Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Upper Jordan River Hyropolitical Baseline (ZeitounEidSabbaghDajaniTalhami)

1,232 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

Upper Jordan River Hyropolitical Baseline (ZeitounEidSabbaghDajaniTalhami)

  1. 1. Hydro-­‐poli*cal  Baseline  of  the    Upper  Jordan  River   The  Associa+on  of  the  Friends  of  Ibrahim  Abd  el  Al   www.uea.ac.uk/ watersecurity/ Mark  Zeitoun,  Karim  Eid-­‐Sabbagh,  Muna  Dajani,  and  Michael  Talhami   publica2ons  
  2. 2. Why  a  hydropoli2cal  baseline?   1.  Tensions  that  could  start  a  war   2.  Sustainable  water  and  economic  development  of  the  South   3.  Gaps  in  basic  data   4.  To  clarify  confusion  over  perceived  and  actual  issues     om  a  diversion een  diverted  fr Has   a9en*on  b ever  realised?   s  n sche me  that  wa an-­‐Nahar  21  Feb  1995,  in  Amery  (2000:  Figure  5.2)  
  3. 3. Focus  (instead)  on  the  Upper  Jordan   Upper     Jordan  River   Lake  of  Tiberias   Yarmouk  River   Lower     Jordan  River   Dead  Sea  
  4. 4. Upper  Jordan  River  Hydropoli2cal  Baseline  Study   Goal     to  understand  the  hydro-­‐poli2cal  landscape  with  a  view  to  legal  re-­‐ distribu2on  of  the  UJR   Ques+ons     •  The  UJR  Flows:  loca2on,  quan2ty  and  quality?   •  How  asymmetric  is  the  distribu2on?   •  How  was  the  asymmetry  achieived,  and  how  is  it  maintained?   •  How  important  is  water  in  the  Lebanon-­‐Israel  conflict?   Method   •  partners  –  AFIAL,  and  Ibrahim  Abd  el  Al   •  research  team  –  Eid-­‐Sabbagh,  Dajani,  Talhami   •  historical  record,  interviews,  hydrological  records,  official  statements,  etc   •  mul2-­‐disciplinary  approach:    hydrology,  poli2cal  science,  interna2onal   rela2ons,  law,  hydro-­‐geology,  hydro-­‐hegemony,  discourses  etc    
  5. 5. THE     WATER   POWER/   FLOWS   USE   BORDERS   OCCUPIED   LANDS  THEORY   2006   Summer   HYDROPOLITICAL  BASELINE War   THE  RECORD   DISCUSSION   CONCLUSIONS  
  6. 6. THEORY   HYDROPOLITICAL  BASELINE
  7. 7. Interna2onal  Transboundary  Water-­‐sharing  norms   Interna*onal  Water  Law    1997  UN  Watercourses  Conven3on:  3  principles   •   ‘prior  no2fica2on’       •   ‘no  significant  harm’     •   ‘equitable  and  reasonable  use’     +  2008  Dra=  Aquifer  Ar3cles     Others   •  ‘prior  use’   •  state  sovereignty  (‘Harmon  Doctrine’)  
  8. 8. Other  interna2onal  norms  relevant  to  water:  IHL  and  HR  to  water   Interna*onal  Humanitarian  Law   Ar2cle  52  (1)  of  the  Geneva  Conven2on’s  Addi2onal  Protocol  1:    ‘protec2on  of  civilian  objects  which  are  not  military  objec2ves’     Ar2cle  54  (Para.  2)  and  Ar2cle  55  of  Addi2onal  Protocol  1:      protec2on  of  the  “Natural  Environment”  and  “Objects  indispensable  to  the   survival  of  the  civilian  popula2on”     Interna2onal  Conven2on  on  Economic,  Social  and  Cultural  Rights  (Ar2cle  11(1)):   Destruc2on  of  civilian  water  infrastructure  is  a  viola2on  of  the  right  to  an   adequate  standard  of  living.     Human  Right  to  Water   UN  Commifee  on  Economic,  Social  and  Cultural  Rights:  General  Comment  15   UN  General  Assembly  2010  Human  Right  to  Water:   “declares  the  right  to  safe  and  clean  drinking  water  and  sanita2on  as  a   human  right  that  is  essen2al  for  the  full  enjoyment  of  life  and  all  human   rights”   see  Tignino  2010  
  9. 9. WATER   USE   HYDROPOLITICAL  BASELINE
