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Bulletin of Er1ttir12iilogir‘iil Rt’St’llI'(‘ll (1991) 81, 2U9—219

209

The Palaearctic species of Eurytoma
(Hymenoptera:...
210

M. D. Zerova and ’. N. Fursov

Table 1. Host relations of Eur}/ toma species developing in the stones of Rosaceae.  '...
Palaearctic Eurylonm in stone fruits Zll

pupa or unemerged adult of Eurytmmz sp. , and only
rarely was more than one indi...
212 M. D. Zerova and V. N. Fursov

long.  Caster often with raised tergite 7, usually tergite 4
longer than 3. Female ante...
Palaearctic Eur}/ mum in stone fruits

Figs l—h Fig.  l,  ElH'_l/ ltllllll 5t‘lm’Iril'r1, ‘? 

habitus.  Fig.  2, li.  zmI...
Z14 M. D. Zerova and V. N. Fursov

Figs 7-13. Fig.  7, Eurymmn nm5In: '.~‘l’ii,  ‘§‘ ghabitus.  Figs 8-‘),  E.  smiismmrvi...
Palaearctic Enrytrmm in stone fruits 215

Forewing (fig.  3) hyaline.  Basal part of disc bare, 
distal % with short,  lig...
216 M. D. Zerova and V. N. Fursov

Distribution.  USSR:  Armenia. 

Material sxaniirzvd.  Holotype '1’:  USSR,  Armenia,  ...
Palaearctic Eurytmmi in stone fruits 217

Biology.  Phytophagous in the stones of Ariiwiiiiica z>iilgnr-
is,  Cernsus tiul...
218 M. D. Zerova and V. N. Fursov

Forewing with darkened area on disk.  Marginal vein
about equal in length to postmargin...
Palaearctic Eurytonm in stone fruits 219

and E.  nspliodvli n.  sp.  with taxonomical notes on the
mlmstn-group (Hymenopt...
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Fursov V.N., Zerova M.D. The Palaearctic species of Eurytoma (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae) developing in stone fruits (Rosacea: Prunoidea). Bulletin of Entomological Research (London). 1991.

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Fursov V.N., Zerova M.D. The Palaearctic species of Eurytoma (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae) developing in stone fruits (Rosacea: Prunoidea). Bulletin of Entomological Research (London). – 1991. – Vol.81. – № 3. – P.209-219.

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Fursov V.N., Zerova M.D. The Palaearctic species of Eurytoma (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae) developing in stone fruits (Rosacea: Prunoidea). Bulletin of Entomological Research (London). 1991.

