To measure the elevated levels of different harmful gases existing in the atmosphere of some of the busiest and crowded markets of the city. Providing a clearer picture of the current scenario of pollution prevailing in the mainstream localities of Lahore. Explains the increase in the amount of pollution with the help of tables and graphs. Shows the wide variations of the amounts of gases currently present in the air from those of NEQS. Provides an overview of the general awareness found among people regarding the issue of pollution.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment thatcauses instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e.physical systems or living organisms.
Industrial Waste Urban Waste Agricultural Run off
Concentrations taken at Anarkali, Urdu bazaar, Kalma Chowk and Ichra Anarkali and Urdu Bazaar (db) Kalma Chowk and Ichra (db) Rickshaw 94.3 Rickshaw 85 Cars 73.5 Cars 80 Motor bikes 80.2 Motor bikes 45 Van 81.2 Van 75 Horn 101.2 Horn 98 Standard values established by NEQS = 70
Anarkali Urdu Bazaar Kalma Chowk Ichra 115 95 112.5 125 Average Values of NOx ReadingsSources of Emissions Existing Standards Revised Standards mg/m3 mg/m3 Nitric Acid 400 3000 Manufacturing 400 400 Gas Fired 400 600 Oil - 1200 Gas - NEQs standards for NOx:
Average Values of SOx Readings Anarkali Urdu Bazaar Kalma Chowk Ichra 80 87.5 155 105 NEQs standards for SoxBackground Air Am/Av Max Tons/Year Max.Allowed Quality (24hour) Ground Level Unpolluted <50 <200 500 50 Low <50 200 500 50 High 100 400 100 - Very polluted >100 >400 100 - Average Values of CO Readings Anarkali Urdu Bazaar Kalma Chowk Ichra 247.5 85 140 182.5
Primary Standards Secondary Standards Pollutant Level Averaging Time Level Averaging TimeCarbon 9 ppm 8-hour NoneMonoxide (10 mg/m3) 35 ppm 1-hour (40 mg/m3)Lead 0.15 µg/m3 Rolling 3-Month Average Same as Primary 1.5 µg/m3 Quarterly Average Same as PrimaryNitrogen 0.053 ppm Annual Same as PrimaryDioxide (100 µg/m3) (Arithmetic Mean)Particulate 150 µg/m3 24-hour Same as PrimaryMatter (PM10)Particulate 15.0 µg/m3 Annual Same as PrimaryMatter (PM2.5) (Arithmetic Mean) 35 µg/m3 24-hour Same as PrimaryOzone 0.075 ppm (2008 8-hour Same as Primary std) 0.08 ppm (1997 8-hour Same as Primary std) 0.12 ppm 1-hour Same as Primary (Applies only in limited areas)Sulfur 0.03 ppm Annual 0.5 ppm 3-hourDioxide (Arithmetic Mean) (1300 µg/m3) 0.14 ppm 24-hour
After having a look on the observed values andthe standard values one can say that the pollutionlevels at all the sites (Anarkali, Urdu bazaar, KalmaChowk, Ichra) are too much greater than standardvalues. So we can assume that how poor is thequality control in Pakistan. There is no law to checkthe pollution when it is above standard concentration.There is need to take preventive measures because aswe know that our commercial areas are flooded withautomobiles and are releasing high amounts of gases(SO ,NO, Co) and dust particles which greatly increasethe respiratory diseases.
Results 0% 10% Clean 90% Polluted Moderate 0% Result20% A source of health 80% impact certain areas plays no role
Result 10% 0% Cause disease 20% Cause mental anxiety 70% Hypertension No effect CO2 NOX Result SOX CH4 10% 10% 0% CO2 CCl I don’t know NOX 30% 40% SOX 10% CH4 CCL
Noise pollution Air pollution Result Water pollution Soil pollution 0% 30% 40 % Noise pollution A ir pollution 30% Water pollution Soil pollution YES NO Result I don’t know To some extent 5% 0% 15% Yes NO 80% I dont know To some extent
Through T.V Through newspapers Result Seminars Clubs/societies/NGOs 10% 2% Through T.v 8% Through Newspapers 80% Seminars Clubs/Societies/NGOs Vehicles Industries Result AC’s/Refrigerators Sprays/Perfumes 0% 10% 40% Vehicles industries 50% ACs/Refrigerators Sprays/Perfumes
Result through wrappers in 10% 20% 30% the dust bin Drive car with broken 30% 10% silencors Use plastic shopping bags YES NO Result I don’t know To some extent 20% Yes 40% No 40% I dont know to some extent 0%