to the inside of the knee. It twists and pulls the thigh outwards. What is the smallest muscle in the body? • • Answer: The Stapedius The Stapedius is located deep in the ear. It is only 5mm long and thinner than cotton thread. It is involved in hearing. What is the biggest muscle in the body? • • Answer: The Gluteus Maximus The Gluteus Maximus is located in the buttock. It pulls the leg backwards powerfully for walking and running.
  32. 32. • There are muscles in your root hair that give you goose bumps. • The hardest working muscle is in the eye. It approximately move more than 100,000 times a day. • Contrary to what people say, muscles do not push, but can only pull. • Masseters or chewing muscles are the strongest muscle in the body. • As the body gets cold, heat is generated due to shivering which causes rapid muscle contractions. • Muscles can tear in similar manner like you tear your ligaments or break your bones, and over a period of time with minimal help, they can mend themselves.
  33. 33. There are about 60 muscles in the face. Smiling is easier than frowning . It takes 20 muscles to smile and over 40 to frown. Smile and make someone happy .

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