  1. 1. Bulletin of Er1ttir12iilogir‘iil Rt’St’llI'(‘ll (1991) 81, 2U9—219 209 The Palaearctic species of Eurytoma (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) developing in stone fruits (Rosaceae: Prunoideae) M. D. Zerova and V. N. Fursov Department of Taxonomy of Entomopha es and Ecological Principles of Biological Control, Institute 0 Zoology, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev, USSR Abstract Species of the chalcidoid genus Eurytonm associated with stone fruits are studied for the Palaearctic region. The eight species known to have such an as- sociation are: E. zzm_1/gdali Enderlein, E. nmslovskii Nikol’sl<aya, E. piidi Veresh- chagin, E. sunzsonowi Vasiljev, E. sclzreiiwri Schreiner, E. turkestanica sp. n. , E. pnriiiiiygziali sp. n. and E. armenica sp. n. The first six species are phytophagous, developing in the stones, and the last two are entomophytophages, starting their development as parasitoids of a phytophagous species and completing development feeding on plant tissue. Four species, E. mnygdali, E. sclireiiwri, E. sunzsonowi, and E. maslaziskii are of economic importance. Information is given on the economic importance, biology, distribution and taxonomy of these species, and includes several new records for hosts and distribution. A key is given to distinguish the species. Introduction Members of the family Rosaceae are important fruit crop plants in temperate regions. The most important of these is apple, however, almost as important are several species of 'stone fruits’ belonging to the subfamily Pru- noideae. These include plums, sloes, cherries, apricots, peaches and almonds. The chalcidoid genus Eurytunm displays a wide range of hosts and biology, with eight Palaearctic species associated with stone fruits. Most of these are phytophagous, developing in the stones, however two species develop as entomophytophages, starting their development as parasitoids of phytopha- gous species and continuing on plant material after the host has been destroyed. The eight species known to be associated with stone fruits in the Palaearctic region are: E. nnzygduli Enderlein, E. nrmciiiciz sp. n. , E. nriislnriskii Nikol’skaya, E. pmii Ve- reshchagin, E. pnritnn/ gdali sp. n. E. snnisoriozvi Vasiljev, E. sclm'im'ri Schreiner, E. turkestimicu sp. n. These species are listed in table 1, along with their hosts and mode of development. Correspondence: Dr MD. Zerova, Department of Taxonomy oi Entoniophages and Ecological Principles of Biological Control, Institute of Zoology, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Lenin Street, 15, Kiev, 252001, USSR. These Eur}/ tunm spp. are known to attack host plants in the genera A111}/ giizzliis, Arnieniacn, Cmisus, and Prmms. There is presently some controversy concerning the generic classification within the Prunoideae, and some authors would consider these genera as no more than subgenera in the genus Prmms. Host plants, both culti- vated and native, are listed in table 1. Due to the difficult taxonomy of Eurytomidae, prob- lems have occurred concerning the identity of various species. Much of the information concerning E. sclireineri has been reported under the name of E. ii/ riygiiali. However Nikol’skaya (1961) showed that these species are recognizable both by morphological characteristics and by host: E. mizygdzrli attacks only almonds; E. SCllH’llIt‘- ri attacks apricots, cherries, plums and sloes. In this paper the opportunity is taken to review the biological and economic information connected with these Eurytonm spp. , and to supply several new host and distribution records. The taxonomy of these species is also discussed, and a key for distinguishing the species is given. Three new species, reared by the authors in the Middle Asian and Caucasian region of the USSR, are de- scribed. For all species information is given on host, dis- tribution, economic importance, and diagnostic characters. Acronyms for the institutes and collections are as follows: BMNH, The Natural History Museum, London, UK: IZAU, Institute of Zoology of Ukrainian Academy of
  2. 2. 210 M. D. Zerova and ’. N. Fursov Table 1. Host relations of Eur}/ toma species developing in the stones of Rosaceae. ' indicates economic importance as a pest species on that plant. Species of Eirrytonm Biology Species of Rosaceae Common name E. antygdali Enderlein phytophage ' / lm_i/ grlnlus rnrnnuuiis almond Amygdalus fcnzclimm wild almond Anrygdriliis huclmrica wild almond E. nrmvnicn sp. n. entomophytophage Amygdalus fr-nzclimm wild almond Arrrygdnliis huclmrim wild almond E. nmshwskii Nikol’skaya phytophage ' Prmius pcrsim peach E. paiii Vereshchagin phytophage Pnmus pudus bird cherry E. parnmygdrrli sp. n. entomophytophage Arnygiiiiliis turccwimnoi wild almond E. sanisonou-i Vasiljev phytophage Airiygiializs lmchriricn wild almond ‘ Atnygdalus comnmnis almond " Anm-iiinm vulgnris apricot ? ‘ Prumis timriestim plum ? ‘ Primus pursim peach E. sclireineri Schreiner phytophage ‘ Arrmvziilcn zvulgnris apricot Cmzsus tuilgrzris cherry ' Cmzsus ntviinn wild cherry, mazzard Prunus dizvariraln wild prune ' Prmms ilonzrsticn plum Prunus spinvsa blackthom, sloe " Prunus insifitia bullace plum, damson E. fllI'kL‘Si‘ll1llt‘{1 sp. n. phytophage Ainygdalus turcunrizrurn wild almond Sciences, Kiev, USSR; ZIL, Zoological Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Leningrad, USSR. Economic importance Four species of Eur}/ lama are economically important on stone fruits (see table 1), with E. mnygdnli and E. sclireineri being the major pests on almonds and plums respectively. Losses of over 70% have been reported due to these wasps. The almond wasp, E. amygdnli, has been reported as a very serious pest of almonds from Bulgaria (Ivanov, 1960, i968), Cyprus (Bevan, 1918; Louca, 1984), Yugoslavia Cakar, 1980), France (Arambourg at 111., 1983a, 1983b), Greece (Mentjelos 6: Atjemis, 1970), Lebanon and Syria (Talhouk, 1966, 1977), Turkey (Ekici & Giinaydin, 1969), Jordan (Klapperich, 1964), Israel (Acharoni, 1916; Plaut, 1971a, 1971b, 1972; Plaut & Mansour, 1973). We have re- corded E. mnygdali for the first time from Armenia, Azer- baijan and Georgia, although not in large numbers. E. mnygdali has a wide distribution in the Mediterranean region and south-western USSR, and because its range is continually expanding it has become a quarantine target. In Yugoslaviacakar (1980) noted that E. amygdali can destroy up to 71 % of almond fruits; the majority of the damaged fruits shrivel and remain on the tree. Accord- ing to Plaut (1975b) in Israel 23.2-87.9% of the mummified fruits of almond contained living E. nniygdm Ii. Talhouk (1977) reported that in Lebanon E. rim}/ gdnli is most commonly found in the fruits of soft-shelled or later-flowering varieties of almonds, and do not appear to infest the fruits of bitter varieties. The plum wasp, E. sclireineri, may cause significant economic damage to plums in the southern part of the USSR. Puzanova-Malysheva (1930) noted that at the be- ginning of August in Borisovka, Belgorod District, almost 65% of mature plum fruits were infested by E. sclzreineri, and 90% of the fallen fruits contained larvae. Khizhnyak (1966) reported that on the left bank of the river Dnieper (Ukraine) almost 40% of the plum fruits were damaged by E. sclircineri, with infected fruits usually dropping before reaching maturity. Nikol’skaya (1939, 1945) reported that E. sinrisoiinzui damaged the fruits of cultivated apricot, peach and almond in regions of the Middle Asia of the USSR and west India. Nikol’skaya (1939) described E. nmslnivskii as a pest of Far-Eastem USSR (Primorsky Region) species of apricot and plums, and Tachikawa (1979) reared this species from the stones of peach in Japan. Material 8: Methods To rear species of Eurytonm, fruits were collected in the autumn and kept over winter. With almonds, infest- ed fruits usually shrivel and remain on the tree, but in other species the infested fruits dropped before reaching maturity. The fruits were collected and kept separately in small glass tubes. The fruits had to be kept chilled for some time (2-5°C for 1-2 months) to break diapause and allow for adult emergence in the spring. Fruits could be opened to check the contents, but this usually resulted in damage which prevented Eur_i/ tomii completing develop- ment. Usually the infested fruits contained a single larva,
