Distribution of wolf'


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Distribution of wolf'

  2. 2. Introduction:• The wolf is a predatory, carnivorous mammal of the family Canidae.• Wolf is member of family of animals that includes dogs and foxes. Highly intelligent animals with upright ears, sharp, pointed muzzles and sharp eyes.
  3. 3. Among the notable wolves of Pakistan fauna are:• Grey wolf. (Canis lupus)• Tibetan wolf. (Canis lupus campestris)• Indian wolf. (Canis lupus pallipes)
  4. 4. Grey wolf(Canis lupus)
  5. 5. Habitat:• Historically, Grey wolves have the largest range of any land mammal, other than people.• Grey wolf lives in all habitats in the Northern Hemisphere except for tropical forest. Grey wolves tend to occupy forests, grassy plains as well as deserts and mountains.
  6. 6. Distribution:• The grey wolf inhabits the barren rocky mountainous valleys of Baltistan, Gilgit, Hunza, Chitral, Upper Swat and Khunjerab National Park.• Further West the wolf inhabits the lower hills of the Baluchistan pleatue where it is widespread. The wolf is also found in N.W.F.P, but it is rare in this region. [1]
  7. 7. Morphology:• Head and body length ranges 100- 150 cm. Shoulder height may be 66-81 cm.• Weight is 16-60 kg• The skull is heavy and deep with strong dentition. The iris is pale grayish-yellow.• The body is covered with long coarse hairs of grizzled color with black hairs being predominant in the dorsal region.
  8. 8. Food:• Extremely variable, but the majority of the diet is large ungulates. Grey wolves will also eat smaller prey items, livestock, carrion, and garbage.
  9. 9. Breeding biology• Time of mating is January to April. Age at sexual maturity is 22 to 46 months, occasionally 10 months.• Gestation period is 61-63 days. The dominant pair breeds, with sub-dominant females under behaviorally induced reproductive suppression.• Longevity: up to 13 years in the wild, 16 years in captivity.
  10. 10. Status and Threats• Least concern according to by IUCN, 2011(endangered in certain European localities, least concerned in Pakistan,India and Nepal• The wolf has declined greatly in numbers during the last few decades. Local people kill the wolf because it is considered destructive to livestock.
  11. 11. Tibetan wolf(Canis lupus campestris)
  12. 12. Habitat:• The Tibetan Wolf, also known as Woolly Wolf is native to central Asia. Found at altitudes especially in Himalayan range.
  13. 13. Distribution:• The Tibetan wolf inhabits the rocky valleys of Gilgit Baltistan, Chitral, Hunza, Khunjerub National Park and the upper Swat.• It is found in Chitral Gol National Park North- West Frontier Province, in Deosai National Park near Skardu.
  14. 14. Morphology:• The size of the Tibetan wolves can vary from 58 to 65 inches (from nose to end of tail) and from 27 to 30 inches high, weighing from 65 to 70 pounds.• This "woolly wolf" has a long shaggy coat which seasonally varies in color, usually a blend of white, yellow, brown, grey, and black.
  15. 15. Diet or food habit:• Amazing hunter with excellent survival skills.• Its preferred prey includes deer, blue sheep, and other large mammals.• When food becomes scarce, it will feed on smaller animals like marmots, hares, ground squirrel, and mice. When hunting, the wolf can reach speeds up to 40 mph.
  16. 16. Breeding Biology• Generally, mating occurs between January and April, the higher the latitude, the later it occurs.• The Tibetan wolf reaches sexual maturity in its second year.• The gestation period lasts between 60 and 63 days. The pups, which weigh 0.5 kg at birth, are born blind, deaf, and completely dependent on their mother.
  17. 17. Status:• Not reported in IUCN Threats:• Local people kill the wolf because it is considered destructive to livestock.• The wolf may become extinct in the east of the country if hunting is not stopped and it is not protected.•
  18. 18. Indian wolf(Canis lupus pallipes)
  19. 19. Habitat:• The Indian wolf prefers habitats like scrublands, grasslands, remote areas, semi- arid lands and wilderness where they could find food in abundance and highest prey biomass.
  20. 20. Distribution:• Indian wolf shelters the southern part of Pakistan.• It is found in Cholistan and Thar deserts. It is found in Baluchistan in the north west Province (Hazarganji-Chiltan National Park) and (Makran coast, Nearest Karachi).• In N.W.F.P, but it is rare in this region. In Punjab,Indian Wolf is found in Lal Suhanra National Park, Bahawalpur.
  21. 21. Morphology: Indian wolves have darker fur, and proportionately larger heads. Fur is usually reddish, but can vary from nearly pure white, red, or brown to black. Height is of about 60-95 cm. Weight ranges from 18 to 27 kg, males heavier than females. They have dark V-shaped stripes over the shoulders which is distinctive. The under parts have less fur.
  22. 22. Food habits• They prefer flesh of large to small-sized ungulates.• Their medium and small sixed prey includes animals like marmots, foxes, red deer,wild boar, hares, polecats, mice, ground squirrels, musk deer, wild goats, hamsters, rodents, voles, livestock, carrion, wate r fowl and its eggs and garbage.• When the food is deficient they go for preys like lizards, snakes, toads, frogs and big insects. At times they also eat their young and humans.
  23. 23. Breeding Biology:• Breeding usually occurs in October.• They attain sexual maturity at the age of 2-3 years which in turn depends upon the environment factors such food and population statistics.• The new born pups are blind and deaf.
  24. 24. • Status:• Indian wolves are declining. The number of wolves: About 200. Updated 2007.• Threats:• The wolf has declined greatly in numbers during the last few decades. Local people kill the wolf because it is considered destructive to livestock.
  25. 25. Fig: Distribution of grey wolf in Pakistan
  26. 26. References:• http://www.wildlifeofpakistan.com/ResearchPap ers/wolfthesissaad.pdf• http://www.wildlifeofpakistan.com/wilddogs.htm l#wolf• http://www.cosmosmith.com/tibetan_wolf.asp• Srivastav, A. and Nigam, P. (2009) National pedigree book of Tibetan wolf. WII, Dehradun, and CZA, New Delhi, 2009• http://www.wolf.org/wolves/learn/wow/regions/ Asia/Pakistan.asp