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SOVIET HERITAGE OF LATVIAN CULTURAL POLICY
a09RN07 / Culture, Heritage and memory
14:00 – 15:30 / Saturday 31 / CLE B
T...
Cultural houses in Latvia, 2013
Causal link between two factors: cultural activities andCausal link between two factors: cultural activities and
community...
Putnam's theory of socialPutnam's theory of social
capital & developmentcapital & development
Key to development: strong h...
Cultural policyCultural policy
""...cultural resources are used for the state to achieve...cultural resources are used for...
‘‘Total’ and very instrumental CPTotal’ and very instrumental CP
(«(«Enlightenment for allEnlightenment for all»)»)
–– edu...
* дом культуры / клуб (районный; городской; сельский), изба-читальня,
красная юрта, красная чайхана, красный чум, красная ...
Cultural houses in Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic and
The Republic of Latvia
1st
CONCLUSION. In terms of amateur cultur...
RegionalRegional ««culturcultural policy»al policy» todaytoday
Central and local governments sustain un finance allCentral...
ConclusionsConclusions
TheThe Republic of Latvia has inherited typicalRepublic of Latvia has inherited typical
top-down mo...
Thanks!Thanks!
Janis.Daugavietis@lu.lv
Soviet heritage of Latvian cultural policy
Soviet heritage of Latvian cultural policy
Soviet heritage of Latvian cultural policy
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Soviet heritage of Latvian cultural policy

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Paper for ESA (European Sociological Association ) 11th Conference in Turin. 2013.08.31.

In contemporary theory of cultural policy there is a popular assumption about role of arts in social development. The local cultural assotiations can be powerful actors in revitalization, civic engagement, community-building, etc. Cultural participation is viewed as a source of social capital, which in turn contributes to social cohesion and building better environment. The two most popular Latvian amateur arts forms are choral singing and participation in folk dance ensembles. Their popularity is a result of established national tradition - singing is regarded as one of the most important Latvian cornerstones of the nation's identity. The other factor is administration of culture which is largely inherited from the USSR without any significant structural transformations. Cultural policy is still dominated by paternalistic model in which the state continues to undertake responsibility and control of certain professional and amateur art forms. Government is responsible for the delivery of culture and certain art activities (amateur singing and dancing are among them) to the masses. Maintaining network of cultural houses and hiring amateur collective conductors are dominant type of support. Therefore the government nourished choirs and dance ensembles do not meet requirements to be regarded as associations of free citizens. They are rather groups of amateurs in ‘residential care’ than active and self-organizing art or cultural communities from whose artistic practices we can hope to get additional social capital and input in local social development.