  3. 3. Palaearctic Eurylonm in stone fruits Zll pupa or unemerged adult of Eurytmmz sp. , and only rarely was more than one individual per fruit found. The adults make a characteristic exit hole. All reared species were card—mounted. Biology Eurytomidae display great variation in their biology. Species may be phytophagous (seed-eaters, gall—formers, stem—borers), parasitic, or display a combination of these two life styles. Phytophagous Eurytomidae attack a wide range of host plants, and Zerova (1978a) reported that in the Ukraine they are known to attack 10 families of plants (Gramineae, Leguminosae, Labiatae, Umbellife— rae, Rosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Liliaceae, Pinaceae, Scro- phulariaceae, Cniciferae). Parasitic species develop in the eggs, larvae or pupae of a variety of insects, although mainly from the orders Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera. In the majority of cases the host is hidden in the generative or vegetative parts of the plants. Some species develop as hyperparasitoids, for example in the cocoons of braconids and ichneumonids. Certain species display a combination of parasitic and phytopha- gous styles, or entomophytophagy. The young larva is parasitic on a phytophagous host (usually concealed in the plant tissue), but after consuming its host it com- pletes its development by feeding on the plant tissues. Boucek (1988) noted that the larvae of some Eur_i/ tunm spp. in galls have a predatory habit and destroy several larvae of the gall-causer or its parasites. The genus Eur}/ ~ tunm has the widest host range of any of the eurytomid genera, displaying all three basic types of biology (phyto- phagy, parasitism, and entomophytophagy). The Eurytoniri spp. which develop in the stones of Rosaceae have two types of nutrition, phytophagy and entomophytophagy (see table 1). Detailed biological studies have been made for three of the economically im- portant species, E. am_i/ gdizli, E. sclireineri, and E. sinuso- norm. In Israel the life cycle of E. anzygdali was investigated by Plaut (1971a, 1971b, 1972). There is one generation per year. The adult begins oviposition in March-April, in the nuclear tissue of almond seeds. The larva feeds on the whole kernel and enters diapause in June-July. The larva exits diapause and pupates in ]anuary—February, and adults emerge after the flowering stage of almond in March—April. Infested fruits of almond shrivel but remain attached to the tree. Not all larvae break dia- pause in the first year, and some may not emerge_until two or three years after oviposition. According to Cakar (1980) in Yugoslavia 87.5% of larvae break diapause and pupate in the first year, 12% pass into adulthood in the second year, and 0.5% of larvae remain in diapause more than two years. The biology of the plum wasp, E. schrvineri, was studied in the southern part of Russia by I’uzanova- Malysheva (1930), and in the Ukraine by Khizhnyak (1966), Rodzyanko (1913), Tertyshniy (1983) and Ustinov (1925). There is one generation a year. Adult E. sclireiiicri emerge at the beginning of May, coinciding with the ending of plum blossoming. Adult flight lasts five or six weeks. Within 40-50 minutes after copulation females are able to lay eggs into the green germs of the plums. The females place the eggs just in the kernel of the plum under their still tender envelopes. Each female lays about a dozen eggs. In the middle of August, about two and a half months after oviposition, the larva finishes feeding and enters diapause. As with E. mn_i/ gdnli, some adults do not emerge until the second or third year. In Turkmenia, Vasiljev (1915) investigated the biology of E. snnisunowi. The preferred host plants are the Middle—Asian varieties of apricot with a thin«skinned pericarp. The European varieties of apricot, which have a thick-skinned pericarp, are rarely attacked. Nikol’skaya (1939, 1952, 1956) noted that E. szmismiorui may develop in the stones of plums, peach, apricots and almonds, but our research has only been able to verify the presence of this species in apricots and almonds. Records on plums and peach should be considered as questionable without further rearings. Eurytoma Illiger Eurytnnm llliger, 18072128. Type species Clialris abrota- ni Panzer. Designated by Westwood (1839). A full generic synonymy is given by Boucek (1988). Eurytmmi is a large, cosmopolitian genus which pres- ently contains several hundred species. Keys to genera of Eurytomidae have been provided for the world (Burks, 1971), the Western Palaearctic region (Claridge, 1961, Erdos, 1957, 1970, the European part of the USSR (Zerova, 1978a, 1978b), the Oriental region (Farooqi 8: Subba Rao, 1985, Narendran, 1984), and Australasia (Boucek, 1988). The genus Eur]/ toma may be identified using any of these. Identification of Eurytonza is difficult at the species level. Keys to species have been provided for North America (Bugbee, 1967), the Palaearctic (most species) (Szelenyi, 1976), the European part of the USSR (Zerova, 1978a, 1978b), and for Western Palaearctic members of the rolvusta group (I-Iedqvist, 1976). Zerova’s key includ- ed only three of the species treated in this paper, E. am_i/ g— dali, E. sclirviricri, and E. padi. Szelenyi’s key included five species (E. mnygdnli, E. maslovskii, E. padi, E. smnsonou-i, E. sclzrrineri) but we have found that his key will not cor- rectly identify all of these species. Claridge (1961) divided the Western Palaearctic species into three species groups, the cynipsetz, saliciperdae and setigcm groups. Bugbee (1967) recognized the ]}€fIU[t1- ta and brezvipetiulatu groups for Northern American Eury- tnma spp. Boucek (1988) discussed morphological variation in Eurytonia, and indicated that species can be more or less readily clustered into a number of species groups (mn_i/ gdali, rosae, lntrodecti, hracmiidis, denmtn, pistaccne, etc. ). Diagnostic characters. Body usually dark, sometimes with yellow parts or completely yellow. Head and thorax with distinct setigerous punctures. Head transverse; genae with a strong postgenal carina; lower face striated or punctured, or with almost smooth median strip. Inner eye orbits carinate or not. Clypeus entirely or partly stri- ated, or without striae, its anterior margin deeply or shal- lowly emarginate, truncate, or even slightly toothed medially. Fore coxae with or without a ventral channel, with or without oblique carina. Lower edge of mesopleu— ron may be smooth, with carinae, a median tooth, a median carina or sulcus. Propodeum sculptured, rather
