Government Gordon College Rawalpindi
Submitted To: Prof. Qudrat Ullah Asghar
Subject code: SOC-101
Submitted by: BS IT 3rd Semester
Name Roll Number
Muhammad Saad Sattar 11051556-015
Abdul Wahab 11051556-021
Muhammad Ali Mir 11051556-011
Raja Farhan Mehboob 11051556-027
Arslan Mughal 11051556-024
Haseeb Ahmad 11051556-028
1. Religion as Institution
2. Structures of Religion
3. Functions of Religions
Questions About Ultimate Meanings
Religion Provides Mental Piece
Guidelines For Everyday Life
Religion Promotes Welfare
Religious Influences Political System
Religion Strengthens Self-confidence
4. Important Concepts Related to Religion
Religion as Institution
1. As a social institution, religion is a pattern of social
action organized around the beliefs and practices that
people develop to answer questions about the
meaning of existence.
2. “Emile Durkheim”. Religion is an integrative force in
society because it has the power to shape collective
beliefs. It provides cohesion in the social order by
promoting a sense of belonging and collective
Structure of Religion
The structure of religion depends on the Sacred,
Beliefs, Religious Values, Rituals and Experiences because
every religion has its own Beliefs, Religious Values and their
Sacred is that which people set apart as extraordinary ,
inspiring awe and reverence. For example:
Masjid-e-Nabvi is Sacred place.
The Data Darbar is Sacred Place.
The month of Holy Ramzan is also Considered as
Belief are the statements to which member of a particular
religion adhear. A specific statement that people hold to be true. For
The Jewish, Christian, and Muslim belief that there is
only one God.
God wants us to prostrate ourselves and face Mecca
five times each day.
3. Religious values:
Religious values can be considered to be the high
moral and ethical values that people of all faith aspire to
achieve. All religions teach high moral values. Examples
Islam provides spiritual guidance through the Quran
Judaism provides the Ten Commandments.
Christianity adds the teachings of Jesus.
Rituals is formal, ceremonial behavior or repetitive
practices. That help to unite people into a moral community.
Eid-ul-Fitar & Eid-ul-Azha for Muslims.
Christmas for Christians.
Holy, Basant for Hindus.
5. Religious Experiences:
The term religious experience refers to a sudden
awareness of the supernatural or a feeling of coming into
contact with God. For example:
St. Francis of Assisi said that he became aware of
God’s presence in every living thing.
Functions of Religion
1. Questions About Ultimate Meaning:
Around the world, religions provide answers to
perplexing questions about ultimate meanings such as the
purpose of life that why people suffer, and the existence of
an afterlife. Those answers give followers a sense of
purpose, a framework in which to live.
2. Religion provides mental peace:
Human life is uncertain. He struggles for his survival
amidst the uncertainties, insecurities and dangers,
sometimes he feels helplessness. It is the religion which
consoles and encourages him in all such time of crisis.
Religion gives right shelter to him. He gets mental peace and
emotional support. It encourages him to face his life and
3. Guidelines for Everyday Life:
The teachings of religion are not all abstractions. They
also provide practical guidelines for everyday life. For
example, four of the ten commandments delivered by Moses
to the Israelites concern God, but the other six contain
instructions for getting along with others, from how to avoid
problems with parents and neighbors to warnings about
lying, stealing, and having affairs.
4. Religion promotes welfare:
Religion teaches to the people to serve the masses
and promote their welfare. It gives message that “The
service to humanity is service to GOD”. For this reason,
people spend money to feed poor and needy. Great religions
like Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity etc. put emphasis on
aim-giving to the poor and beggars. It developers the
philanthropic attitude of the people and thereby injects the
idea of mutual help and co-operation. With the influence of
religious belief different religious organizations engage
themselves in various welfare activities.
5. Religious influences political system:
Religion has played a significant role in political system
in the ancient and medical society. Even in modern times in
many countries of the world the religion directly and
indirectly also influences political activities. During ancient
and medieval period, the monarchs were treating
themselves as the representatives of the God or ruling the
society in the name of God. Even today, Political leaders
take oath in the name of God. The political system of the
countries of the world like Bhutan, Pakistan, Italy, Germany,
England etc. are influenced by religion.
6. Religion Strengthens Self-confidence:
Religion is an effective means to strengthen self-
confidence. There are certain beliefs like 'work is worship',
'duty is divine', 'result in predestined' etc. which is found in
various religions gives strength to the individual and
promotes self confidence.
Important Concept Related to Religion
Profane is an ordinary elements of everyday life and
the ordinary reality in which material technology can help to
determine the outcomes.
Secularization is the historical decline in the
importance of the supernatural and the sacred. Wilson says
that Secularization is the process whereby religious thinking,
practises and institutions lose social significance.
A cult is simply a new or different religion whose
teachings and practices put it at odds with the dominant
culture and religion. Because the term cult arouses such
negative meanings in the public mind, however, some
scholars prefer to use the term new religion instead.
Sect is a type of religious organization that stands
apart from the large society. The term is occasionally used
in a malicious way to suggest the broken-off group follows a
more negative path than the original.
Fundamentation is a conservative religious doctrine
that opposes intellectualism and worldly accommodation in
favor of restoring traditional, otherworldly religion.
Hope is the emotional state which promotes the belief
in a positive outcome related to events and circumstances in
one's life. Hope is the feeling that what is wanted can be had
or that events will turn out for the best or the act of looking
forward to something with desire and reasonable
confidence" or feeling that something desired may happen.