  10. 10. Current  Water  Use   Use  in  2011  from  surface  water  and  groundwater  in  the  Upper  Jordan  River   Basin  and  related  aquifers:     Country    Flow      Use      [million  cubic  metres  per  year]   Syria     0        n/a         Lebanon    ~11    local  irriga2on  and  domes2c  [via  Wazzani  PS  +]     Israel     360  –  520  Irriga2on  locally  and  in  Negev  desert  (+  through   wastewater  reuse),  and  domes2c  (1/3  of  total   freshwater  consump2on  comes  from  Lake  of   Tiberias)  [via  Na2onal  Water  Carrier]   Lebanon  claim:    35-­‐55   [‘Johnston  alloca2on’  -­‐  equitable  and  reasonble  share]  
  11. 11. Prior  Water  Use  in  Lebanon   (1921)   The  1921  French  report  counted:       •  Six  water  mills,  located  on  the  Hasbani  mainstream  (named  or  located:   near  Souk  al  Khan;  Maria  -­‐  just  upstream  of  Ghajar;  Moutran;  Hadj  Khalil;   and  Souk,  near  the  canal  of  the  Emir);     •  Three  irriga*ons  canals  (one  downstream  of  Ghajar,  and  two  upstream   –  one  of  which  was  es2mated  at  5km  long  and  irriga2ng  an  es2mated   600  dunums  with  3,000  m3  per  day  in  summer  [~1.1  MCM/y]  on  the   “right  side  of  the  Hasbani”);  and   •  Associated  dams  and  impoundments  for  the  above.   4)   8)   cess ion  (191  Fakhoury  (192 +  Sursock  con Nassif  and  Dr ey   +  Sul eiman  B FNA  (1921d)  ETUDE  GENERALE  DE  LA  FRONTIERE  PROBABLE  vers  METELLI  et  du  pays  au  N.  et  au  SUD,  immédiatement  des  deux  côtés   de  (la)  fron+ère.  De  lInspecteur  des  Travaux  Publics  de  lEtate  du  Grand  Liban.  French  Na2onal  Archives  in  Nantes,  Archives  des   postes  diploma2ques,  consulaires,  culturels  et  de  coopera2on:  Caisse  450;  Fonds  -­‐  "Beyrouth"/2e  versement;  Serie  -­‐  Service   Techniques  «  Hydraulique  ».  
  12. 12. THE     FLOWS  HYDROPOLITICAL  BASELINE
  13. 13. rjay un”Main  sources  of  the  Upper  Jordan   ) oun (Ma rdj Ayo Hasbani  Hasbani r) ive sba ni” Springs Hasbaya “Me ni R (Ha asba H Liddan   “N. “Metelli” (Metulla) Metulla Liddan “El Ghadjar” Wazzani Springs Hasbani   Springs Ghajar (Ghajar) Liddan Banias River Banias Hasbani m) River Banias Springs rea As l” Liddan   (El . Assa River l st Banias Banias   “N ” r) ) as e n River ni Riv (Lidda n” a . B ias da “N an “N. Led (B Banias   UPPER JORDAN RIVER Kuneitra Huleh Lake +Groundwater   (FNA  1921)     a) Pre-1916 Lake of Ottoman Empire Tiberias LOWER JORDAN RIVER “Lac du Houlé” (Huleh Lake)
  14. 14. Source  of  the  Hasbani  –  at  Hasbaya   (MacGregor  2002  [1870]:  175)  
  15. 15. Source  of  the  Hasbani  –  at  Hasbaya  
  16. 16. Main  sources  of  the  Upper  Jordan   LEBANON Mediterranean Sea SYRIA Lake Tiberias Basin ISRAEL JORDAN LEBANON Hasbani Mt Basin Hasbaya Hermon er Riv ani Hasb Ajoun catchment area Banias Basin Metulla s ea m Liddan Basin arm ’a F El Wazzani Str Ghajar eba sl A Ch el Aj o Banias n u r an Rive St r e a er Riv nias Ba dd Occupied UNDOF SYRIA m Li ISRAEL SYRIAN Administered GOLAN Zone
  17. 17. LEBANON [million  cubic  metre  per  year,  1949  –  2004  annual  river  flows   measured  upstream  of  their   Mediterranean Sea SYRIA confluence  point]   143  (+/-­‐  43%)   Hasbani   Lake Tiberias most  of  the  base  flow   provided  by  the  Wazzani  Springs   Basin ISRAEL JORDAN LEBANON ! 114  (+/-­‐  30%)   Banias   Hasbani Mt Basin Hasbaya Hermon er Riv ani Hasb 241  (+/-­‐  10%)   Ajoun Liddan   catchment area Banias Basin ! Metulla s ea m Liddan Basin arm ’a F El Wazzani Str Ghajar eba base  flow  much  larger  +   sl A Ch el more  secure     Aj o Banias n u r an Rive St r e a er Riv nias Ba dd Occupied UNDOF SYRIA m Li ISRAEL SYRIAN AdministeredYearbooks  1949-­‐1977,  1959-­‐2004,  and   HSI   GOLAN Zone 1992-­‐2004,  and  Klein  (1998)  for  1977-­‐1992.     !