  4. 4. 212 M. D. Zerova and V. N. Fursov long. Caster often with raised tergite 7, usually tergite 4 longer than 3. Female antennae with 5-6 segmented funicle and 2-3 segmented club. Male antennae with 5 segmented funicle and 2 segmented club, or with 4 seg- mented funicle and 3 segmented club, or with 7 segment- ed flagellum which is not clearly separated into funicle and club. Tannmmic position. Eurylumiz spp. developing in the stones of Rosaceae may be divided into three separate groups. The first includes E. aniygdali, E. 5C’I! ’t’iI1t’7’I, E. nzasluvskii, E. samsunowi and E. turkestanira. These species would key to couplet 1 in Zerova (1978b). This group may be distinguished from all other Palaearctic Eurytonm spp. by the following characters, large body size (more than 5 mm), coarse fovealate sculpture of thorax, dense pubescence of thorax, 6 segmented funicle of the female antennae (with 2 segmented club), and 7 segmented flagellum of male antennae (without visible club), forew- ing darkened. All these species are phytophagous in the stones of Rosaceae. The second group includes E. parmrzygdali and E. m- meniczz. These species have a distinct tooth or triangular keel on the lower margin of the mesepisternum (Figs 10, 13). They would key to couplet 29 in Zerova (1978b), along with E. dentrzta, E. Iaserpitii, and E. rolrmsta (all para- sites in galls). E. dentafa and E. Iaserpitii have a distinct keel on the fore coxa which is produced into a noticeable tooth, and the abdomen equal in length to the thorax; E. pammygdnli, E. arrrimiru and E. rolmsta have the fore coxa simple, without a keel or tooth, and the abdomen longer than the thorax. E. paramygdali and E. urmenicn differ from E. rohustn by gaster laterally compressed and dis- tinctly upturned apically, face lengthened, and antenna] segments elongated in both sexes. E. paramygdali and E. armenim are entomophytophages in stone fruits, E. robusta is parasitic in galls of Tephritidae (Diptera). E. padi belongs to a large and diverse (in both mor- phology and biology) group of Eurytmmz spp. It is easy to distinguish from other species of Eur}/ tonm associated with stone fruits by its smaller length (about 3 mm), dis- tinctly convex thorax, and short gaster which is about equal in length to the thorax. Its relationship to other species of E urytonm is unknown. Key to Palaearctic species of Eurytoma associated with stone fruits 1. Mesepisternum with keel present on ventral margin (figs 10, 13) . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 2 — Mesepisternum without a keel or oo present on ventral margin (figs 1, 2, 3, 7, 9) . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 3 2. Caster distinctly rounded dorsally (fig. 10); compressed laterally. Ventral margin of clypeus with small median incision (fig. 11). Eye not margined . ... ... ... ... .. E. mrnniygdali ene , not so distinctly rounded dorsally (fig. 13); not or hardly compressed laterally. Ventral margin of clypeus without median incision (fig. 12). Eye margin with a slight keel . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . E. nrnmzira 3. Female: gaster yellow, legs, except coxae completely yellow (fig. 9). Male: gaster black; legs, except coxae, completely yellow. Head and thorax of both sexes dorsally with small foveated sculpture. Forewings slightly darkened, marginal vein about equal in length to radial. Length of body: female about 6.0 mm, male 4-4.5 mm. ... . E. snnisunuiui — Female and male: gaster b ack, legs with at least some black markings. .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 4 4. Caster of female about equal to length of thorax; apex rounded in lateral view. Female length 2.8-3.5 mm. .. ... ... ... . . . E. padi — Caster of female distinct y ongcr t an thorax; apex pointed in lateral view. Female length 4-8 mm I: 5. Caster of female distinctly longer than head plus thorax (fig. 7). Length of female to 8mm, male to 6 mm . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . E. lrlI1Slt)Z’Sl‘ii — Gaster of female no longer, or only slightly longer than head plus thorax. Length of female usually no more than 7mm (more often about 5 mm), male 4-5mm . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..6 6. Marginal vein of forewing about equal in length to the radial vein; forewing not dark (fig. 3). Ventral margin of clypeus with median incision (fig. 6). .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . E. lurkestmzim — Marginal vein of forewing slightly longer than radial vein; forewing at least slightly dark (figs 1, 2). Clypeus with smooth ventral margin (as in fig. 8) 7 7. Apex of gaster of female upturned; tergite 7 almost twice as long as tergite 6 (fig. 2). Forewing distinctly infumate. Castral petiole distinctly longer than hind coxa; 2.5 times as long as wide . ... ... ... ... ... .. . . E. nntygduli — Caster of female with apex not upturned; tergite 7 about equal in length to tergite 6 (fig. 1). Forewing slightly infumate. Castral petiole slightly longer than hind coxa; 2.1 times as long as wide . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. E. sclzreiueri Eur}/ tmnu turkestrmica, sp. n. (figs 3 - 6) Female. Length 5.0-5.2 mm. Body, antennae and coxae black; femora black with brown knees; fore and mid tibiae partly brownish, hind tibiae yellow; tarsi dirty- yellow. Veins dark yellow. Head dorsally slightly broader than pronotum; in frontal view (fig. 6) somewhat broader than high (7:6). Longitudinal diameter of eyes smaller than malar space (2:3), eyes not margined. Postgenal carina sharp, distinct- ly developed. Ventral margin of clypeus with slight median incision. Head and thorax dorsally with large se- tigerous punctures, densely pubescent. Antenna (fig. 4) inserted slightly higher than median part of face, with distinct 6 segmented funicle, 2 seg- mented club. Thorax convex, pronotum about twice as broad as long. Ventral margin of mesepisternum almost smooth. Propodeum with a very wide median groove and slender longitudinal median keel; margins of propode- um with large setigerous punctures. Hind coxae without distinct scale—like comb.
  5. 5. Palaearctic Eur}/ mum in stone fruits Figs l—h Fig. l, ElH'_l/ ltllllll 5t‘lm’Iril'r1, ‘? habitus. Fig. 2, li. zmI_i/ _niul1, . ‘ habitus. Figs 3-6, E. llH’l'L‘5MlliL‘i1: I I‘ 5, T habitus; 6, z’ head. antenna; 4, J“ antenna;
  6. 6. Z14 M. D. Zerova and V. N. Fursov Figs 7-13. Fig. 7, Eurymmn nm5In: '.~‘l’ii, ‘§‘ ghabitus. Figs 8-‘), E. smiismmrvi: 8, T head; 9, Tliabitus. Figs ltl — 11, E. iiririlriii/ gririli: 10,‘? habitus; 1l, 'z‘head. Figs 12-13, E. lIYNlL‘/ llCllI 12, 5‘ l'1C¢lCl; l3,? habitus.