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  • http://kulturaskarte.lv/lv/kulturas-centrs , acc. 2013.08.28.
  • Наро́дный комиссариа́т просвеще́ния  ( Наркомпрос ) 
  • 700 iedz uz vienu KN laukos, pēc WW II
  • Latvijas KN tīkls (ģeogrāfiskais izvietojums, 2011) Galvenā kultūras institūcija Latvijas reģionos un laukos ir kultūras nams (turpmāk – KN).. Latvijā darbojas ap 500 kultūras/tautas namu un centru Kultūras ministrijas apsekojums[1] liecina, ka gada laikā KN notikušos pasākumus apmeklē ap trim miljoniem iedzīvotāju, no tiem 80% bijuši amatiermākslas pasākumu apmeklētāji. Vidēji katrs Latvijas iedzīvotājs gada laikā vismaz reiz apmeklējis amatiermākslas pasākumu KN, bet valsts pārvaldībā esošo profesionālās mākslas institūciju – teātru, LNO, Filharmonijas un valsts koncertorganizāciju pasākumus apmeklējis katrs otrais. KN skaits Latvijas PSR kopš 50-to gadu beigām bija ap 1000, bet kopš PSRS sabrukuma tas līdz mūsu dienām ir samazinājies gandrīz divas reizes (skat. att. „LPSR un Latvijas Republikas kultūras namu skaits (1940-2010)”). Attiecinot šīs KN skaita izmaiņas pret iedzīvotāju skaita izmaiņām, starpība ir mazāka. KN ‘apkalpoto’ iedzīvotāju skaits pastāvīgi sāka palielināties jau padomju varas gados (no aptuveni 2000 iedzīvotājiem uz vienu KN 50-tajos gados, līdz 3000 90-to sākumā), un tas visdrīzāk ir skaidrojams ar pilsētu iedzīvotāju īpatsvara palielināšanos, jo 9/10 KN atradās lauku teritorijās (skat. att. „LPSR un Latvijas Republikas iedzīvotāju skaits uz vienu kultūras namu”). Pēc neatkarības atjaunošanas katrs KN vidēji apkalpo 4000 iedzīvotājus, tātad KN faktiskais pārklājums (attiecībā pret iedzīvotāju skaitu) ir samazinājies par 1/3. KN tīkls visai vienmērīgi pārklāj visu Latviju (skat. att. „Latvijas KN tīkls (ģeogrāfiskais izvietojums, 2011)”). Vismaz viens KN ir praktiski katrā novadā, tādējādi ir saglabāta padomju kultūrpolitikas tradīcija – katrā vietējā centrā jābūt vismaz vienai kultūras iestādei. Visbiežāk novadā ir no vienam līdz sešiem KN, sākot ar 26 KN Rēzeknes novadā, beidzot ar vienu Carnikavas, Līgatnes, Mārupes, Raunas vai Rugāju novados[1]. [1] „Kultūras centrs, kultūras nams, tautas nams, saieta nams/centrs” ( http://www.kulturaskarte.lv/lv/kulturas-centrs , skat, 2011-10-25.
  • https://www.google.lv/search?q=%D0%B4%D0%BE%D0%BC+%D0%BA%D1%83%D0%BB%D1%8C%D1%82%D1%83%D1%80%D1%8B&hl=lv&tbo=d&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=ydW3UMnQFoqG4gSNvIHgAQ&ved=0CAQQ_AUoAA&biw=1024&bih=418
  • Soviet heritage of Latvian cultural policy