  18. 18. Transboundary  groundwater  flows  –  rough  es2mate   250  –  350   [million  cubic  metre  per  year]   (Kafri  and  Lang  1979,  from  Brielmann  2008:  Fig.  10)  (labels  added).    
  19. 19. Summary  of  the  Upper  Jordan  River  Flows   [million  cubic  metres  per  year]   Banias   114      (variable,  vulnerable  to  pollu2on)   Hasbani   143      (variable,  vulnerable  to  pollu2on)     Liddan   241      (stable,  somewhat  vulnerable  to  pollu2on) Ajoun    (?)   Groundwater   250  –  350    (stable,  less  vulnerable)  
  20. 20. POWER/   BORDERS  HYDROPOLITICAL  BASELINE
  21. 21. So[  Power:  1920  Hydropoli2cal  Border  Shiv  –  lobbied  for   “Mtelle” B anias demandée par the G’t anglais ” (Metulla) (Border adjustment requested by the English Goverment) ”Lac de Houlé ” (Hula Marshes) “Koneirtra” (Kuneitra) par l’accord Sykes-Picot” Sykes-Picot Agreement)
  22. 22. So[  Power:  1923  Hydropoli2cal  Border  Shiv  –  obtained   Hasbani FRENCH MANDATE Springs Hasbaya LEBANON Border  1923  -­‐  1967   Metulla Liddan Wazzani Springs Springs Ghajar Liddan Banias River Banias Hasbani River Banias Springs River FRENCH MANDATE SYRIA UPPER JORDAN RIVER Kuneitra Huleh Lake BRITISH MANDATE PALESTINE Lake of d) 1923 border Tiberias LOWER JORDAN RIVER
  23. 23. Hard  Power:  military  ac2on  over  water  1950s  &  1960s   1965     Israel  army  thwarts   1953   diversion  afempt   Syria  army  thwarts  Israeli  afempt   (successful)   (successful)   1965   Syria  afempts  to  divert  Hasbani   1965     away  from  NWC   PLO  afacks  NWC   1953   (unsuccessful)   Israel  afempts     construc2on  of  NWC   from  B’nat  Yacoub  Bridge   1964   Israel  completes   NWC  at  Tiberias  (status  quo  ‘2l  present)  
  24. 24. Hard  Power:  Military  acquisi2on  and  relinquishing  of  territory:  a  water  impera2ve?   1967  Israeli  occupa*on   1982  –  2000     2000:  (near)  return  to   of  Golan  +   (maximum  occupa*on)   1967  borders   (1920  borders  achieved)   Hasbani Springs Hasbani Hasbani LEBANON Hasbaya ’a LEBANON Springs Hasbaya LEBANON Springs Hasbaya eba Ch ms ’a ’a r eba eba Fa Ch ms Ch ms Fa r Metulla Far Liddan Metulla Metulla Wazzani Springs Liddan Liddan Springs Ghajar Wazzani Wazzani Springs Springs Springs Ghajar Springs Ghajar Liddan Banias Liddan Banias Liddan Banias River Banias Hasbani River River Banias Springs Hasbani Banias Hasbani River Banias Springs River Banias Springs River Banias River SYRIA River SYRIA River SYRIA UPPER Was  WATER  an   UPPER UPPER interest  in  the   JORDAN RIVER Kuneitra Kuneitra JORDAN RIVER Kuneitra JORDAN RIVER Huleh Lake territorial  conquests   Huleh Lake Huleh Lake (as  in  the  1950s)  ??   ISRAEL ISRAEL ISRAEL e) post 1948 border f) Maximum Israel e) post 1948 border Lake of + 1967 Israeli Lake of occupation border Lake of + 1967 Israeli Tiberias occupation of Golan Tiberias (<2000) Tiberias occupation of Golan LOWER LOWER LOWER JORDAN RIVER JORDAN RIVER JORDAN RIVER
  25. 25. OCCUPIED   LANDS  HYDROPOLITICAL  BASELINE
  26. 26. Interests  in  CHEBA’A  
  27. 27. Water,  Ski-­‐ing,  and  military  in  Cheba’a   2.  Ski  Resorts  1.  Water   3.  Military-­‐strategic  [all  images  taken  from  Google  Earth,  February  2012]  
