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# Chapter 10: The Mole

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### Chapter 10: The Mole

1. 1. Chapter 10: Chemical Quantities The Mole: A Measurement of Matter
2. 2. 3 Methods of Measuring Matter <ul><li>Counting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A pair, a dozen, a gross </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grams, kilograms, pounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>liter, ounce, gallon </li></ul></ul>
3. 3. What is the Mole? <ul><li>A counting number (like a dozen) </li></ul><ul><li>Avogadro’s number (N A ) = 6.02 x 10 23 </li></ul><ul><li>1 mol = 6.02  10 23 items </li></ul>A large amount!!!! VERY
4. 4. HOLY “MOLE”LY <ul><li>6.02x10 23 = 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1 mole = 6.02x10 23 atoms </li></ul><ul><li>1 mole = 6.02x10 23 ions </li></ul><ul><li>1 mole = 6.02x10 23 molecules </li></ul><ul><li>1 mole = 6.02x10 23 formula units </li></ul>
5. 5. <ul><li>1 mole of pennies would cover the Earth 1/4 mile deep! </li></ul>1 mole of hockey pucks would equal the mass of the moon! HOW LARGE IS IT??? 1 mole of basketballs would fill a bag the size of the earth!
6. 6. Molar Mass <ul><li>Mass of 1 mole of an element or compound. </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic mass tells the... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>atomic mass units per atom (amu) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grams per mole (g/mol) </li></ul></ul>
7. 7. Molar Mass Examples <ul><li>carbon </li></ul><ul><li>aluminum </li></ul><ul><li>zinc </li></ul>12.01 g/mol 26.98 g/mol 65.39 g/mol
8. 8. Molar Mass Examples <ul><li>water </li></ul><ul><li>sodium chloride </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2(1.01) + 16.00 = 18.02 g/mol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NaCl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22.99 + 35.45 = 58.44 g/mol </li></ul></ul>
9. 9. More Molar Mass Examples <ul><li>sodium bicarbonate </li></ul><ul><li>sucrose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NaHCO 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22.99 + 1.01 + 12.01 + 3(16.00) = 84.01 g/mol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C 12 H 22 O 11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12(12.01) + 22(1.01) + 11(16.00) = 342.34 g/mol </li></ul></ul>
10. 10. D. Percentage Composition <ul><li>the percentage by mass of each element in a compound </li></ul>
11. 11. D. Percentage Composition <ul><li>Find the % composition of Cu 2 S. </li></ul> 100 = %Cu =  100 = %S = 79.852% Cu 20.15% S 127.10 g Cu 159.17 g Cu 2 S 32.07 g S 159.17 g Cu 2 S
12. 12. <ul><li>Find the percentage composition of a sample that is 28 g Fe and 8.0 g O. </li></ul>D. Percentage Composition %Fe =  100 = 78% Fe %O =  100 = 22% O 28 g 36 g 8.0 g 36 g
13. 13. <ul><li>How many grams of copper are in a 38.0-gram sample of Cu 2 S? </li></ul>D. Percentage Composition (38.0 g Cu 2 S)(0.79852) = 30.3 g Cu Cu 2 S is 79.852% Cu
14. 14. <ul><li>Find the mass percentage of water in calcium chloride dihydrate, CaCl 2 •2H 2 O ? </li></ul>D. Percentage Composition  100 = %H 2 O = 24.51% H 2 O 36.04 g 147.02 g
15. 15. Molar Conversions molar mass ( g/mol ) 6.02  10 23 ( particles/mol ) WHAT THE H*LL WAS THAT ALL ABOUT? MASS IN GRAMS MOLES NUMBER OF PARTICLES
16. 16. Mr. Zehner, Can you show us some examples?
17. 17. C. Molar Conversion Examples <ul><li>How many moles of carbon are in 26 g of carbon? </li></ul>26 g C 1 mol C 12.01 g C = 2.2 mol C
18. 18. C. Molar Conversion Examples <ul><li>How many molecules are in 2.50 moles of C 12 H 22 O 11 ? </li></ul>2.50 mol 6.02  10 23 molecules 1 mol = 1.51  10 24 molecules C 12 H 22 O 11
19. 19. C. Molar Conversion Examples <ul><li>Find the mass of 2.1  10 24 molecules of NaHCO 3 . </li></ul>2.1  10 24 molecules 1 mol 6.02  10 23 molecules = 290 g NaHCO 3 84.01 g 1 mol
20. 20. 4 grams of He gas * 20 grams of Ne gas * 32 grams of O 2 gas * 46 grams of CO 2 gas * 1 mol of He gas * 1 mol of Ne gas * 1 mol of O 2 gas * 1mol of CO 2 gas *
21. 21. What volume will 0.78 mol of H 2 occupy at STP? 0.78 mol H 2 x 1 1 mole 22.4 L = 17.47 L
22. 22. A gaseous compound composed of oxygen has has a density of 2.14 g/L @ STP, what is the molar mass of the gas? 2.14 g L x 22.4 L mole = 47.9 g / mole
23. 23. Emperical Formula <ul><li>A basic ratio that gives the lowest, whole-number ratio of atoms of the elements in a compound. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 </li></ul></ul>
24. 24. Empirical Formula Example <ul><li>A compound is analyzed and found to contain 25.9% Nitrogen, and 74.1% Oxygen. What is the empirical formula of the compound? </li></ul>25.9 g N x 1 mole N 14.01 g N 1 = 1.85 mol N 74.1 g O x 1 mole O 16.00 g O 1 = 4.63 mol O
25. 25. Empirical Formula Example Cont. 1.85 mol N 4.63 mol O / 1.85 / 1.85 = = 1.00 2.50 x x 2 2 N 2 O 5 = = 2 5
26. 26. Molecular Formula <ul><li>The molecular formula of a compound is either the same as its experimentally determined empirical formula, or it is a simple, whole-number multiple of its empirical formula. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O 2 </li></ul></ul>