Inclusionary MathematicsChapter 15“The Inclusive Classroom”Margo A. Mastropieri &Thomas E. Scruggs4th Edition<br />Abigail...
Mathematics Today<br />National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) established Principles and Standards for School ...
Curriculum
Teaching
Learning
Assessment
Technology</li></li></ul><li>Implications for Students with disabilities<br />NCTM suggested these students may need:<br /...
Increased Time
Oral rather than written
Peer Mentoring
Cross-age Tutoring
Memory and general strategy use
Literacy and Communication
Specific processes and strategies associated with math problems
Low motivation and affect</li></li></ul><li>Designing effective mathematics instruction<br />Focus on “Big Ideas”- general...
Teaching Beginning Math<br />Early Number Concepts: More, less, any, none, none left, together, how many, each.<br />Count...
Teaching Addition and subtraction<br />Use Manipulatives: beads, buttons, dried beans, base-10 blocks<br />Use Number Line...
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Inclusionary mathematics pp

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Inclusionary mathematics pp

  1. 1. Inclusionary MathematicsChapter 15“The Inclusive Classroom”Margo A. Mastropieri &Thomas E. Scruggs4th Edition<br />Abigail Kaylor*Adele Mestas*Lorie Rainey*Catherine Russell*Linda Weatherford<br />
  2. 2. Mathematics Today<br />National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) established Principles and Standards for School Mathematics with 6 overarching principles:<br /><ul><li>Equity
  3. 3. Curriculum
  4. 4. Teaching
  5. 5. Learning
  6. 6. Assessment
  7. 7. Technology</li></li></ul><li>Implications for Students with disabilities<br />NCTM suggested these students may need:<br />Many students with disabilities exhibit difficulties in:<br /><ul><li>Language Support
  8. 8. Increased Time
  9. 9. Oral rather than written
  10. 10. Peer Mentoring
  11. 11. Cross-age Tutoring
  12. 12. Memory and general strategy use
  13. 13. Literacy and Communication
  14. 14. Specific processes and strategies associated with math problems
  15. 15. Low motivation and affect</li></li></ul><li>Designing effective mathematics instruction<br />Focus on “Big Ideas”- generalizable concepts rather than individual details<br />Teach “conspicuous” strategies, not to broad or specific, for conducting math operations<br />Efficient use of time on prioritized objectives<br />Clear, explicit communication of strategies<br />Practice and review to promote retention<br />Progress from concrete, to semi-concrete, to abstract<br />
  16. 16. Teaching Beginning Math<br />Early Number Concepts: More, less, any, none, none left, together, how many, each.<br />Counting Strategies: Acoustic counting, Point Counting, Resultative counting(order irrelevant), Counting on(starting from specified number), Skip counting, Subitizing (counting w/o actually counting)<br />1 to 1 Correspondence: Different sets of objects can be matched according to quantity<br />Introduce Geometry: various shapes in various sizes to examine and explore<br />
  17. 17. Teaching Addition and subtraction<br />Use Manipulatives: beads, buttons, dried beans, base-10 blocks<br />Use Number Lines: transitioning from counting to number operations, addition, subtraction, negative numbers<br />Strategies for Number Writing: models, stencils, copying dashed numbers, additional practice<br />Use Questions to Understand Symbols: What does the +,=,*, / mean?<br />
  18. 18. Use Touch Math for addition: materials that have numbers with corresponding amount of dots on them to provide visual representation.<br />Practice and Specific Strategies: songs, peer quizzing, flashcards, rhymes, review<br />Strategies for Place-value and Regrouping: use base blocks to make constructs to represent larger numbers as groups of smaller numbers<br />Early Problem Solving: use of manipulatives alongside fun math word problems, math games with counting<br />Response to Intervention: Tier 2 support through small group tutoring using concrete, pictorial, graphic materials, practice software.<br />
  19. 19. Teaching Multiplication & Division<br />Manipulatives to Model Concepts: Create a set of 3 blocks, and ask the student to make three more sets of 3. Then explain that they have a set of 3, four times. Division can be done by pulling from a total into smaller groups.<br />“Count-Bys”: learning to count by 2’s and 5’s helps strengthen multiplication concepts.<br />Specific Strategies: Use drill and practice to establish verbal math facts such as times table. Identify key facts. Teach multiplication techniques using hands, teach through mnemonics.<br />
  20. 20. Use Calculators: sometimes calculators can eliminate the need for memorization of facts, or to scaffold the practice of multiplication and checking work.<br />Reinforce Arithmetic Vocab: Learn and apply math terms and practice using them.<br />Specific Strategies for Algorithms: Students must learn the order of operations (Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally) and how to track steps and follow-through on processes. Teach modified long division)<br />Inform Students Through Error Analysis: Determine with the students the types of errors they make. Use them to guide further practice<br />
  21. 21. Teaching Problem Solving<br />Word Meanings: Explicitly teach how to read word problems and identify the symbols within the language. In-depth analysis of what word concepts mean. Practice creating math sentences.<br />Cognitive Strategies: Promote 7 step strategy:<br />Read the problem<br />Think About/Paraphrase the problem<br />Decide the operation<br />Write the math sentence<br />Do the math problem<br />Label the answer<br />Check every step<br />
  22. 22. Teaching Money & Time<br />Coin Recognition and Money Counting: Use appropriate materials and examples, teach value of coins after names are learned. Use relevant problems.<br />Appropriate Methods and Materials for Time: use clock manipulatives with movable hands, use peer-models, possibly use digital clocks to scaffold concept of time.<br />
  23. 23. Teaching Fractions & Decimals<br />Materials and Models for Fractions: relate concept to students’ lives (i.e. sharing, pizza, cutting in half) and use models that can be generalized into community.<br />Materials and Models for Decimals: Graph paper to help alignment, Decimal squares allow for parts of a whole to be shaded in to represent decimals of 100 or 1000.<br />
  24. 24. Teaching Area & Volume<br />Visual and 3-D representations: movable transparency overlays, blocks, magnets all will help students develop this concept.<br />Teach Big Ideas: Establish the root of all volume formulas and what they represent. This way students can still solve a problem based on concept instead of formula recall.<br />
  25. 25. Teaching Algebra<br />Manipulatives to Teach Negative Numbers: different colored blocks can be assigned to mean positive or negative and model the problem<br />Early Algebra Concepts: early algebra concpets can be leanred by using blank spaces or fun symbols like smiley faces (4+2=____; 3+q=6)<br />Computation Strategies: ways to remember steps and procedures; FOIL First, Outer, Inner, Last<br />Quadratic Equations: teach all three methods: factoring, completing the square, quadratic equation. Algebra tiles can be used to model process<br />
  26. 26. Problem-Solving Strategies: Employ STAR strategy:<br />Search the word problem(read carefully, find facts, ask questions)<br />Translate the problem into a pictured equation(choose a variable, identify the operation, represent the equation in concrete, semi-concrete, or abstract method).<br />Answer the problem, attending to relevant signs<br />Review the solution, check your answer<br />
  27. 27. Teaching Functional Math<br />Concepts for Daily Living: calendars, clocks, writing checks, keeping banking accounts, budgeting and calculating household expenses, filling out tax forms, and paying bills.<br />
  28. 28. Conclusion<br />Many math strategies that are inclusive of special needs students are beneficial and critical for all students.<br />Never assume a child already knows anything. Work from where they are.<br />

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