  28. 28. Religious  sites  in  Cheba’a   Lebanon   4.  site  of  Abraham’s     Occupied     Covenant  of  the  Pieces   Cheba’a  Farms   [all  images  taken  from  Google  Earth,  February  2012]  
  29. 29. Summary  of  the  interests  in  occupa2on  of  Cheba’a   Priority  ?   Water   1.    -­‐    ?   Military   2.    -­‐    ?     Ski-­‐ing   3.    -­‐    ?   4.    -­‐    Ski-­‐ing   Religious   Water  is  a  component,  alongside  other  components  (not  a  primary  driver).     Especially  Liddan  recharge  area;  But  the  volumes  involved  are  not  cri2cal  …      à  Israel  ‘water-­‐security’  discourse  (discussed  in  the  UJR  Study)  
  30. 30. Interests  in  GHAJAR  
  31. 31. Occupa2on  of  Ghajar  /  Wazzani  Springs   Lebanon Syria  -­‐  Golan (occupied  by  Israel) Cheba’a   Ghajar  -­‐  north Ghajar  -­‐  south (Lebanon)   (occupied  by  Israel) Hasbani  River Wazzani  Springs Lebanon ©  Sébas2en  Pellissier    
  32. 32. Wazzani  Springs  Pumping  Sta2on  –  War  of  Words  in  2002   [see  Maternowski  2006,  Alles  2010]   unofficial  Israeli  response:   Shimon  Peres  -­‐  “We  do  not  want  a  flare-­‐up,   but  we  will  not  give  up  water”  (Sedan  2002)   official  Israeli  response:     “  …unilateral  ac2on  by  Lebanon  would  be   Lebanese  response:     unacceptable  to  Israel.”   ‘Lebanon  has  right  to  a  legal  share’   è  US,  UN  and  EU   media2on`     +  heavy  winter  rains:     •  Lebanon  built  Wazzani  PS,  but:   •  right  to  abstract  lev  unresolved...  
  33. 33. Wazzani  Springs  Pumping  Sta2on   on  Hasbani  River  (completed  2002)   Design  Capacity:  4.4  MCM/y    (<14%  of  Lebanese  claim,   <1%  of  Israel  abstrac2ons  from  Tiberias)   Actual  Abstrac+ons:  less  (lack  of  diesel,  maintenance)    Hasbani River +! Ralf  Klingbeil,  2010  
  34. 34. Summary  of  the  interests  in  Wazzani  Springs  /  occupying  Ghajar   Priority  ?   Water   1.    -­‐    ?   Military   2.    -­‐    ?     Ski-­‐ing   3.    -­‐    ?   Religious?   4.    -­‐    ?     Will  of  the  residents?   Water  is  a  component,  alongside  other  components  (not  a  primary  driver)     Flows  of  Wazzani  more  imporant  than  Hasbani…  but  s2ll  not  cri2cal….        à  Israel  ‘water-­‐security’  discourse  (discussed  in  the  UJR  Study)  
  35. 35. 2006   Summer  HYDROPOLITICAL  BASELINE War  
  36. 36. Jbaa BaissariyeSome  damages  to  water  infrastructure  in  Lebanon  and  Israel   Sarafand Merouaniye Sarba Jarjouaa Mlikh Aaramta Aazze Saksakiye Zefta Israel   Toufahta Rihane Insariye Habbouch Dlafy Babliye Kfour Louaiziye Direct  damage:   Aadloun Khartoum Kfar Roummane Kaoukaba Hasbaiya Doueir •  Safad  WWTP   Kharayeb Insar Aabba Harouf Marjayoun Blat Fardis Ain Jerfa Hebbari Indirect  damage:   Qasmiye Arzay Zrariye Braiqaa Jibchit Yohmor Qlaiaa Ebel es Saqi Kfar H •  3  WWTP  (e.g.  