  7. 7. Palaearctic Enrytrmm in stone fruits 215 Forewing (fig. 3) hyaline. Basal part of disc bare, distal % with short, light pubescence. Marginal vein short, about equal in length to radial vein and distinctly shorter than postmarginal vein. Gaster slightly longer than thorax (7:6). Tergites 3-6 smooth, shining, with small lateral punctures, tergites 7- 9 with reticulate sculpture. Mali: Length 4.6 mm. Colour and pubescence as female. Petiole of gaster about equal in length to hind coxa. An- tennae (fig. 5) with slightly swollen scape and 7 segment- ed flagellum which is not separated into funicle and club. Flagellar pubescence dense, relatively short; setae not more 1.5 times as long as width of segments. Biology. Phytophagous in the stones of Amygdnlus turm- mmzica. Distrilmtion. USSR: Turkmenia. Mntcrinl c. t'mnim'd. Holotype T: USSR, Turkmenia, near Ashkhabad, Firuza, 30.iii. l980, M. D. Zerova, at fruits of Amygrialus turcommiim (IZAU). Paratypes: 17 T1‘. As holotype, 15 ‘P? (IZAU); I 9’ (ZIL); l 9’ (BMNH). Dinxiiosis. E. turltvstnnicu can be distinguished from other Eurytonm spp. from stone fruits by; mesepisternum without a median keel, forewing not darkened, and with marginal vein about equal in length to radial vein, gaster and legs of both sexes darkened, ventral margin of clypeus with a medial incision. Eurytoma pammygdali, sp. n. (figs 10-11) Femnlc. Length 4.5-4.8 mm. Body, coxae, antennae black; femora with yellow knees; tibiae yellow with median in- fuscation. Head dorsally very slightly broader than pronotum, in frontal view broader than high (14:11). Gena slightly longer than longitudional diameter of eyes. Ventral margin of clypeus with median incision; face above clypeus weakly striate. Sculpture of face punctate, foveae smaller than on the thorax. Face, frons and vertex with short, light, dense pubescence. Antennae inserted slightly higher than the median part of face; scrobes indistinctly bordered. Funicle 5 seg- mented, club 3 segmented. Pubescence of flagellum very short. Thorax convex, pronotum about 3 times as broad as long. Lower margin of mesepisternum with distinct keel (fig. 10). Central part of propodeum with large concave area which has complicated longitudinal—folded sculp- ture surrounded by large irregular foveae. Gaster rounded laterally, pointed apically, distinctly compressed laterally. Dorsal part of tergites 3-6 smooth, shining, lateral sides partly with indistinct punctures; tergite 7 and especially tergite 9 dorsally with slender, small longitudinal comb. Forewing hyaline. Marginal vein short, slightly longer than radial; postmarginal vein shorter than margi- nal vein. Mule‘. Length 3.4-4.2 mm. Colour and sculpture as female. Castral petiole slightly longer than hind coxae. Antennae with 5 segmented funicle and 2 segmented club. Flagellar pubescence bundled, segmental setae no more than 1.5 times as long as width of segments. Binlogy. This species has been reared from the stones of Am_i/ gdrzlus lllVL‘0mflllfCfl. Our studies indicate that E. pam- m_1/gdali is probably an entomophytophage of E. turk: 's- trmicn. Distribution. USSR: Turkmenia. 1”» Material c. umn'm-d. Holotype : : USSR, Turkmenia, near Ashkhabad, Firuza, iii.1980, M. D. Zerova, at fruits of Amygdrzlus tummnanicu (lZAU). _ Paraty es: 6 9?, 6 dd. As holotype, 5 '92‘, 5 c‘c’ (lZAU); l ,1o’(BMNl-I). Diagnosis. E. paramygdnli can be distinguished from other Eurytamn spp. from stone fruits by the following charac- ters, mesepisternum with a distinct keel on ventral margin, gaster distinctly rounded dorsally, flattened lat- erally, ventral margin of clypeus with medial incision, eye not margined. Eurytoma armenica, sp. n. (figs 12-13) FEIHRIL’. Length 4.5-4.8 mm. Body, coxae, antennae black; femora dark with yellow knees; all tibiae fuscous medial- ly, light yellow basally and distally; tarsi light yellow. Head dorsally slightly broader than pronotum, in frontal view broader than high (13:11). Gena about equal in length to longitudinal diameter of eye. Eye pubescent; orbit of eye margined by slender carina; which is darker on facial side. Clypeus (fig. 12) with smooth ventral margin; face above clypeus slightly striate. Postgenal carina distinctly developed, high, sharp. Face densely pubescent. Antennae inserted slightly higher than median part of face, with 5 segmented funicle and 3 segmented club. Antenna! torulus emarginated and enlarged ventrally (fig_ 12). Antenna] pubescence dense, short. Thorax distinctly convex; pronotum 2.5 times as broad as long. Lower margin of mesepisternum with dis- tinct keel (fig. 13). Propodeum with large median depres- sion, and weakly indicated median groove. The entire surface of propodeal depression with short longitudinal carinae surrounded by weak basal sculpture. Gaster (fig. 13) lengthened, not distinctly rounded dorsally; not or hardly compressed laterally. Tergite 9 slightly upturned. Tergites 7-9 with slender foveate sculpture; tergites 7 and 9 slightly pubescent, tergite 8 densely pubescent. Tergite 8 with short median carina. Forewing hyaline. Marginal vein short, radial vein about equal in length to marginal vein, postmarginal vein slightly longer than marginal vein. Male. Length about 3mm. Colour and sculpture as female. Gastral petiole about equal in length to hind coxae. Antennae with 5 segmented funicle and 2 seg- mented club. Segmental setae more than 1.5 times as long as width of segments. Pubescence sparse, light. Biology. E. zzrrmmicn has been reared from fruits of Am_u_t; — dalus fcnzelizma and A. huclzaricn, in both cases with E. nriiygriali. Our studies indicate that E. mnygdnli is the probable host of E. nrnmiim, and dissections of the fruit demonstrated that E. armenim larvae finish their develop- ment on the flesh of the stones as entomophytophages.
  8. 8. 216 M. D. Zerova and V. N. Fursov Distribution. USSR: Armenia. Material sxaniirzvd. Holotype '1’: USSR, Armenia, Ararats- kiy Region, 13—18.viii. l978, G. Arutjunyan, at fruits Amygdulusfvnzliana (lZAU). Paratypes: 8 9?, 8 db". As holotype, 6 9?, 1 0“ (IZAU); 1 9, 1 O’ (BMNH); 1 '3, 4 dd, USSR, Armenia, Abovyanskiy Region, 31.vii.1979, G. Arutjunyan, ex fruits of Amygdalus lmcharica (IZAU). Diagnosis. E. armenim can be recognized from other Eury- toma spp. from stone fruits by the mesepisternum having a distinct keel at ventral margin; gaster lengthened, not so distinctly rounded dorsally, not, or rarely hardly, flattened laterally; ventral margin of clypeus without median incision (Fig. 12). Eye margin with a slight keel. Eurytoma umygdali Enderlein (fig. 2) E urytoma amygdal i Enderlein, 1907: 303-305. Frvnalr. Length 7-8 mm, sometimes 5-6 mm. Body slender, elongate, with gaster narrowed apically. Body, antennae, coxae, hind femora black; fore and middle femora fuscous medially, brown basally and apically. All tibiae reddish, only medially slightly fuscous. Tarsi dark yellow, apical segment fuscous. Head dorsally slightly broader than pronotum, in frontal view broader than high (3:2). Eyes small; gena distinctly longer than longitudinal diameter of eye. Clypeus with smooth ventral margin; face above clypeus with a few slender, indistinct, short carinae. Head and thorax dorsally with large setigerous punc- tures, round, distributed sparsely and surrounded by smaller foveae. Pubescence of head and thorax long, dense, silver-white. Antennae inserted higher than median part of face. Scrobes deep, clearly margined. Scape distinctly swollen medially. Funicle long, slender, with short pubescence, 6 segmented. Club 2 segmented. Thorax slightly convex; pronotum 2.5 times as broad as long. Mesepisternum slightly concave ventrally, without keel. Propodeum widely concave medially, with large median carina and large irregular foveae laterally. Hind coxa densely pubescent, with dense foveate sculp- ture and small vertical comb distally. Gaster slightly longer than head plus thorax. Surface of tergites with indistinct punctures. Tergite 9 elongate, no shorter than targite 8. Gaster rounded, petiole slightly longer than hind coxae. Forewing with distinct large fuscous marking in the middle part of disk. Veins dark-brown. Male. Length 5-6 mm. Colour and sculpture as female. Antennae with 7 segmented flagellum which is not clearly separated into funicle and club. Pubescence of flagellum short; segmental setae about equal in length to the width of segments. Biology. Phytophagous in the stones of Arnygzlaliis commu- nis, A. fenmslinna and A. lmclmrica (the latter two are new host records for this species). This species is restricted to the genus Azriygiiiilias, and records from other host plants are probably erroneous. Distrilvutimi. Bulgaria, Cyprus, Yugoslavia, France, Greece, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Jordan, Israel, USSR: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, possibly Crimea (see remarks). Material axiilriilrcd. 