    1. 1. {{ SOVIET HERITAGE OF LATVIAN CULTURAL POLICY a09RN07 / Culture, Heritage and memory 14:00 – 15:30 / Saturday 31 / CLE B Torino, 28-31 August 2013 ESA 11th Conference Crisis, Critique and Change Jānis Daugavietis University of Latvia, Rīga
    2. 2. Cultural houses in Latvia, 2013
    3. 3. Causal link between two factors: cultural activities andCausal link between two factors: cultural activities and community developmentcommunity development Cultural participation - a form of public [political]Cultural participation - a form of public [political] participation:participation: - individuals develop contacts with others and learn to- individuals develop contacts with others and learn to act collectivelyact collectively - it creates- it creates unintended outcomeunintended outcome - increas- increasee social capitalsocial capital of community (of community (ColemanColeman--Putnam thesPutnam thesisis)) How culture works?How culture works?
    4. 4. Putnam's theory of socialPutnam's theory of social capital & developmentcapital & development Key to development: strong horizontal networks of civicKey to development: strong horizontal networks of civic engagement (membership in voluntary associations)engagement (membership in voluntary associations) "."... the vibrancy of associational life. ... the number of amateur.. the vibrancy of associational life. ... the number of amateur soccer clubs, choral societies, hiking clubs, bird-watching groups,soccer clubs, choral societies, hiking clubs, bird-watching groups, literary circles, hunters' associations, Lions Clubs, and the like inliterary circles, hunters' associations, Lions Clubs, and the like in each community and region ...each community and region ..."" (Robert D, Robert Leonardi, and Raffaella Y Nanetti.(Robert D, Robert Leonardi, and Raffaella Y Nanetti. Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern ItalyMaking democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton university press, 1993: 91pp.). Princeton university press, 1993: 91pp.) ""In summary, economics does not predict civics, but civics doesIn summary, economics does not predict civics, but civics does predict economics, better indeed than economics itselfpredict economics, better indeed than economics itself."." (157, ibid.)(157, ibid.)
    5. 5. Cultural policyCultural policy ""...cultural resources are used for the state to achieve...cultural resources are used for the state to achieve symbolic, economic and social aims, by means ofsymbolic, economic and social aims, by means of administrative, juridical, economic and other measuresadministrative, juridical, economic and other measures"" (Bennett, T. [2001]. Cultural Policy. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (eds.),(Bennett, T. [2001]. Cultural Policy. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (eds.), International encyclopedia ofInternational encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciencesthe social & behavioral sciences (Vol. 1st, pp. 3092–7). Amsterdam ; New York: Elsevier). (Vol. 1st, pp. 3092–7). Amsterdam ; New York: Elsevier).  The CP of each state are determined and created byThe CP of each state are determined and created by various contextual conditions and factors: history,various contextual conditions and factors: history, traditions, cultural bureaucracy etc.traditions, cultural bureaucracy etc. ((Stanziola, Javier. 2002. "Neo-Stanziola, Javier. 2002. "Neo- liberalism and cultural policies in Latin America: The case of Chile."liberalism and cultural policies in Latin America: The case of Chile." International Journal of CulturalInternational Journal of Cultural PolicyPolicy 8:21-35.; Zimmer, Annette, and Stefan Toepler. 1999. "The Subsidized Muse: Government and the8:21-35.; Zimmer, Annette, and Stefan Toepler. 1999. "The Subsidized Muse: Government and the Arts in Western Europe and the United States."Arts in Western Europe and the United States." Journal of Cultural EconomicsJournal of Cultural Economics 23:33-49.23:33-49.))
    6. 6. ‘‘Total’ and very instrumental CPTotal’ and very instrumental CP («(«Enlightenment for allEnlightenment for all»)») –– educateducationion & control& control –– skilled & wealthy workforceskilled & wealthy workforce (high human capital)(high human capital) Use of cultural means for education, inseparable fromUse of cultural means for education, inseparable from ideological and other social policiesideological and other social policies The cultural policy in the USSRThe cultural policy in the USSR (...(...back in the U.S.S.R.back in the U.S.S.R. You don't know how lucky you are boyYou don't know how lucky you are boy))
    7. 7. * дом культуры / клуб (районный; городской; сельский), изба-читальня, красная юрта, красная чайхана, красный чум, красная яранга Cultural houses in the Soviet Russia and the USSR
    8. 8. Cultural houses in Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic and The Republic of Latvia 1st CONCLUSION. In terms of amateur cultural buildings nothing much is changed since the fall of Soviet Union.
    9. 9. RegionalRegional ««culturcultural policy»al policy» todaytoday Central and local governments sustain un finance allCentral and local governments sustain un finance all art schools, all houses of culture and wholeart schools, all houses of culture and whole amateur ‘cultural process’amateur ‘cultural process’ (buildings, cultural officers and their education and re-(buildings, cultural officers and their education and re- education, band leaders, requisites, events and festivalseducation, band leaders, requisites, events and festivals etc.)etc.) ……and the 2nd and 3rd sector in regional cultural lifeand the 2nd and 3rd sector in regional cultural life is almost absent (NGO’s, commercial ventures,is almost absent (NGO’s, commercial ventures, grassroot activities)grassroot activities)
    10. 10. ConclusionsConclusions TheThe Republic of Latvia has inherited typicalRepublic of Latvia has inherited typical top-down model of CP from the USSR, and ittop-down model of CP from the USSR, and it is still unchangedis still unchanged (except abadoned control and ‘forgotten’ social goals)(except abadoned control and ‘forgotten’ social goals) VVertical organisationertical organisation of and neglecting socialof and neglecting social issues within the cultural governancesissues within the cultural governances doesdoes not fulfil conditions for mechanism ofnot fulfil conditions for mechanism of production ofproduction of social capitalsocial capital
    11. 11. Thanks!Thanks! Janis.Daugavietis@lu.lv

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