Haifa)   Bourghliye Bedias Maaroub Kfar Sir Aalmane Khiam Mari Kfar Chouba Aabbassiye Kfar Kila Lebanon   Borj ech Chmali El Majidiye Barich Ghandourieh Qantara Taibe Wazzani Direct  damage:   Tyre Jouaya Tallousa Aadaisse •  20  pumping  sta2ons   Deir Qanoun Aitit Majdel Markaba •  thousands  of  roovop  tanks   Majdel Selm Soultanieh Siddiqine Houla Mansouri •  100s  of  km  distrib’n  pipes   El Biyada Aita El-Jabel Baraachit Chaqra Sribbine Mheibib •  200-­‐700  transformers   Naqoura Chama’a Tair Harfa Zabqine Chihine Beit Lif Beit Yahoun Blida •  55  public  reservoirs   Aalma ech Chaab Jebbain Ramiya Qaouzah Bent Jbail Aaitaroun Yarine etc   Aita Ech Chaab Rmaich Yaroun Maroun er Ras +  indirect  damage   0 5 10 15  km ISRAEL Destruction of Housing Units S T A T E B O U N D Totally destroyed Caza Partially Destroyed Severly damaged Boundaries of occupied Cheba’a equivalent to 1,800 units Damages to Public Water Reservoirs 1 Reservoir Damaged Reservoir 2 Reservoirs Destroyed Reservoir Damages to housing units: UNHCR 2006 and GOL 2006; Damages to 3 Reservoirs SLWE (2006), Water and Sanitation Cluster 2006 (UNICEF). Administ 4 Reservoirs Database of the National Master Plan for Lebanon, 2005. Mapping: Do
  37. 37. Typical  drinking  water  system  in  southern  Lebanon  
  38. 38. 2006  Summer  War   Zeitoun   Water  reservoirs  in  Lebanon  damaged  during  the  2006  Summer  War,  showing  a  range  of  the  nature  of  the  damages.  Siddiquine:  no  direct   damage  to  reservoir;  Chamaa:  ‘indiscriminate’  and  ‘deliberate’;  Ramiya:  ‘deliberate’.   Zeitoun   Zeitoun  
  39. 39. Jbaa Baissariye2006  Summer  War   Sarafand Merouaniye Sarba Jarjouaa Mlikh Aaramta Aazze Saksakiye Zefta Israel   Toufahta Rihane Insariye Habbouch Dlafy Babliye Kfour Louaiziye Direct  damage:   Aadloun Khartoum Kfar Roummane Kaoukaba Hasbaiya Doueir •  Safad  WWTP   Kharayeb Insar Aabba Harouf Marjayoun Blat Fardis Ain Jerfa Hebbari Indirect  damage:   Qasmiye Arzay Zrariye Braiqaa Jibchit Yohmor Qlaiaa Ebel es Saqi Kfar H •  3  WWTP  (e.g.  Haifa)   Bourghliye Bedias Maaroub Kfar Sir Aalmane Khiam Mari Kfar Chouba Aabbassiye Kfar Kila Lebanon   Borj ech Chmali El Majidiye Barich Ghandourieh Qantara Taibe Wazzani Direct  damage:   Tyre Jouaya Tallousa Aadaisse •  20  pumping  sta2ons   Deir Qanoun Aitit Majdel Markaba •  thousands  of  roovop  tanks   Majdel Selm Soultanieh Siddiqine Houla Mansouri •  100s  of  km  distrib’n  pipes   El Biyada Aita El-Jabel Baraachit Chaqra Sribbine Mheibib •  200-­‐700  transformers   Naqoura Chama’a Tair Harfa Zabqine Chihine Beit Lif Beit Yahoun Blida •  55  public  reservoirs   Aalma ech Chaab Jebbain Ramiya Qaouzah Bent Jbail Aaitaroun Yarine etc   Aita Ech Chaab Rmaich Yaroun Maroun er Ras +  indirect  damage   0 5 10 15  km ISRAEL Destruction of Housing Units S T A T E B O U N D Totally destroyed Caza Partially Destroyed Severly damaged Boundaries of occupied Cheba’a equivalent to 1,800 units Damages to Public Water Reservoirs 1 Reservoir Damaged Reservoir 2 Reservoirs Destroyed Reservoir Damages to housing units: UNHCR 2006 and GOL 2006; Damages to 3 Reservoirs SLWE (2006), Water and Sanitation Cluster 2006 (UNICEF). Administ 4 Reservoirs Database of the National Master Plan for Lebanon, 2005. Mapping: Do
  40. 40. 2006  Summer  War   Reservoir  part  of  Wazzani  Springs  project   South  Lebanon  Water  Establishment  (SLWE  2006).  