7 99, 4 dd‘, BULGARIA, at fruits Amygilnlus cummzmis (IZAU); 56 9?, -10 dd, USSR, Georgia, Tbilisi, ex fruits A. commmiis (IZAU); 2 9?’, USSR, Armenia, L21’ fruits Anrygdalus sp. (IZAU); 12 9?, 9 o"d', USSR, Armenia, Abovyanskiy Region, PI fruits A. lmclmrica (IZAU); 5 99, USSR, Armenia, Araratskiy Region, ex fruits A. fenztliana (IZAU); 2 9?, USSR, Azer- baijan, ex fruits A. lmclmrica (IZAU). Diagnosis. E. am_I/ gdrlli can be distinguished from other Eur_i/ tunm spp. from stone fruits by the following charac- ters, mesepisternum without a keel at ventral margin, gaster of female with distinctly upturned apex, tergite 7 almost twice as long as tergite o, forewing with distinctly darkened spot on disc, gastral petiole distinctly longer than hind coxa. Remarks. This species was described by Enderlein (1907) from material reared from the stones of A. commmris. Records of E. am_i/ gdali from plum most probably refer to E. scllrvirreri. Differences between these species were given by Nikol’skaya (1961). This species probably also occurs in Crimea as stones of almonds from Nikita Botanic Garden (Crimea) con- tained larvae of a Eur]/ toma spp. , but no adults were col- lected or reared. Eurytoma schreineri Schreiner (fig. 1) Eurytnnm srhri'inez! i[l] Schreiner, 1908: 26-28. Female. Length 4-6 mm. Body, antennae, coxae, femora black; tibiae completely or mostly black, tarsi dark- yellow. Head dorsally as broad as pronotum, in frontal view broader than high (3:2). Face above clypeus densely striate. Head and thorax with setigerous punctures, foveae dense and surrounded by small reticulate surface. Pubescence of head and thorax short, dense. Antennae inserted higher than median part of face, with long, 6 segmented funicle and 2 segmented club. All segments of funicle longer than wide, densely and shortly pubescent. Thorax weakly convex, pronotum 2.5 times as wide as long. Mesepisternum with smooth ventral margin (without keel) and transverse carina medially. Propode- um medially weakly concave with broad and distinct median groove. Hind coxa weakly pubescent with clear foveate sculpture and vertical comb distally. Gaster about equal in length to head plus thorax. Dorsal surface of all tergites smooth, shining. Forewing with faint light-brown spot below margi- nal vein. Veins light—brown. Marginal vein about equal in length to postmarginal vein. Marginal vein at least 1.5 times as long as radial vein. Mala. Length 4-4.5 mm. Colour and sculpture as female. Antennae with 7 segmented flagellum. All flagellar seg- ments longer than wide, slightly swollen, with relatively short pubescence. Segmental setae slightly longer than width of flagellum. Gaster rounded, petiole as long as hind coxa.
  9. 9. Palaearctic Eurytmmi in stone fruits 217 Biology. Phytophagous in the stones of Ariiwiiiiica z>iilgnr- is, Cernsus tiulgnris, C. zwium, Prmzus rlimrimla, P. rluinesti- cu, P. spiimsa and P. insititin. Distrilmtimi. Southern and central regions of the Euro- pean part of the USSR: Moldavia, Ukraine (especially left banks of the river Dnieper), Georgia, Russia (Rostov, As- trakhan, Western Siberia). Material emiiiined. 110 99, 65 cfo", USSR, Moldavia, Ukraine, Russia (Dagestan, Siberia), Georgia, Armenia (IZAU, ZIL). Dingimsis. E. sclirviizeri can be recognized from other Eu- rytamn spp. from stone fruits by the following characters, mesepisternum without a keel at ventral margin, gaster of female with apex not upturned, tergite 7 about equal in length to tergite 6, forewing only slightly darkened, gastral petiole only slightly longer than hind coxa. Rmmrks. Schreiner (1908) gave a brief history of this species. He first reared it in 1904 in the Astrakhan region (South Povolzhie of Russia) from plum stones. In 1906 specimens were sent to Dr Mayr in Vienna, who deter- mined this species as Eurytmna sp. On this basis, Schrein- er (1908) described it as a new species, E. schreiiieri. Schreiner’s paper was overlooked, and many subsequent publications treated this pest of plums under the name E. amygdnli (Khizhnyak, 1966; Nikol’skaya, 1939, 1945, 1952; Puzanova-Malysheva, 1930; Rodzyanko, 1913; Ustinov, 1925; Vasiljev, 1915; Vereshchagin, 1953; Vodinskaya, 1932). Nikol’skaya (1961) properly applied the name SC}1Yt’il1t'fl, and distinguished these species using biologi- cal as well as morphological characters. This species was indicated later from the Ukraine by Zerova (1974, 1978a 1978b, 1988). Eurytomwsnmsonauri Vasiljev (figs 8-9) E llf_I/ llllflfl srmismmwi Vasiljev, 1915: 1-10. Fmmlc. Length 6.0-6.2 mm. Head and thorax black; gaster light coloured, from reddish-brown to almost yellow, with darkened apex and dark—brown spot dorso-basally. Scape completely to partly reddish-yellow, funicle black. Coxae black, femora, tibiae and tarsi amber-yellow. Head dorsally slightly broader than pronotum, in frontal view slightly broader than high (about 6:5). Eyes small, longitudinal diameter of eyes visibly smaller than length of gena. Clypeus with smooth ventral margin. Face with very dense, long pubescence and with indis- tinct striation. Head and thorax dorsally with small and shallow foveae surrounded by very small foveate sculp- ture. Pubescence of head and thorax dense, long, light- coloured, erect. Antennae inserted higher than median part of face. Scrobe deepened and margined basally. Antennae with 6 segmented funicle and 2 segmented club. All segments longer than wide, first about 2 times, others about 1.5 times. Thorax not convex, pronotum approximately 2.5 times as broad as long. Propodeum with poorly defined, wide, shallow median groove; margins of propodeum with irregular shallow foveae. Hind coxa with scale-like comb. Gaster upturned near apex, about equal in length to head plus thorax (in lateral view). Tergites 7-9 densely pubescent. Forewing with faint darkening, more visible in the median part of disk. Marginal vein short, about equal in length to radial vein; postmarginal vein slightly longer. Male. Length 4.0-4.5 mm. Body completely black. Coxae, scape, flagellum, black. Femora, tibiae and tarsi, yellow (as female), some specimens have fore and middle femora slightly darkened. Antennae with 7 segmented flagellum, flagellar segments 1-6 rectangular. Petiole about 2.5 times as long as wide, distinctly longer than hind coxae; dorsally with distinct grainy sculpture. Variation. The gaster of most specimens is amber-yellow with a small dark spot dorso-basally, but some speci- mens may have