Govt. Gordon College Rawapindi
BS IT 3rd
Submitted To: Sir Qudrat Ullah
Hafiz Saad Nawaz
Malinowski defined marriage as a contract for the production and maintenance of
"Horton" and "Hunt" defined marriage as approved social pattern where by two or
more persons establish a family.
According to "Majmdar" marriage is socially sanctioned union of male and female or
as a secondary institution devised by a society to sanction the union and mating of
male and female for the purpose of establishing a household, entering into sex
relations, procreating and providing care for the offspring.
Types of Marriage:
It is a form of marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given
time. It is of two types --- Sororal polygyny and non sororal polygyny
It is a type of marriage in which the wives are invariably the sisters. It is often called
It is a type of marriage in which the wives are not related as sisters.
It is the marriage of one woman with more than one man. It is less common than
polygyny. It is of two types---- Fraternal Polyandry and non fraternal polyandry.
When several brothers share the same wife the practice can be called alelphic or
fraternal polyandry. This practice of being mate, actual or potential to one's husband's
brothers is called levirate. It is prevalent among Todas.
Non - fraternal polyandry:
In this type the husband need not have any close relationship prior to the marriage.
The wife goes to spend some time with each husband. So long as a woman lives with
one of her husbands; the others have no claim over her.
It is a form of marriage in which one man marries one woman .It is the most common
and acceptable form of marriage.
In many societies individuals are permitted to marry again often on the death of the
first spouse or after divorce but they cannot have more than one spouse at one and the
In this remarriage is not allowed.
It means the marriage of two or more women with two or more men. Here the
husbands are common husbands and wives are common wives. Children are regarded
as the children of the entire group as a whole.
Types Of Marrige By Mate Selection:
When a person marries outside one‟s group, caste, religion, class or race. It is
attributed as exogamy. ‘Exo’ means outside and ‘gamy’ mean marry. It means to
marry outside is called exogamy. In the modern times this marriage is mostly in
„Endo‟ means within and „gamy‟ means to marry. So to marry within the group is
endogamy. It is opposite to exogamy. This marriage is in practice mostly in the
rural areas of Pakistan. This is practiced within the group, cast, race, religion etc.
There are so many reasons for practicing this marriage. One reason is to maintain
the purity of one‟s blood and not to mix-up with the outside group, class, caste
The term Homogamy to refer to the tendency of people who have similar
characteristics to marry one another. Homogamy occurs largely as a result of
propinquity, or spatial nearness. That is, we tend to “fall in love” with and marry
people who live near us or whom we meet at school, office or a public place like
parks, cinemas etc.
Kinship is a relation by the bond of blood, marriage and includes
kindred ones it represents one of the basic social institutions. Kinship, in most
societies plays a significant role in the socialization of individual and the
maintenance of group solidarity it is very important in preventive societies and
extends its influence on almost all their activities.
A.R. Radcliff Brown defines kinship as a system of dynamic relation between
people in a community, the behavior of any two persons in any of these relation being
regulated in some ways and to greater or less extent by social usage.
A clan is a collection of people who see themselves as descendents of a common
ancestor and thereby think of themselves as a group with a shared identity. Clan
membership may be traced through the mother or the father, but never both.
A clan is a kind of kin group whose members claim a shared identity and certain
rights based upon descent from a common ancestor. Clans are usually found in
societies with descent systems based on only one lineage—descent is figured only
through the male line (producing patriclans)or female line (producing matriclans).
Clans are usually found in societies with descent systems based on only one lineage
descent is figured only through the male line (producing patriclans)or female line
Cohabitation is an arrangement where two people, who are not married, live
together in an intimate relationship, particularly an emotionally and/or sexually
intimate one, on a long-term or permanent basis.
Today, cohabitation is a common pattern among people in the Western world. More
than two-thirds of married couples in the US say that they lived together before
"In 1994, there were 3.7 million cohabiting couples in the United States." This is a
far cry from a few decades ago.
Before 1970, cohabitation was illegal in the United States. According to Dr. Galena
Rhoades, "Before 1970, living together outside of marriage was uncommon, but by
the late 1990s at least 50% to 60% of couples lived together premaritally.
According to the U.S. Census, "the number of unmarried couples living together
increased tenfold from 1960 to 2000."
Nowadays, it is seen as a normal step in the dating process. In fact, "cohabitation is
increasingly becoming the first co-residential union formed among young adults.
People may live together for a number of reasons.
i. Cohabitants could live together in order to save money.
ii. Lower income individuals facing financial uncertainty may delay or avoid
marriage so co-habitation happens.
iii. Not only because of the difficulty of paying for a wedding but also because
of fear of financial hardship if a marriage were to end in divorce.
When given a survey of the reasons why they cohabitate, most couples listed
reasons such as spending more time together, convenience based reasons, and
testing their relationships, while few gave the reason that they do not believe in
marriage. The extremely high costs of housing and tight budgets of today's
economy are also factors that can lead a couple to cohabitation. Today sixty
percent of all marriages are preceded by a period of cohabitation. Researchers
suggest that couples live together as a way of trying out marriage to test
compatibility with their partners, while still having the option of ending the
relationship without legal implications.