  41. 41. Summary  of  water  and  2006  Summer  War   Water  was  target  of  war   Water  as  tool  of  war   Viola*ons  of  Interna2onal  Humanitarian  Law   Viola*on  of  Human  Right  to  Water     à  erosion  of  interna2onal  norms  [sov  power]     Hydropoli2cal  mo2ve  (Wazzani  PS):    indirect    [sov  power]  
  42. 42. HYDROPOLITICAL  BASELINE THE  RECORD  
  43. 43. 1916  -­‐  1948 1948-­‐  1967 1967  -­‐  1978 1978  -­‐  2000 2000  -­‐-­‐> 1916 1948 1967 1978 2000 2002Control  over  Territory   100% French Mandate Syria / Lebanon 1923 British Mandate Palestine Israel Lebanon Syria 0% 100% Control  over  Water   1965 0% 100% Use  of  Water   1964 0% 1920 1921 1954-­‐56 1993TREATIES 1916 1948  Nakba,MILITARY/POLITICAL 1978  -­‐  2000 2002 2006EVENTS
  44. 44. HYDROPOLITICAL  BASELINE CONCLUSIONS  
  45. 45. Some  conclusions   Biophysical     Significant  data  gaps  in  surface  and  groundwater  flows,  quality  and  use   •    Groundwater  flows  are  more  important  than  river  flows   •    Academic     •  Control  is  achieved  through  sov  then  hard  power,  and  maintained  by  sov     (deterrent)  power  (‘remote  control’)     •  Control  of  water  without  control  of  territory  (à  de-­‐territorialisa2on     debates)     •  Israel’s  hegemonic  posi2on  in  the  basin  has  limits  (a  hegemon  without     hegemony?)     Poli*cal   •  Control  of  the  Hasbani  is  centred  on  the  Wazzani  Springs/Ghajar   •  Control  of  the  Upper  Jordan  is  centred  on  the  Liddan  and  Banias/Cheba’a     •  There  is  a  ‘historic  debt’  /  grounds  or  a  ‘prior  use’  argument  for  re-­‐distribu2on   (on  top  of  the  legal  argument)   •  Water  re-­‐distribu2on  prevented  by  Israeli  ‘water-­‐security’  discourse    
  46. 46. Some  conclusions  (con’t.)    -­‐  last  slide!   Future   •  Israeli  interests  /  dependance  on  UJR  is  changing  (desalina2on);   •  Water  conflict  will  shiv  with  shiving  poli2cal  context;   •  Poten2al  flashpoints  of  armed  conflict:  groundwater  development;   water  quality  issues  (olive  oil  residue);   •  re-­‐ac2ve  diplomacy  at  such  2mes  will  constrain  issues,  not  resolve  them;   •  Asymmetry  can  be  entrenched,  if  basin-­‐wide  approach  not  taken.  