the gaster completely yellow or, more rarely, yellow-brown. Legs of males are variable in colour and the femora range from completely yellow to more or less dark. Biology. Phytophagous in the stones of Aniygdalus commu- nis, Armeniaca vulgaris and probably Prmms duniestica and P. persica. Distrilmtimi. USSR: Armenia, Tadzhikistan, North India. Material t’. ‘l1mll1(‘d. 4 99, 2 dd, USSR, Armenia, iii.1978, G. Arutjunyan, ex fruits of Amygdalus cnnnniniis (IZAU); 240 99, 60 dd’, USSR, Tadzhikistan, lsfara, ex fruits Armeniacu ziulguris (IZAU); 8 9?, 9 d'd‘, USSR, Tadzhikistan, lstara, ex fruits Amygdulus lmclmrica (lZAU); 5 99, 5 do“, USSR, Armenia, at fruits A. buclmrica (lZAU). Diagnosis. E. szmisminwi is the only species of Eurytonm in- festing stone fruits in which the female gaster is distinct- ly lighter (reddish brown to yellow) than the thorax (black), and the males have the entire legs light coloured. In addition, the mesepisternum lacks a ventral keel, the head and thorax is finely sculptured and the forewing has only an indistinct dark spot. Eurytomu maslovskii Nikol’skaya (Hg. 7) Eurytomu mnslovskii Nikol’skaya, 1939: 8. Female. Length 7-8 mm. Body, scape, funicle, coxae black. Femora mostly dark, tarsi dark-yellow. Head dorsally visibly broader than pronotum, in frontal view broader than high (about 9:7). Clypeus with smooth ventral margin (fig. 8). Longitudinal diameter of eyes slightly smaller than genal length. Head and thorax dorsally with dense foveate sculpture, with clear but not very dense pubescence. Antennae inserted higher than median part of face. Funicle 6 segmented, club 2 segmented. All flagellar seg- ments longer than wide, first segment about 3 times as long as wide, segment 6 no more than 1.5 times as long as wide. Flagellar pubescence short, rather dense. Thorax weakly convex. Pronotum slightly more than twice as broad as long. Propodeum with shallow medial depression, indistinct median groove and 2 indistinct longitudinal keels. Gaster long, distinctly longer than head plus thorax. Tergites 7-9 with small punctures and dense pubes- cence.
  10. 10. 218 M. D. Zerova and V. N. Fursov Forewing with darkened area on disk. Marginal vein about equal in length to postmarginal, radial vein visibly shorter. Male. Length 5-6 mm. Colour as female. Differs from female in slightly more distinct edged median groove on the propodeum. Castral petiole slightly longer than hind coxa, slightly widened apically, dorsally with shallow foveate sculpture. Antennae with 7 segmented flagellum, segments 1-5 rectangular, segment 6 ovate and shorter than 7. Biology. Phytophagous in the stones of Prmms persica. Distrihutimi. Far East of the USSR (Primorsky Region), Korea, Japan. Material ztnunirmi. USSR: 6 9?, 1 dd, Primorsky Region, at fruits Prmms sp. (IZAU); 2 99, 1 do’, Korea IZAU). Diagnosis. E. mnslovskii can be distinguished from other Eurytmim spp. attacking stone fruits by the following characters, gaster distinctly longer than head plus thorax, large size (about 8 mm), distinctly darkened area on the disc of the forewing, mesepisternum without ventral keel. Eurytoma padi Vereshchagin Eur}/ tunm pndi Vereshchagin, 1953276. Fcnmle. Length 2.8-3.5 mm. Body black; femora apically, all tarsi and tore tibiae yellow; middle and hind tibae darkened medially. Antennae with 5 segmented funicle and 3 segmented club. Thorax distinctly convex. Mesepisternum with smooth, ventral margin, (lacking a keel). Head and thorax with small foveate sculpture, and light pubes- cence. Face and clypeus without distinct striation. Propo- deum with slight median groove and slender longitudinal median keel in basal half. Gaster about equal to length of thorax or slightly longer; apex rounded in lateral view. Tergite 9 only slightly upturned. Forewing hyaline. Veins yellow. Marginal vein short; radial and postmarginal veins shorter than marginal vein. Mule. Length 2.0-2.5 mm. Colour and sculpture as female. Antennae with 5 segmented funicle and 2 seg- mented club. Biology. Phytophagous in the stones of Prunus przdus. Distribution. European part of the USSR. Mutvriul (‘. I'lllllll1I. ‘ll. Holotype 9: USSR, Voronezh District, B. Vereshchagin, ex fruits of Pruims padus (ZIL). Paratypes: 4 9?, 7 db“: As holotype, 3 W, 7 db", (ZIL); 1 9 (IZAU). Diagnosis. E. padi can be recognized from other Eury- tmmi spp. from stone fruits by the following characters, its smaller length, convex thorax, and short gaster which is about equal in length to the thorax. Re-nmrks. This species probably also occurs in the Ukraine. Stones of Primus padus from the environs of Kiev contained larvae of a Eurytonia sp. , but no adults were collected or reared. Acknowledgements We thank Dr ]ohn S. Noyes (Department of Entomol- ogy, The Natural History Museum, London) for the use of his catalogue and literature of Chalcidoidea to produce this paper. Special thanks are extended to Dr Zdenek Boucek and Dr John LaSalle (International Insti- tute of Entomology, London) for their useful critical review of this manuscript and helpful comments. Dr Victor Fursov would like to thank the British Council and the Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, for enabling him to undertake part of his re- search and providing facilities in the Natural History Museum, London. References Acharoni, J. (1916) Eurytunm sp. ein neuer Mandelschadling. T7UpL'll}1flflIlZt’l1 19, 317-32. Arambourg, Y. , Fauvel, G. & Chevin, H. (19t£3a) Presence en France ii’Eurytonm niiiygdzzli End. (Hym. , Eurytomidae). Cnmptes Rmdus ties S¢"ana>s dc l'/ md¢'niit' d'A_'rir: ultim' iii: Frame 69, 1471-1472. Arambourg, Y. , Fauvel, G. , Chevin, H. (1983b) Eurytonm airtig- dali End. et sa presence en France. Un nouveau chalcidien ravageur de l'amandier. AflV0Ylt'llIlll7‘t’ Fruti£'ru 30, 27-28. Bevan, W, (1918) Amnnzl Report, Director of Agrirultim', C_i/ prus, for the i/ o1r1917-1918. 21 pp. Nicosia, Cyprus. Boufek, Z. (1988) Austrnlimi ClinlL‘idoidi'n (Hynivrmptuni). A bin5_ll. ~" tcnmtit‘ rrr-ision of _qt'm'r1i of fuilrfwn fimrilics, with 11 reclas- . <ifimtimi of species. 900 pp. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. Bugbee, R. E. (1907) Revision of chalcid wasps of genus Euryto- nm in America north of Mexico. Prm.1'nliii_’s of the Llnitmi States Nntiuiml Miisciiiri 118, -133-552. Burks, BD. (1971) A synopsis of the genera of the family Eury- tomidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). TI(111$i1(flUl1$ uf tin‘ .4m('rici1n Eiztmriulngiml SoL'iL'ty 97, 1-89. Ejakag, L. (1980) Eurymmn mnigdali End. (Hy-m. , Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae) - a pest of almond in Macedonia. Zastita Bilja 31, 263-272. [In Serbo—Croatian, with French summary] Claridge, M. F. (1961) An advance towards a natural classification of eurytomid genera (Hym. Chalcidoidea), with particular reference to British forms. Trmisactiuiis of tin‘ Society for British EntonmIo_~y 14, 167-185. Ekici, V. & Ciinaydin, T. (1969) investigation on Eur_i/ tnnm ainygdali End. in east and southeast Anatolia. Bitki Knrimm Biiltwii Supplement 1, 1-28. [In Turkish, with English summary] Enderlein, G. (1907) Eurytunm iiiiiygllali, ein neur Chalcidies aus Mandelkernen. Zz'itsclirift filr H_vim'Impti'rn mid Diptvm 7, 303-305, 1-Irdfis, 1. (1957) Uiabb megfigyelesek a nad ruvarbiologiajarol. Allattmii Kl‘Zit'lllL'll_| l('k 46, 49-65. [In Hungarian, with English summary] Erdtis, 1. (1970) Aliquot species novae Hungaricae in tamilia Eu- rytomidarum (Hym. , Chalcidoidea). Ammles Hi. <hvricn- Natumlrs Musvi Nritioimlis Hungarici 39, 139-152. Farooqi, S. l. & Subba Rao, SB. (1985) Family Eurytomidae. pp. Z64—265 in Subba Rao, B. R. 5: Hayat, M. (Eds). The Chalci- doidea (lnsecta: Hymenoptera) of India and the adjacent countries. Part 1. Reviews of families and keys to families and genera. Oricnml Insects 19, 103-310. Hedqvist, K. ]. (1976) Description of Eurytunm l‘, l]'i1t11lflS n. sp.
  11. 11. Palaearctic Eurytonm in stone fruits 219 and E. nspliodvli n. sp. with taxonomical notes on the mlmstn-group (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae). Entomulugim Scmidimzzvim 7, 06-69. llliger, D. C. (18117) Fauna Etrusca sistems insecta quae in Pro- viniciis Florenrina et Pisana praesertim collegit Petrus Rossius. Vol. 2, 511 pp. Helmstadii. lvanov, S. (1960) Euryttvmn .1ni_i/ gdnli End. in Bulgaria and its control. Rustiti'l’nu Znshitn 8, 41-61. lln Bulgarian, with English summar_v. ] lvanov, S. (19b8) Researches of morphology of the parasite of almond (Eurytomn nniygdnli End. ). Grmiinzzrskn i Lnzmskn nnuka 5, 21-31. Klapperich, J. (1964) Die Mandelsamenwespe (Eiiry! tri1irzaniig)ia- Ii End. , Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera), ein schadling in den Mandelkulturen Jordaniens. Cc-sinnlr F'flan: vn 16, 73-78. Khizhnyak, U. V. (1966) Dynamics on the number of plum wasp and codling moth in Kharkov District. Trudy Klrarknrvskqgn srl’skuklzozliynjsfrvcnnogu Institum 80, 72-78. [In Russian. ] Louca, A. (1984) Annual report of the Drpartnmit of Agricultun: for the ymr 1983. 167 pp. Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Nicosia, Cyprus. Mentielos, ]. , Atjemis, A. (197()) Studies on the biology and control of Eurytmmz mny_~; dnli in Greece. luurnal of Ecornnniv Entomology 63, 1934-1936. Narendran, T. C. (1984) A study on the Oriental genera of the family Eurytomidae (l-lymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). Entomnn 9, 1-1 () Nikol’skaya, M. N. (1939) The species of Eurytmna llliger dam- aging the stones of Rosaceae. 1n_t’nrnmIsionn_1/i Bulletvn‘ pa Voprusmn Kanmtinn Rnstrnii 6, 6-8. [In Russian. ] Nikol’skaya, M. N. (1945) Evolution of species of Eurytamu llliger (Hym. , Eurytomidae) in the connexion with geo- graphical distribution of their food plants of the subfamily Prunoidea. Cmnptes Rvlulus (Dnk'Im1_I/ ) dc ]’Almdmric tl(‘5 Sci- utrccs dc I’ USSR 48, 509-611. Nikol’skaya, M. N. (1952) Tlw Clmlrid [mum of flu’ USSR (Clinici- doidm). 574 pp. Moscow 8: Leningrad, Nauka. [In Russian] Nikol’skaya, M. N. (1956) Seed-eating chalcids of the USSR and the importance of the phytophagous habits in the evolu- tion of group (Hymenoptera, Chalcicloidea). Entomologi- clwskoc Olvo: rmir 35, 570-581. lln Russian with English summary] Nikol’skaya, M. N. (1961) The existence of Eur_I/ tunm ann/ gzlnli End. and E. sclrreiiirri Schr. (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae) as separate species. Entnnmlgiclieskne Obo: re— Hll‘ 40, 637-676. [In Russian — English translation in Entomol- giozl Rezvimv -10, 370-372.] Plaut, H. N. (197la) Behaviour of phosphamidon within the young almond fruit, and action of translocated phosphami- don and monocrotophos on the egg and the young larva of the almond wasp, Eurytmnri mny_u1nIi. Pesticiiiz' Science 2, 113-114. Plaut, H. N. (1971b) On the biology of the adult of the almond wasp, Enrytunm nniygdnli End. (Hym. , Eurytomidae) in Israel. Bulletin ufEr1!t2ninl11gicnI Resmrrli 61, 275-281. Plaut, H. N. (1972) On the biology of the immature stages of the almond wasp, Eur}/ tmna .1111}/ giiiili (Hym. , Eurytomidae) in lsrael. Bulletin of ErittvirioIt)_t; it‘iiI Rt'SL'l7YL'Il 61, 681-687. Plaut, H. N. (1975a) Demonstration of an improved method for the systemic control of the almond wasp (Enrytmmz un1_ug. ln- If End. , Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae). H: is: :mieIi 55, 1121- 1124. [In Hebrew] Plaut, H. N. (1975b) The contents of mummified ‘sticktight’ almond fruit and its relevance to the control of the almond wasp (Eurytvnm mn_i/ gduli End. ). Hl1SSAlAlt'll 55, 1294-1296. lln Hebrew, with English summary] Plaut, I-l. M. & Mansour, F. (1973) Studies of the behaviour, dis- persal and damage potential of the almond wasp, Eurytumn nni_i/ _»(di1li. Entmnolngin E. 'pcriim'ntnIis rt Applicntn 16, -115- 421. Puzanova-Malysheva, E. V. (1931)) On the biology of Eurytnnm triiiigtiiili End. , the pest of plums. EnInirzulgirlirskiw Olruzrrnic 24, 16(~r—178. [In Russian with English summary] Rodzyafiko, W. N. (1913) On almond wasp (Eurytomn nniygdiili Enderlein) damaged plums and apricots in Astrakhan Dis» trict. 10 pp. Kiev, R. Lubkovsky, [In Russian] Schreiner, ]. F. (19()8) Eurytonm sp. , eine neue Feid der schwar- zen Zweitsche. Zvitsclirift fiir Wisswrscliiiftlichv ln_-: ek! cnln'uln- git 4, 26-28. Szelenyi, G. (1976) Mongolian Eurytomidae (H_vm. , Chalcidoid- ea). ii. Add Zoologim Acmiwlim‘ Scivninrmn Hlirigiirimv 22, 173-187. Tachikawa, T. (1979) Eurytmmi nmsInv. ~'kii Nikolskaya newly dis- covered from Korea (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eury- tomidae). Trnnsm*tiuns of Slnkoku Eirtorimlngioil Society 14, 181-183. Talhouk, A. S. (1966) Beobachtungen fiber Schadlinge an Man- delbaumen in Libanon uncl in Syrien. Aii: vigu'r fiir Schrl'11Iingskmrdz' 39, 113-117. Talhouk, A. S. (1977) Contribution to the knowledge of almond pests in East Mediterranean countries. V. The fruit-feeding insects, Eurytuma mnygdnli End. , and Aimrsin lirmztvlln Z. Zi*itscl1rift_fx‘ir Angru-andtv Entoniologie 83, 145-154. Tertyshniy, AS. (1983) Plum wasp, Eur_ut1nm1 sclm'i'm*ri Schr. Sadnvodstvo 6, 14. [In Russian] Ustinov, A. A. (1925) The almond wasp (Eurytonm itnzygdtzli End. ) is pest of plums in the Ukraine. Vcstnik KIlt77k('i’$kU_'(1 Scl'sknkhu: yn; 'stz-ennngo Institute 1, 1-6. [In Russian] Vasiljev, I. V. (1915) Enr_vtunm . ~=mnsonurvi n. sp. , a new species of Hymenoptera damaging to apricot in Fergana (Middle Asia) and related hym E. nniygdnli End. Trudy B/ ‘um pt) En- Iunwlngii Ucliemlgo Knnximn Clntningo Llpmzvlmia ZvmIvu. <- tmjstm i Zemlcdelin (Petrngrnd) 11, 1-15. [In Russian. ] Vereshchagin, B. V. (1953) Seed-eaters of Rosaceae in the forest plantations of Voronezh District. Entmm)lugicln': =koz' Ol-o: rv- niv 33, 74-77. [In Russian] Vodinskaya, KJ. (1932) Data on almond wasp Eurytnmn nniigi1n- Ii End. Zl1:l1L'l1llI1 Rnstniii 1, 97-106. [In Russian] Westwood, ]. O. (1839) Synopsis of the genera of British insects. 158 pp. London. Zerova, M. D. (1974) Superfamily Chalcidoidea. pp. -172-488 in Vasiljev, V. P. (Eii. ). Pests of ngrirnltnml crops and forest plun- tatians. Volume 2. 546 pp. Kiev, Urozhai. [In Russian. ] Zerova, M. D. (1978a) Clmlcid. < of fmriily Eurytoniidm: Fauna Llkmini. Volume 11. 465 pp. Kiev, Naukova Dunika. [in Ukrainian] Zerova, M. D. (1978b) Family Eurytomidae. pp. 328-358 in Med- veclev, (3.5. (Ed). Keys to Hit. ’ lllSt’L‘fS of Mir European part uftlw USSR. Volume 3. 758 pp. Leningrad, Nauka. [In Russian] Zerova, M. D. (1988) Supertamily Chalcidoidea. pp. 447-162 in Vasiljev, V. P. (£11.) Pests of ngricnltuml crops mid forest planta- titnis. Volume 2. 576 pp. Kiev, Naukova Dumka. [ln Russian. l (Accepted 25 March 1991) © CA-B lnternational, 1991

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