  47. 47. Thank-­‐you  !   For  more  analysis  and  references:  download  the  Upper  Jordan  River   Hydropoli2cal  Baseline  from  the  Publica2ons  page  of  the  UEA  Water  Security   Research  Centre:  www.uea.ac.uk/watersecurity/publica2ons  Mark  Zeitoun,  Karim  Eid-­‐Sabbagh,  Muna  Dajani,  and  Michael  Talhami  m.zeitoun@uea.ac.uk  
  48. 48. References   Amery,  Hussein  (2000).  A  Popular  Theory  of  Water  Diversion  from  Lebanon:  Toward  Public  Par2cipa2on  for  Peace.   Water  in  the  Middle  East:  A  Geography  of  Peace.  Wolf,  A.  and  H.  Amery.  Aus2n,  USA,  University  of  Texas  Press.   Brielmann,  Heike  (2008).  Recharge  and  discharge  mechanism  and  dynamics  in  the  mountainous  northern  Upper   Jordan  River  Catcment,  Israel,  LMU  Muenchen:  Faculty  of  Goesciences.     FNA  (1921).  ETUDE  GENERALE  DE  LA  FRONTIERE  PROBABLE  vers  METELLI  et  du  pays  au  N.  et  au  SUD,  immédiatement   des  deux  côtés  de  (la)  fron+ère.  De  lInspecteur  des  Travaux  Publics  de  lEtate  du  Grand  Liban.  French  Na2onal   Archives  in  Nantes,  Archives  des  postes  diploma2ques,  consulaires,  culturels  et  de  coopera2on:  Caisse  450;   Fonds  -­‐  "Beyrouth"/2e  versement;  Serie  -­‐  Service  Techniques  "Hydraulique";  Sujet  -­‐  U2lisa2on  de  la  rivière   Yarmouk  et  du  bassin  supérieur  du  Jourdain  Sta2on  de  jaugeage  de  Wadi-­‐Khaled,  1921  -­‐  1942.     HSI  (1977).  Hydrological  Yearbook  1949  -­‐  1977.  (Hebrew),  Jerusalem,  Hydrological  Service  of  Israel.     HSI  (2004).  Hydrological  Yearbook  1959  -­‐  2004.  (Hebrew),  Jerusalem,  Hydrological  Service  of  Israel.     Klein,  Michael  (1998).  "Water  Balance  of  the  Upper  Jordan  River  Basin."  Water  Interna+onal  23(4):  244  -­‐  248.     Lukes,  Steven  (2005  [1974]).  Power:  A  Radical  View  -­‐  2nd  edi2on.  Hampshire,  UK,  Palgrave  MacMillan.   MacGregor,  John  (2002  [1870]).  The  Rob  Roy  on  the  Jordan  -­‐  The  extraordinary  19th  Century  tale  of  the  first  canoeist   to  explore  the  Middle  East  and  Africa.  London,  UK,  republished  by  The  Long  Riders  Guild  Press,  2002.  Also   published  by  Harper&Brothers,  Publishers,  New  York  in  1870,  under  the  2tle:  The  Rob  Roy  on  the  Jordan,  Nile,   Red  Sea,  and  Gennesareth,  &c:    A  Canoe  Cruise  in  Pales2ne  and  Egypt,  and  the  Waters  of  Damascus.   Sedan,  Gil  (2002).  U.S.,  Israel  seek  to  defuse  tense  Lebanese  water  plan.  J  Weekly.com,  Jewish  Telegraphic  Agency.     SLWE  (2006).  Damages  to  the  Water  Sector  in  the  South  of  Lebanon  from  the  2006  War.  Saida,  South  Lebanon  Water   Establishment.     Tignino,  Mara  (2010).  "Water,  interna2onal  peace,  and  security."  Interna+onal  Review  of  the  Red  Cross  -­‐   Humanitarian  debate:  law,  policy,  ac+on  92(September  2010).     Zeitoun,  Mark  (2007).  Viola2ons,  Opportuni2es  and  Power  along  the  Jordan  River:    Security  Studies  Theory  Applied   to  Water  Conflict.  Water  Resources  in  the  Middle  East:  Israeli-­‐Pales+nian  Water  Issues  -­‐  From  Conflict  to   Coopera+on.  Shuval,  H.  and  H.  Dweik.  Heidelberg,  Germany,  Springer  Verlag.  213  -­‐  224.   Zeitoun,  Mark,  Karim  Eid-­‐Sabbagh,  Muna  Dajani  and  Michael  Talhami  (2012).  Hydro-­‐poli+cal  Baseline  of  the  Upper   Jordan  River.  Beirut,  Associa2on  of  the  Friends  of  Ibrahim  Abd  el  Al.        

×